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Full text of "King Alfred's Orosius"



I herewith offer the first part of the Orosius, containing 
the old English text from the contemporary Lauderdale MS., 
and the divergent readings of the Cotton one, all letters and 
words not in L. being enclosed in ( ), those written above 
the line in L. being enclosed in [ ]. On the opposite page 
are given those portions of the original Latin which Alfred 
translated, or rather paraphrased, words and sentences not 
translated literally being in italics. It was at first intended 
to issue a Modern English translation with this part, as with 
the other O. E. texts published by the Society (with the 
exception of the Beowulf), but I find it impossible to make 
a critical translation till I have completed my syntax and 
word-meaning collections, but I have pledged myself to pre- 
pare a translation for the second part. Meanwhile those 
who really require a translation, will find one in the editions 
of Bosworth and Thorpe, which last forms part of Pauli's Life 
of Alfred in Bohn's Library, and is cheap and accessible. 

H. S. 

itrjj %lixtV$ (Bxobms. 


Agents for the sale of the Early English Text Society's 

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ling &lin& f * ^xnm. 













NEMNED 1 . I This head. 

i ng from C. 


(I) *I. Hu ure ieldran ealne pisne middangeard on preo *[Pagei.] 

II. Hu Ninus, Asiria cyning, ongon monna serest ricsian on 
piosan middangeard e ; 7 hu Sameramis his cwen feng to peem 

5 rice sefter him mid micelre recSnesse 7 wr^nnesse. 

III. Hu pa?t heofenisce fyr forba^rnde pset lond on paem 
waeron pa twa byrig on getimbred, Sodome 7 Gomorre. 

IIIL Hu Thelesci 7 Ciarsaethi pa leode him betweonum 
10 V. Hu Ioseph se ryhtwisa mon ahredde Egypta folc aet paem 
seofan geara miclan hungre mid his wisdome ; 7 hu hie sippan 
ealra hiora wsestma pone fiftan dsel selce geare heora cyninge 
to gafole gesellacS aefter his gesetnesse. 

VI. Hu on Achaie wearp micel flod on Ambictiones dagum 
15 pges cyninges. 

VII. Hu Moyses leedde Israhela fo(lc) l from Egyptum ofer J From c. 
pone Re[a]dan Sal. 

VIII. Hu on Egyptum wurdon on anre niht l monna ofslagen 
from hiora agnum sunum ; 7 hu Bosiridis se cyning het don to 

20 geblote ealle pa cuman pe hiene gesohtan ; 7 ymbe monegra 
operra folca gewinn. 

Villi. Hu Cretense 7 Athaniense, Creca leode, him betweo- 
num ■\vunnon. 

X. Hu Uesoges, Egypta cyning, wolde him to geteon ge pone 
25 suSdael, pset is Asia, ge pone norpdael, pset sint Scippie ; 7 hu 11 
gepelingas wurdon afliemed of Scippium ; 7 ymbe pa wif pe mon 
Amozenas het ; 7 ymbe pa Gotan, pe him fore andredan ge Pirrus 
se repa (Creca) 2 cyning, ge se ma?ra Alexander, ge Iulius se "■ From c, 




XI. Hu Elena, pa33 cyninges wif, wearS genumen on Laace- 
doinonia paere byrig ; 7 hu Eneas se cyning gefor mid fierde on 
*[Page 2.] * XII. Hu Sardanopolus wses se sipemesta cyuing in Asiria, 

ond hu hiene beswac Arbatus his ealdormon ; 7 hu pa wifraen 5 
bysmredan hiora weras, pe hie fleon woldon ; ond hu se argeo- 
1 Doubtful ac- tere 1 geworhte anes fearres onlicnesse pse?/t eepelinge. 

XIII. Hu Pelopensium 7 Atheniensium pa folc hi??i betwe- 
onu?/i wunnon. 

XIIII. Hu Lsecedemonie 7 Mesiane him betweonuw wunnon 1 
for hiora maegdena offrunga. 

1 From 1.; 
eg-vpti cacan 

(II) I. Hu Orosius ssede pset ure Dryhten pone sei-estan 
mon swipe ryhtne 7 swipe godue gesceope ; 7 ymbe pa feower 
onwealdas pises middangeardes. 

II. Hu Remus 7 Romulus pa gebropor getimbredan Rome- ] 
burg on Italia??i. 

III. Hu Romulus 7 Brutus mid hwelcu??i mane hie gehal- 
gedon Roma. 

IIII. Hu Romane 7 Sabine him betweonum wunnon 2 ; 7 
hu Cirus weartS ofslagen on Scippium. : 

V. Hu Cambisis se cyning forseah pa Egyptiscan 3 diofol- 
gield 7 ymbe Dariuses gewinn, 7 Xerc[s]is, 7 Leonipan. 

VI. Hu Romanu?>i wearS an wundor opiewed, swelce se heofon 

VII. Hu Sicilia leode waeron him betweonum winnende. 

VIII. Hu Romane besaeton Ueiorum pa burg x winter ; 
4 TUtagtoOu 7 h u Gallie 4 of Senno abrsecan Romeburg. 

e added by an- ' » ° 

other hand (!) 

(Ill) I. Hu sio bysmerlice sibb 7 facenlice wearS betweonum 
Lcecedemonium 7 Persum. 

II. Hu on Achaie wcarS eorpbeofung. 

III. Hu se micla monncwealm wearS on Rome on twegra 
• gynfendan consula da^ge ; 7 hu Marcus Curtius besceat on pa genigendau 





IIII. Hu Gallie oferhergodon Romana loud on 1 in mila to'otfc. 
psere byrg. 

*V. Hu Cartaiua serendwracan comon to Rome, 7 him frio* *C Pa ? e 3 -J 
5 VI. Hu Romane 7 Latine wunnou him betweonum ; 7 hu 
an nunne wearp cuca bebyrged. 

VII. Hu Alexander se cyning wonn wicS Romane, pees maran 
Alexandres earn ; 7 hu Philippus, pees maran Alexandres feeder, 
feng to Meecedonia rice, ond he him geceas Bizantium pa burg. 
10 VIII. Hu Caudenes Furculus sio stow wearp swipe widmeere 
for Romana bismere. 

Villi. Hu se meera Alexander feng to Meecedonia rice ; 7 hu 
he bet sumne sumne biscep 2 secgan on his gewill hwa his feeder 2 Aiteredfrom 


waere ; 7 hu he Darius pone cyniug oferwon ; 7 hu he self 
15 wearS mid atre 3 acweald. 3 Originally 

atru (?) which 

X. Hu under n consulum woldon nn pa strengstan beoda um then al- 
tered to atra, 
Romane oferwinnan ; 7 hu se micla (man)cwealm i TgelwearS «** e written 

' . above the 

on Rome ; 7 hu hi him heton gefeccean to Escolapius pone ^cond a. 
scinlacan mid peere scinleecan 5 needran. 5 Fmm c ' . 

20 XI. Hu under 11 consulum wurdon Somnite 7 Gallie of Senno scinlacan L - 
peere byrig Romanum wiperwinnan ; ond hu Alexandres here- 
togan heora lif 6 on unsibbe geendedon sefter Alexandres deabe. 6 Final e 


(IV) I. Hu Tarentine gesawan Romano scipa on (Seem sse 
(irnan) 7 , pa hie plegedon on hiora theatrum. 7 From c - W* 

25 II. Hu pa monegan yflan wundor wurdon on Rome. 

III. Hu mon geseah weallan blod of eorpan, 7 rinan meolc 
of heofonum. 

IIII. Hu on Romane becom micel moncwealm; 7 hu Ca- 
perrone sio nunne wearp ahangen ; ond hu pa burgleode on 
30 Cartaina bleo(ton) men 8 hiora godum. 8 From c.-, 

v ' ° bleo men £., 

V. Hu Himeolco, Cartaina cyning. for mid fierde on Siciliae : *« m v artl u 

' J °' erased. 

ond hu Hanna an mon wees * onwalde9 giernende ; ond hu Car- *[Page 4.] 
taine hierdon pcet se niasra Alexander heefde abrocen Tirum 
pa burg. 
35 VI. Hu Sicilia folc 7 Pena wunnou him betweonum ; 7 hu 



i et crowded, 
over erasure : 

gesaetcm (?) 

'•' hunda ; 
hund C. 

3 seipe. 

* nferhear- 

B From C. ; 
liio L. 

'■ h over era- 

7 so with an 

" First y over 
an erased 
letter, apixzr- 
cully a. 

9 pena cvnm; 
added in C. 


10 Here the 
word* him 
gesetton me 

" hasterbal 

U S<cm, 'I 

flllered (o e 
1 tunica. 

Romane besa?ton Hannibalan, Pena cyning ; 7 hu Calatinus 
se consul for mid fierde to Camerinan, Sicilia byrg ; 7 hu Punice 
gesetton a eft pone ealdan Hannibalan pset he mid scipum wip 
Romane wunne ; 7 hu Romane foron on Affrice mid priwi 
hunde 2 scipa 7 mid xxx ; 7 hu Regulus se consul ofslog pa 5 
ungemetlican naedran ; 7 hu Regulus gefeaht wip in Pena 
cyningas on anum gefeohte ; 7 hu Enilius se consul for on 
Affricam mid in hunde scipa 3 ; 7 hu 11 consulas foran mid 111 
hunde scipa on Affrice; 7 hu Cotta se consul oferhergede 4 
Sicilie ; ond hu 5 on priora consula daege com Hasterbal 6 se ] 
niwa cyning to Libeum psem iglande; 7 hu Claudius se consul 
for eft on Punice; 7 hu Gaius se consul for on Affrice, 7 on 
paem se. 7 forweartS ; 7 hu Lutatia se consul for on Affrice mid 
in hunde scipa. 

VII. Hu se ungemetlica fyrbryne 8 wearp on Rome ; 7 hu : 
Gallie wurdon Romauum wifterwearde ; 7 hu Sardinie wunnon 
on Romane, swa hie Pene gelserdon; 7 hu Orosius saede paet 
he wsere cumen to tSami godan tidan be Romane eft fore gulpon ; 
7 hu Gallie wunnon on Romane, 7 Pene on opre healfe ; 7 hu 
11 consulas fuhton on Gallium ; 7 hu monig wundor waeron 
gesewene ; 7 hu Claudius se consul ofslog Gallia xxx m. 

VIII. Hu Hannibal, Pena cyning, besset Saguntum, Ispania 
burg; 7 hu Hannibal 9 abrsec ofer Perenei pa beorgas ; 7 lm 
Scipia se consul gefeaht on Ispaniuw ; 7 hu monige wundor 
gewurdon on paere tide. 

Villi. Hu [H]anuibal beswac 11 consulas on heora gefeohte ; 
7 hu Romane him gesetton tictator, 7 Scipian to console; *y 
hu Romane 10 sendon Lucius pone consul on Gallie mid in 

X. Hu Marcellus se consul for mid sciphere on Sicilie ; 7 
hu Hannibal gefeaht wip Marcellus pone consul ill dagas ; 7 hu 
Hannibal bestael on Marcellus pone consul, 7 bine ofslog ; 7 
hu Asterbal 11 , Hannibales brotSor, for of Ispanium on Italic: 
7 hu Cartainu»t wearp friS aliefed from Scipian paem consule. 

XL Hu Romano ,2 aefterre gewinn 7 Panics ' ! wear® geendod 
7 lm Sempronius se consul weartS ofslagen on Ispania; 7 In 


Philippus, Macedonia cyng *, ofslog Roinano aerenddracan ; ond l End o/Une 
hu pset Msecedonisce gewin gewearS ; 7 hu Enilius se consul 
ofei'won Perseus pone cyning. 

XII. Hu Romanum wearp se m§sta 2 ege from Sceltiferin, 2 m^ste. 
5 Ispania [folce]. 

XIII. Hu past pridde gewinn wearp geendod Romano 7 

(V) I. Hu Orosius spraec ymbe Romano gielp, hu hie 
monega folc oferwunnon, 7 hu hie monege cyningas beforan 
10 hiora triumphan witS Rome weard drifon. 

II. Hu on auum geare wurdon pa twa byrg toworpena, 
Cartaina 7 Corinthum ; 7 hu Ueriatws se hierde ongon ricsian 
on Ispaniuni ; 7 hu Claudius se consul gefliemde Gallie ; 7 hu 
Mantius se consul genam 3 frip wi§ Ispanie ; 7 hu Brutus 3 Over era- 

15 se consul ofslog Ispania lxm; 7 hu an cild wearp geboren on 

III. Hu Romane sendon Scipian on Ispanie mid fierde ; 7 
hu Craccus se consul wonn witS pa oSre consulas, op hi bine 
ofslogon ; 7 hu pa peowas (wunnon) 4 wip pa hlafordas. * Wanting in 

20 IIII. Hu Lucinius 5 se consul, se be eac wees Romano ieldesta 5 n altered 

from a. 

biscep, for mid fierde angean Aristonocuse psem cyninge; 7 hu 
Antiochus, Asia cyning, wilnade Partha onwakles; 7 hu Scipia, 
se betsta Romano pegn, maende his earfepa to Romano weotum ; 
7 hu Epna fyr upp afleow. 
25 *V. Hu Romane heton eft getimbran Cartaina; 7 hu se*[ pa s e6 -l 
consul Metellus oferwon pa wicingas. 

VI. Hu Fauius se consul ofercom Betuitusan, Gallia cyning. 

VII. Hu Romane wunnon 6 wib Geoweorban, Numedia cyning 7 . 6 Eromc.-, 

VIII. Hu Romane ongunnon unsibbe him betweonuwi up'ft«c.; 

cyninge L. 

30 ahebban on J>aem fiftan geare pe Marius wses consul. 

X. Hu ofer ealle Italie weartS ungeferlic unsibb on pa?m 
siextan geare pe Iulius se casere wses consul. 

XL Hu Romane sendon Sillan pone consul ongean Metredatis, 
Partha cyning. 
35 XII. Hu Romane sealdon Gaiuse pami consule seofon legian ; 


7 hu Iulius besset Tarquat us, Pompeiuses ladteow, on anum 
i Then writ. fa^stenne ; 7 hu Iulius gefeabt wi(5 Ptholomeus ma 1 . 

XIII. Hu Octauianus feng to Romano onwalde liiora un- 

2 wil repeated, willum 2 . 

X llll, Hu Octauianus se ca(se)re betynde lanes duru. 5 

3 From c. XV. Hu sume Ispanie (leode) 3 waeron Agustuse wiperwinnan. 

(VI) I. Hu Orosius wses sprecende ymbe pa im onwaldas 
para feower beafedrica pisses middangeardes. 

II. Hu Tiberius feng to Romano anwalde se casere sefter 
Agustuse. 1° 

III. Hu Gaius wearp casere 11 11 gear. 

IIII. Hu Tiberius Claudius feng to Romano anwalde. 

V. Hu Nero feng to Romano anwalde. 

VI. Hu Galua feng to Romano anwalde se casere. 

VII. Hu Uespasianus feng to Romano anwalde. 15 

VIII. Hu Titus feng to Romano anwalde. 

Villi. Hu Domitianus, Tituses broSor, feng to Romano 

X. Hu Nerfa feng to Romano anwalde. 

XL Hu Adrianus feng to Romano anwalde. 20 

XII. Hu Pompeius feng to Romano anwalde. 

XIII. Hu Marcus Antonius feng to Romano anwalde mid 
Aureliuse his brecSer. 

XIIII. Hu Lucius feng to Romano anwalde. 
*[i'age7.] *XY. Hu Seuerus feng to Romano rice. 25 

XVI. Hu his sunu feng to rice, Antonius. 

XVII. Hu Marcus feng to Romano anwalde. 

XVIII. Hu Aurelius feng to Romano anwalde. 
A Villi. Hu Maximus feng to Romano anwalde. 

XX. Hu Gordianus feng to Romano rice. 30 

XXI. Hu Philippus feng to Romano rice. 

XXII. Hu Decius feng to Romano rice. 
XX III. Hu Gallus feng to Romano rice. 
XX IIII. Hu Romane gesetton 11 caseras. 

XXV. Hu Claudius feng to Romano rice. 35 


XXVI. Hu Aurelius feng to Romana rice. 

XXVII. Hu Tacitus feng to Romana rice. 

XXVIII. Hu Probus feng to Romana rice. 

XXIX. Hu Carus feng to Romana rice. 

5 XXX. Hu Dioclitianws feng to Romana rice. 

XXXI. Hu Constantinus feng to Romana onwalde mid his 
ii broj^rum. 

XXXII. Hu Iuuinianus 1 feng to Romana rice. ' iuuianus c. 

XXXIII. Hu TJualentinianus feng to Romana rice. 
10 XXXIIII. Hu Uualens feng to Romana rice. 

XXXV. Hu Gratianus feng to Romana rice ; 7 hu Brettanie 

namon Maximianuwi 2 him to casere ofer his willan. 2 Maximum 


XXXVI. Hu Theodosius [feng] to Romana onwalde ; 7 hu 

Ualentinianws feng eft to rice. 
15 XXXVII. Hu Archadius feng to Romana rice, 7 Honorius 
to pam westrice. 

XXXVIII. Hu God gedyde Romanum his mildsunge. 


(I, L) 

*[i'age8.] *Ure ieldran ealne pisne ymbhwyrft Jnses middangeardes, 

i From c. cwse]? Orosius, swa swa Oceanus utan ymblige)?, pone (man) * 
garsecg hateS, on preo todseldon ; 7 hie pa prie dselas on preo 
tonemdon : Asiam, 7 Europem, 7 Affricam ; peah pe sume men 

*g erased, ssegden 2 J?aet pser nsere buton twegen dselas: Asia, 7 pset 3 5 

» t over erased ^ Europe. 

Asia is befangen mid Oceano psem garsecge supan 7 norpan 
* From c. 7 eastan, 7 swa ealne (pysne) 4 middangeard from psem eastdsele 
healfne behseftS. ponne on casern norpdsele, pset is, Asia on pa 
swipran healfe, in Danai psere ie, (5ser Asia 7 Europe hiera land- 10 
gemircu togsedre licgatS. Ond pomie of psere ilcan ie Danai su|? 
andlang Wendelsses, 7 ponne wij? westan Alexandria ]?aere byrig 
Asia 7 Affrica togsedre licgeatS. 

Europe bio ongintS, swa ic ser cwseb, of Danai psere ie, seo 

is irnende of norpdsele, of Biffeng pa>m beorguw, ba sindon 15 

neb J?sem garsecge be mon batetS Sarmondisc ; 7 seo ea Danai 

5 on both. mi(5 ponan suSryhte on westhealfe Alexandres herga, on(d) 5 in 

fi uasco over Rochouasco 6 bsere beode heo wyrctS pset fen be mon hatetS 

erasure. ' ' ' 

Meotedisc, 7 bonne forp mid micle flode, neab J?sere byrig be 
mon bateS Theodosia, wi§ eastan lit on pa. sse flowetS pe mon 20 
li§tt Euxinus. 7 ponne mid longre nearonesse sup ponan be 
eastan Constant inopolim Creca byrg ligetS, 7 bonne for]? bonan 
ut on Wendelsse. Se westsujjende Europe landgemirce is in 
Ispania westeweardum et Saem garsecge, 7 maest set psem 
iglande psette Ga&es batte, bser sciet se Wendelsae up of psem 25 
garsecge ; J?ser eac Ercoles syla stondaS on psem ilcan Wen- 
delsse. 7 hire on westende is Scotland. 

Affrica 7 Asia hiera landgemircu onginnatS of Alexandria, 
Egypta burge, 7 ligetS pset londgemsere sub ponan ofer Nilus 
pa ea, 7 swa ofer Ethiopica westenne op pone Supgnrsecg. 7 30 
•[I'agey.] psere Af[f]rica norpwestgem^re * is set psem ilcan Wendelsse pe of 
5sem gai «cg( bcjt, Ssar Ercoles syla BtondatS. 7 hire ryhtwi 


(I, I-) 

Majoees nostri orbem totius terrae, Oceani limbo circum- 
septum, triquadrum statuere : ejusque trcs partes, Asiam, 
Europam, et Africara vocaverunt : quamvis aliqui duas, hoc 
est, Asiam, ac deinde Africam in Europam accipiendam 

Asia tribus partibus Oceano circumciucta, per totam trans** 
versi plagam orientis extenditur. Haec occasum, versus, a dextra 
Bui, sub axe septentrionis iucipientem contingit Europam : a 
sinistra autem Africam dimittit : sub Aegypto vero et Syria 
mare Nostrum, quod Magnum generaliter dicimus, babet. 

Europa incipit, ut dixi, sub plaga septentrionis, a flumine 
Tanai, qua Riphaei montes, Sarmatico avei*si oceano, Tanaim 
fluvium fundunt : qui praeteriens aras ac terminos Alexandri 
Jfagni, in Roehhaosbascorum 1 finibus sitos, Maeotidas auget « Roxolano- 


paludes : quarum immensa exundatio juxta Theodosiam urbem 
Euxinum Pontum late ingreditur. Inde juxta Constantinopolim 
longae mittuntur angustiae, donee eas mare hoc quod dicimus 
Nostrum, accipiat. Europae in Hispania occidentalis oceanus 
terminus est, maxime ubi apud Gades insulas Herculis columnae 
visuntur, et Tyrrheni maris faucibus oceani aestus immittitur. 

Africae principium est a finibus Aegypti urbisque Alexandriae. 
Unde missa in transversum per Aetbiopica deserta meridianum 
contingit oceanum. Termini Africae ad occidentem iidem sunt 
qui et Europe, id est, fauces Gaditani freti. Ultimus autem 
finis ejus est mons Atlas, et insulae quas Eortunatas vocant. 

10 alfeed's oeosius. 

ende is set bsem beorge pe mon Atblans neinnet5, 7 set jjsem 
iglande pe mon bset Fortunatws. 

Scortlice ic hsebbe nu geseed ymb ba brie dselas ealles }?ises 
middangeardes ; ac ic wille nu, swa ic aer gebet, bara }?reora 
landrica gemsere gereccan bu bie mid biera wsetrum tolicgea'S. 5 

Asia ongen tSeem middeldsele on J?a?m eastende, beer ligetS se 
muf>a ut on bone garsecg ]?sere ie pe mon batecS Gandis. pone 
garsecg mon bset Indisc. Be suj^an psem ruupan witS pone 
garsecg is se port pe mon heet Caligardamana, 7 be su]?aneastan 
J?sem porte is )?set igland Deprobane. 7 f>onne be nor)?an J?3em 10 
Gandes muj?an, J?ser pser Caucasis se beorg endatS neb psem 
garsecge, pser is se port Samera. Be norpan psem porte is 
se mupa paere ie pe mon nemnecS Ottorogorre. pone garsecg 
mon bset Sericus. 

pset sint India gemsero £>ser £>ser Caucasus se beorg is be 15 
norpan, 7 Indus seo ea be westan, 7 seo Reado Sae be suf>an 
7 garsecg be eastan. On Indea londe is xliiii j^eoda buton 
pasm iglande Taprabane, past hseftS on him x byrg, buton otSerum 
moneguni gesetenura iglonduw. Of psere ie Indus, pe be westan 
eallum psem lande ligetS, betux psere ie Indus 7 psere pe be 20 
westan Mere is, Tigris batte, pa flowacS buta sup on pone Beadan 
Sae, 7 betux psem tweem ean sindon pas land : Arocasia. 7 Par- 
thia, 7 Asilia, 7 PersicSa, 7 MetSia ; peh pe gewrito oft nemnen 
eal pa lond MetSia oppe Asiria ; 7 pa lond sindon swipe be- 
1 beorhtec. orhtte 1 , 7 f>ser sint 2 swipe scearpe wegas 7 stanibte. para landa 25 
wmkivere™ norpgemaero sindon aet <5sem beorgum Caucasus, 7 on suphealfe 
fonavifaand 86 Bcada See ; 7 on tSaem londe sindon twa inicla ea, Ipnspes 
the to/ stot' 7 Arbis. On Seem londe is xxxn peoda. Nu baet bit mon eall 

still visible. . . 


ponne west from Tigres psere ie op Eufrates pa ea ponne 30 
betux psem ean sindon pas land : Babylonia, 7 Caldea, 7 Meso- 
potamia. Binnan psem landu?» sindon xxviii Seoda. Heora 
*[rage 10.] norSgeruaero * sindon set psem beorgum Tauro 7 Caucaso, 7 biera 
supgemsero licgeatS to psem Beadan Sae. Ondlong paes Be(a)dan 
Saes, pa?s dselcs pe pser norp scyt, ligeS pset land Arabia, 7 35 
Sabei, 7 Eiuloniane. Of p»re fa Eufrate west op pone Wen- 

ASIA. 11 

Et quia breviter generates tripartiti orbis divisiones dedi, 
ipsarum quoque partium regiones, sicut pollicitus sum, signi- 
ficare curabo. 

Asia ad mediam frontem orientis habet in oceano Eoo ostia 
fluminis Gangis, a sinistra promoutorium Caligardamana \ cui ' caligardam- 
subjacet ad Eurum insula Taprobane : e qua oceanus Indicus 
vocari incipit, a dextra habet Imai montes, ubi Caucasus deficit, 
promoutorium Samaram : cui ad aquilonem subjacent ostia 
fluminis Octorogorrae : ex quo oceanus Sericus appellatur. 

Iu bis finibus India est, quae habet ab occidente flumen 
Indum, quod Rubro mari excipitur : a septentrione montem 
Caucasum : reliqua Eoo et Indico oceano terminatur. Haec 
habet gentes quadraginta quatuor, absque insula Taprobane, 
quae habet decern civitates : et absque reliquis insulis habita- 
bilibus plurimis. A flumine Indo, quod est ab oriente, usque 
ad flumen Tigrim, quod est ad occasum, regiones sunt istae : 
Aracosia, Parthia, Assyria, Persida ' et Media : situ terrarum ' Persia, 
montoso et aspero. Hae a septentrione habent montem Cau- 
casum, a meridie mare Paibrum : in medio autem sui, flumina 
praecipua Ydaspen 2 et Arbim. In his sunt gentes triginta 8 Hydaspem. 
duae. Sed generaliter Parthia dicitur. 

A flumine Tigri, usque ad flumen Euphratem, Mesopotamia 
est, incipiens a septentrione inter montem Taurum et Caucasum : 
cui succedit Babylonia, deinde Chaldaea, novissime Arabia 
Eudaemon : quae inter sinum Persicum et sinum Arabicum 
angusto terrae tractu orientem versus extenditur. In his sunt 
gentes viginti et octo. A flumine Euphrate, quod est ab 
oriente, usque ad mare Nostrum, deinde a septentrione, id est a 


delsae, 7 norp forneah op pa beorgas pa mon Tauros haet, op paet 
land pe mon haet Armenie, 7 eft sup 0)5 Egypte rnonege peoda 
sindon paes laudes : paet is, Comagena 7 Fenitia, 7 Daniascena, 
7 Coelle, 7 Moab, 7 Anion, 7 Idumei, 7 Iudea, 7 Palestina, 
7 Sarraccne; 7 peh bit mon hset eal Syria. ponne be norpan 5 
Syria sindon pa beoi-gas pe mon Tauros haett ; 7 be norSan 
poem beorgum sindon pa land Capodocia 7 Armenie; 7 beo 
Armenia is be eastan Capcdotia. 7 be westan Capodocia is Jjget 
land pe mon haett seo lsesse Asia. 7 be norpan Capodocia is 
J^cet gefilde pe mon bast Temeseras. ponne betux Capodocia 10 
7 paere lsessan Asiam is paet laud Cilia 7 Issaurio. Seo Asia on 
selce bealfe beo is befangen mid sealtum waetre buton on east- 
healfe : on uorphealfe is seo sae Euxinus, 7 on westbealfe se sae 
pe mon haett Proponditis, 7 Ellaspontus, 7 AVendelss be supan. 
On paere ilcan Asiam is se bebsta beoig Olimpus. 15 

Seo iEgyptus pe us near is, be norpan bire is pcet land 

1 Palestine c. Palastiue ', 7 be eastan biere Sarracene paet laud, 7 be westan 
hire Libia pa>t land, 7 be supan bire .se beorg pe mon luet 
Climax. Nilus seo ea hire aewielmc is neh paein clife paere 
Headan Sa?s ; peah sume men secgen past hire sewielme sie on 20 
wcstende Affrica neh pam beorge Athlans, 7 ponne fol ratSe pa's 
sie east irnende on paet sond, 7 jjonne besiuce eft on paet sand, 
7 }?aer neh sie eft flowende up of paem sande, 7 )?aer wyrcS 
micelne sae. 7 paer hio aerest upwielS hie hataft pa landmen 
Xuchul, 7 sume men Dara. Ond ponne of pam sac par he up of 25 
p3i\\\ sonde scyt he is eatt irnende from east dado purh .Ethiopica 

•[Page 11.] westenne, *y paer mon haet pa ea Ion op pone eastdael ; 7 paer 
pouue wyrp to miclum sa?. 7 pa?r ponne besinc'8 eft in on pa 
eor|?an, 7 ponne eft norp ponan up aspryngtS neh paem. clife wi§ 

*FromC; pone Headan Sae, pe ic 2 aer beforan saede. ponne of p«m 30 
aewielme mon haet paet weier Xilus pa ea. 7 ponne forp ponan 
west irnende beo tolip on twa ymb an igland pc mon haet 
Meroen, 7 ponan norp bugende ut on pone AVendelsae. ponne 
on paem wintregmn tidum wyrp se muba fordrifen foran from 
paem no(r)bernum windum best seo ea biS flowende ofer eal 35 
iEgypta land, 7 hco gedetS mid paan fludc swipe bioce eorbwaest- 


civitate Dacusa, quae in confinio Cappadociae et Armeiiiae sita 
est, usque ad Aegypturn et extremum sinmm Arabicum, qui est 
ad meridiem, extenditur Syria, quae sic generaliter nominatur, 
babetque maximas provincias, Commagenam, Pboeniciam et 
Palaestinam absque Saraceuis et Xabataeis. In capite Syriae 
Cappadocia est, quae habet ab oriente Armeniani, ab occasu 
Asiam, ab aquilone Themiscyrios campos, a meridie Taurum 
montem, cui subjacet Cilicia et Isauria. Asia regio absque 
orientali parte undique circumdata est mari : a septentrione 
ponte Euxiuo, ab occasu Propontide atque Hellesponto, a 
meridie mari Nostro, ubi est mons Olympus. 

Aegyptus inferior ab oriente habet Palaestinam, ab occasu 
Libyam, a septentrione mare Nostrum, a meridie montem, 
qui appellatur Climax, fluviumque Nilum, qui de litore in- 
cipientis maris Rubri videtur emergere in loco, qui dicitur 
Mosilon l emporium : deinde diu ad occasum profluens, faciens- 1 Mossyion. 
que insulam nomine Meroe'n in medio sui : novissime ad 
septentrionem inflexus, tempestivis auctus incrementis, plana 
Aegypti rigat. Hunc aliqui auctores ferunt, baud procul ab 
Atlante habere fontem, et continuo arenis mergi : inde interjecto 
brevi spatio, vastissimo lacu exundare, atque hinc oceano tenus, 
orientem versus per Aethiopica deserta prolabi, rursusque in- 
flexum ad sinistram, ad Aegypturn descendere. Quern utique 
prope fontem barbari Dara nominant, caeteri vero accolae 
Nuchul vocant. 

14 alfked's orostus. 

mas on iEgypta lande. Seo fyrre ^Egyptus lip cast ondlong 
paes Readan Saes on suphealfe; 7 on easthealfe 7 on suphealfe 
pass landes lip garsecg ; 7 on hire westhealfe is seo us nearre 
./Egyptus. 7 on paem twaem iEgyptum sindon xxim peoda. 

Nu haebbe we awriten ptere Asian supdael ; nu wille we fon 5 
to hire norSdaele : paet is ponne of paem beorgum pe mon haet 
Caucasus, pe we aer beforan saedon, pa pe be norpan India 
sindon. 7 hie onginna'S arrest eastane of paem garsecge, 7 ponne 
licga(5 westryhte op Armenia beorgas, pe pa landlcode hi hatatS 
Parcoadras. paer of paem beorgim wilp seo ea supweard 10 
Eufrates ; 7 of paem beorgum pe mon Parcoadras haett licgeatS 
pa beorgas westryhte pe mon Tauros haett op Cilium paet lond. 
ponne be norpan paem beorgum ondlang paes garsecges op pone 
norfteastende pisses middangeardes, paer Bore seo ea scyt ut 
on pone garsecg ; 7 ponan west ondlong paes garsecges op pone 15 
sae pe mon haett Caspia, pe paer upscyt to paem beorgum Cau- 
casus, paet lond mon hsett pa ealdan Scippian 7 Ircaniam. 
paes landes is xliii peoda, wide tosetene for unwaestmbaernesse 
paes londes. ponne be westan poem sae Caspia ocS Danais pa 
ea, 7 op paet fenn pe mon haett Jlootedisc ; 7 ponne sup op pone 20 

*:Pagei2.] Wendelsse, 7 * op pone beorg Tauros; 7 norp op pone garsecg 
is eall Scippia lond binnan, peh hit mon tonemne on twa 7 on 
pritig peoda. Ac pa lond on easthealfe Danais pe paer nihst 
sindon, Albani hi sint genemde in Latina, 7 we hie hatap nu 
Liubene. 25 

Nu haebbe we scortlice gesaed ymbe Asia londgemaero ; nu 

1 hist c alter, wille we ymbe Europe londgemaere J areccean swa micel swa we 
hit fyrmest witon. From paere ie Danais west op Kin pa ea, 
seo wilcS of paem beorge pe mon Alpis haett, 7 irnS ponne norp 
r}-hte on paes garsecges earm pe paet lond uton ymblitS pe mon 30 
Bryttania haett ; 7 eft sup o<5 Donua pa ea, paere aewielme is 
neah Bines ofre paere ie, 7 is pippan east irnende witS norpan 
Creca lond ut on pone Wendelsse ; 7 norp op pone garsecg pe 
mon Cwensae haet: binnan paem sindon monega peoda, ac hit 
mon haet eall Germania. 35 

ponne wi<5 norpan Donua sewielme 7 be eastao llinc sindon 


Aegyptus superior in orientem per longum extenditur, cui 
est a septentrione sinus Arabicus, a ineridie Oceanus. Nam 
ab occasu ex inferiore Aegypto incipit, ad orientem Rubro mari 
terminatur, ubi sunt gentes vigintiqiiatuor. 

Et quoniam meridianam partem Asiae descripsimus ; superest 
ut ab oriente ad septentrionem pars, quae restat, expediatur. 
Mons Caucasus primum attollitur : cujus quidem usque in 
ultimum orientem unum videtur jugum : et multi hoc ipsum 
jugum Tauri montis credi volunt : quia re vera Parcboatras, 
mons Armeniae, inter Taurum et Caucasum medius, continuare 
Taurum cum Caucaso putatur : sed hoc non ita esse, discernit 
fluvius Euphrates, qui, de radice Parchoatrae montis effusus, 
tendens in meridiem, ipsum ad finistram, Taurum excludit ad 
dexteram. Igitur a monte Imao, et dextra orientis parte usque 
ad flumen Boreum, inde tenus Scythico mari, quod est a 
septentrione, usque ad mare Caspium, et usque ad extentum 
Caucasi jugum, Hyrcanorum et Scytharum gentes sunt quadra- 
ginta duae, propter terrarum infoecundam diffusionem late 
oberrantes. Itaque a mari Caspio quod est ad orientem, usque 
ad Tanaim fluvium et Maeotidas paludes, gentes sunt triginta- 
quatuor. Sed generaliter regio proxima Albania ulterior, sub 
mari et monte Caspio, Amazonum nominatur. 

ExpHciti sunt quam brevissime fines Asiae : nunc Europam, 
in quantum cognitioni hominis conceditur, stylo pervagabor. 
A flumine Tanai flumen Ehenum, quod est ab occasu, deinde 
usque ad Danubium, qui est a meridie ad Orientem directus, 
ponto excipitur. 



« From C. ; 

2 From C. 

3 7 bonne C. 
• begeondam. 
•(.Page 13.] 

1 horitbi £'. 

« horiti C. 

7 liira added 
in C. 

■ afdrade C. 

» Awh C. (y) 

1 " From C. ; 
scridettnne L 

Eastfrancan 1 ; 7 be subau him sindon Swaefas, on obre healfe 
baere ie Donua. 7 be suban him 7 be eastan sindon Baegware, 
se dael be mon Regnesburg haett. 7 ryhte be eastan him sindou 
Baeme, 7 eastnorj? sindon pyrin ga(s) 2 . 7 l>e norban him siudon 
Ealdseaxan, 7 be norbanwestan him sindon Frisan. be westan 6 
Ealdseaxum is vElfe muba bsere ie, 7 Frisland. 7 Jjonan west- 
norcS is j^aet lond pe mon Ongle hast, 7 Sillende 7 sumne dael 
Dene. 7 be norban him is Afdrede 7 eastnorj? Wilte, pe mon 
Hsefeldan haett. 7 be eastan hiwi is "Wineda lond, be mon haett 
Sysyle, 7 eastsub, ofer sum dael, Maroara. 7 hie Maroara habbaft 10 
bewestan him pyringas, 7 Behemas, 7 Begware healfe; 7 be 
suban him on obre healfe Donua ]?aere ie is baet land Carendre 
suj? o]) pa beorgas J?e mon Alpis haet. To )?a?m ilcan beorgan 
licgaS Begwara landgemaero 7 Swaefa. ponne 3 be eastan Car- 
endran londe, begeondan 4 baem westenne, is Pulgara land. 15 
7 be eastan baem. is * Creca land. 7 be eastan Maroara londe 
is "\Yisle lond. 7 be eastan pseva. sint Datia, pa pe iu waeron 
Gotan. Be norbaneastan Maroara sindon Dalamentsan 7 be 
eastan Dalamentsan sindon Horigti \ 7 be norban Dalamentsan 
sindon Surpe ; 7 be westan him Sysyle. Be norban Horoti ' 20 
is Maegba land ; 7 be norban MaegJ^a londe Sermende ob ba 
beorgas Riffen. Be westan Subdenum is j?aes garsecges earm 
be lib ymbutan ]?aet land Brettania ; 7 be norban him is J?aes 
saes earm be mon haet Ostsa? ; 7 be eastan him 7 be norban 7 
sindon NorSdenc, eegber ge on baem maran landum ge on baem 25 
iglandum ; 7 be eastan him sindon Afdrede ; 7 be suban hi//? is 
yElfe muba baere ie 7 Ealdseaxna sum dael. NorSdene habbatS 
be norban him }?one ilcan saes earm be mon haet Ostsae, 7 be 
eastan him sindon Osti pa, leode ; 7 Afrede 8 be suj?an. Osti 
habbaS be norban him )?one ilcan saes earm, 7 Winedas, 7 30 
Burgendan ; 7 be suban him sindon Haefeldan. Burgendan hab- 
batS bone (ilcan) saes earm be westan him ; 7 Sweon be norban ; 
7 be eastan him sint Sermende, 7 be sujxan him Surfe. Sweon 
habbacS be suban him bone saes earm Osti ; 7 be eastan him 
Sermende; 7 be norban him ofer ba westenne is Cwenland ; 7 be 35 
weetannorban him sindon Scridefinnas 10 ; 7 be westan Norbmenn. 

ohtiiere's narrative. 17 

Ohthere Steele his hlaforde, yElfrede cyninge, pvet he ealra 
NorSmonna norjjmest bude. He cwtecS jxet lie bude on pvou\ 
lande norjnveardum wib j?a Westsee. He seede J?cab (f>cet) ' J?set l i '""" ''• 
laud sic sw'ipe lang nor}? bonan ; ae hit is eal weste, buton on 
5 feawuwi stowum styccenigeluwi wiciatS Finnas, on hunto(5e on 
wintra, 7 on sumera on fisca|?e be J?gere sse. 

He saede baet he set sumum cirre wolde fandian hu longe 
bast land norbryhte laege, obbe hwEetSer senig rnon be norcSan 
baern westenne bude. pa for he norbryhte be bsem lande : let 

10 him ealne weg * beet weste land on tSset steorbord, 7 ba widsse *[Page 14.] 
on <5aet baecbord brie dagas. pa webs he swa feor nor]? swa ba 
hwselhuntan firrest fara]?. pa for he bagiet norbryhte swa feor 
swa he meahte ou {?aem obrum brim dagum gesiglan. pa beag 
beet land psev eastrybte, ob]?e seo sse in on Sset lond, he nysse 

15 hwseSer ; buton he wisse (5eet he (Seer bad westanwindes 7 hwon 

nor]?an, 7 siglde (5a 2 east be lande swa swa he meahte on feower 2 N 10 " c - 
dagum gesiglan. pa sceolde he (5ser bidan ryhtnorbanwindes, 
for (Saam {?aat land beag J?oer suj?ryhte, ob]?e seo see in on Saat 
land, he nysse hwaaber. pa siglde he bonan suSryhte be lande 

20 swa swa he mehte on f if dagum gesiglan. Da laag paar an micel 

ea up in on baat land, pa cii'don hie up in on (5a 3 ea, for baam 3 Erasure. 

after a ( = 

hie ne dorston for]? bi baare ea siglan for unfri]?e ; for J?aarn oaat 8am?) 
land waas eall gebun on o]?re healfe J?aare eas. Ne mette he aer 
nan gebun land, si}?]?an he from his agnum. ham for. Ac him 
25 wees ealne weg weste land on J>aat steorbord, butan fiscerum 
7 fugelermra 7 huntuwi, 7 beet waaron eall Finnas ; 7 him wees 
a widsaa on (5aat baacbord. pa Beormas 4 haafdon swibe wel 4 PirH stroke 

r of the m 

gebud hira land ; ac hie ne dorston ]?aar on cuman. Ac bara erased. 
Terfinna land waas eal weste buton [?Saar] huntan gewicodon, 
30 o]?}?e fisceras, op]?e fugel[er]as. 

Fela spella him saadon ba Beormas 5 aagber ge of hiera agnum s Last stroke 

' of the tu 

lande ge of ]?aam landura be ymb hie utan waaron ; ac he erased. 
nyste hwaat }?aas so]?es waas, for baam he hit self ne geseah ba 
Finnas, him ]?uhte, 7 pa Beormas 4 spraacon neah an ge]?eode. 
35 S\vi]?ost he for (5ider, toeacan baas landes sceawunge, for ]?aam 
horschwselum, for fern hie hahbatJ Bwibe sej>ele ban on hiora 




topum — pa teS hie brohton sume pseni cyninge — , 7 hiora 

1 Here beyim hvd ' 
the gap in L. 
and the ex- 
tract/rum C. 

•[Leaf 10, 

'-' lieraii. 

♦[Leaf 11.] 

■> bradre. 

* bi<S swicSe god to sciprapum. Se hwrel biS micle lsessa 
ponne otSre hwalas : ne bitS he lengra Sonne syfan elna lang. 
Ac on his agnum lande is se betsta hwaelhuntacS : pa beotS 5 
eahta and feowertiges elna lange, 7 pa nisestan fiftiges elna lange. 
para he ssede paet he syxa sum ofsloge syxtig on twam dagum. 

He wks swySe spedig man on paem amtum pe heora speda 
on beot5, pcet is, on wildrum. He hsefde pagyt, 6a he pone 
cyningc sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra syx hund. pa deor hi 10 
hataS 'hranas'; para wseron syx stselhranas; Sa beocS swytSe 
dyre mid Finnum, for Stem hy fotS pa wildan hranas mid. He 
wees mid pcem fyrstum mannum on pa?m lande : nsefde he peah 
ma t5onne twentig hrySera, 7 twentig sceapa, 7 twentig swyna ; 
7 pset lytic pset he erede he erede mid horsan. Ac hyra ar is 15 
mgest on paem gafole pe cSa Finnas him gyldaS. pset gafol 
bicS on deora fcllum, 7 on fugela fe<5erum, 7 hwales bane, 7 on 
psem sciprapum, pe beotS of hwseleB hyde geworht, 7 of seoles. 
iEghwilc gylt be hys gebyrdura. Se byrdesta BceaU gyldan 
fiftj-nc mearScs fell, 7 fif hranes, 7 an bercn 2 fel, 7 tyn ambra 20 
feSra, 7 berennc kyrtel oSSe ytcrenue, 7 twegen sciprapas; 
segper sy syxtig elna lang, oper ay of hwreles hyde geworht, oper 
of sioles. 

He ssede "Saet NortSmanna land were swypc lang 7 swytSe 
* emael. Eal pset his man aper o6(5e ettan o5(5e erian ma?g 25 
pset liS witS Sa sac ; 7 pctt is peah on sunniflj stuwum BwytSe 
cludig; 7 licgaS wilde moras witS eastan 7 wiS uppou 
cmnlangc psem bynum lande. On psem morum cardial Finnas. 
7 past byne land is easteweard bradost, 7 symlo swa norSor 
swa smselre. Eastewerd hit mag bion syxtig mila brad, oppe 30 
hwene bradre :; ; 7 middeweard pritig otSSe bradre ; 7 norSe- 
weard he cwa i (5, pser hit smalost ware, \>cet hit mihte beon 
prcora mila brad to psem more; 7 se mor sySpan, on sumum 
stowum, swa brad swa man ma?g on twain wucum oferferan; 
7 on sumum Btowum BWa brad swa man meg on syx dagum 35 
ofer fciaii. 

wulfstan's narrative. 19 

Donne is toemncs paem lande sutSewcardum, on oSre healfe 
paes mores, Sweoland, op paet land norbeweard ; 7 tocmnes 
paem lande norSeweardura Cwena land, pa Cwenas hergiacS 
hwiluni on (5a Northmen ofer Sone mor, liwilnm pa NorSmen 
5 on hy. 7 paer sint switSe raicle meras fersce geond pa moras ; 
7 beratS pa Cwenas hyra scypu ofer land on Sa nieras, 7 panon 
hergiatS on (Sa Northmen; hy habbaS swy(5e lytle scypa 7 swySe 

Ohtbere saede pcet sio scir hatte Halgoland be he on bude. 

10 He cwaecS paet nan man ne bude be norcSan him. ponne is an 

port on sucSeweardum paem lande, pone * man haet Sciringes ' bonne. 
heal, pyder he cwaetS pcet man mihte geseg * lian on anum *[Leaf 11, 
moncSe, gyf man on niht wicode, 7 aelce daege haefde ambyrne 
wind ; 7 ealle cSa hwile he sceal seglian be lande. 7 on paet 

15 steorbord him biS aerest Iraland, 7 ponne (Sa igland pe synd 
betux Iralande 7 pissum lande. ponne is pis land o(5 he cymS 
to Scirincges heale, 7 ealne weg on paet baecbord NorSweg. 
Wi<5 suftan pone Sciringes heal fyl(5 swytSe mycel see up in on 
Saet lond ; seo is bradre ponne aenig man ofer seon maege. 7 is 

20 Gotland on o(5re healfe ongean, 7 siSSa(n) Sillende. Seo sae litS 
msenig bund mila up in on paet land. 

7 of Sciringes heale he cwan5 pcet he seglode on fif dagan to 
paem porte pe mon haet aet Haepum ; se stent betuh Winedum, 
7 Seaxum, 7 Angle, 7 hyrcS in on Dene. Da he piderweard 

25 seglode fram Sciringes heale, pa waes him on paet baecbord 
Denamearc, 7 on paet steorbord widsae pry dagas; 7 pa, 
twegen dagas aer he to Haepum come, him wees on paet steor- 
bord Gotland, 7 Sillende, 7 iglanda fela. On psem landum 
eardodon Engle, aer hi hider on land coman. 7 hym waes $a 

30 twegen dagas on (Saet baecbord pa igland pe in Denemearce 

"NVulfstan saede pcet he gefore of HaeSum, paet he waere on 
Truso on syfan dagum 7 nihtum, paet paet scip waes ealne weg 
yrnende under segle. Weono'Sland him waes on steorbord, 7 on 

35 baecbord him waes Langaland, 7 Laeland, 7 Falster, * 7 Sconeg; *|Leafi2.] 
7 pas land eall byra(5 to Denemearcan. 7 ponne Burgenda land 


20 Alfred's oiiosirs. 

wees us on bsecbord, 7 ba habbaS him sylf cyning. ponnc setter 

Burgenda lande waeron us bas land, ba synd liatcne aerest 

Blecingaeg, 7 Meore, 7 Eowland, 7 Gotland on ba^cbord ; 7 bas 

land hymS to Sweon. 7 Weonodland wses us ealne weg on 

steorbord oS "WisleniuSan. Seo "Wisle is swytSe mycel ea, 7 bio 5 

tolicS "Witland 7 "Weonodland; 7 baet Witland belimpec* to 

Estum ; 7 seo Wisle li<5 ut of "Weonodlande, 7 litS in Estmere ; 

7 se Estmere is hum fiftene mila brad, ponne cyinecS Ilfing 

eastan in Estmere of <5sem mere tSe Truso stande<5 in statSe, 

■ Bart). 7 cumatS ut samod in Estmere, Ilfing eastan of Estlande 1 , 7 10 

"Wisle suSan of "Winodlande. 7 ponne bemni<5 "Wisle Ilfing hire 

naman, 7 ligeS of pami mere west 7 norS on sx ; for Sy hit 

man hat "WislcniuSa. 

pat Estland 1 is swy<5e mycel, 7 bser bitS swytSe manig burh, 

7 on alcere byrig biS cyningc. 7 ba?r bi(5 swytSe mycel hunig 7 15 

fisc[n]a<5; 7 se cyning 7 J>a ricostan men drincaS myran 

meolc, 7 ba linspedigan 7 ba beowan drincafS medo. pan- biS 

swySe mycel gewinn betweonan him. 7 ne biS (Sar nanig 

ealo gebrowen mid Estum, ac bar biS medo genoh. 7 bar 

is mid Estum Seaw, bonne bar bn5 man dead, beet he liS innc 20 

♦[Leaf 12, unforbserned mid his magu??i 7 frconduwi * monat), ge hwilum 
back.] a- 1 1 *■ -i 

twegen ; 7 ba kynmgas, 7 ba oOrc heahoungene men, swa micle 

leneg swa hi maran speda habbaS, hwilum hcalf gear pat hi 

beoS unforbserned, 7 licgatS bufan eorSan on hyra husum. 7 

calle pa, hwile be bset lie bi<5 inne, bar sceal beon gedrync 25 

7 plega, ot5 Sone dag be hi bine forbarnaS. ponne by ylcan 

/' tin dag(c) 2 (be) hi bine to bam Tide beran wylla<5, bonne todalatS hi 

hand. his fcoh, f>eet bar to lafe bi5 after bam gedrynce 7 bam plegan, 

on fif o65c syx, hwylum on ma, swa swa bees feoa andefn bitS. 

AlecgaS hit Sunne forhwaga on anre mile bone mastan del 80 

IViiiii bsem tunc, bonne otSernc, (Sonne pane briddan, ob be hyt 

call aled biS on pure anre mile; 7 sceall beon so lasta da 1 

uy list bsem tune Se se deada man on litS. Donne sceolon beon 

gesamnode ealle Sa menn "Se swyftostc hois habbaS on bain 

lande, for hwSBga on fif milum oS5e on syx niilum fnan bsem 85 

feo. ponne eernaS hy ealle toweard bsem feo ; Sonne cymetS se 



man se J?cet swiftoste 1 hors hafatS to J?eem cerestan daele 7 to 1 swifte. 
psem maestan, 7 swa adc aefter ooYum, ob hit biS call genumen ; 
7 se nim<5 bone laestan dsel se nyhst paem tune paet feoh 
geperneS. 7 ponne rideS aelc hys weges mid San feo, 7 hyt 

5 motan habban eall ; 7 for cSy paer * beoS ba swiftan hors *£ Leaf 13 -1 
ungefoge dyre. 7 bonne hys gestreon beoS ])us eall aspended, 
bonne byrcS man bine ut, 7 forbaernetS mid his wsepnum 7 
hraegle. 7 swiSost ealle hys speda hy forspendaS mid pan 
langan legere paes dead an mannes inne, 7 pass be hy be paem 

10 wegum alecgaS, pe 6a fremdan to eernacS, 7 nima5. 7 paet is 
mid Estum peaw paet pa?r sceal aelces geSeodes man beon for- 
baerned; 7 gyf par man an ban nude's unforbaerned, hi hit 
sceolan miclura gebetan. 7 paer is mid Estum 2 an msegS paet 2 Bastum, 
hi magon cyle gewyrcan ; 7 by beer licgaS pa deadan men swa 

15 lange 7 ne fuliaS, pcet hy wyrcatS pone cyle him 3 on. 7 peah 3hine - 
man asette twegen faetels full ealaS oSSe wseteres, hy gedoS 
pcet aegper 4 biS oferfroren, sam hit sy sumor sam winter. ol ' e^ • 



♦[Leaf 13, 

Nu wille we sccgan be su<5an Donuabrcre ea ymbc Creca land, 
(bu bit) lib. AVyS eastan Constantinopolim Creca byrig is se 
see Proponditis. 7 be norSan Constantinopolim Creca byrig scyt 
se salearm up of psem sae westrihte be man bset Euxinus ; 7 be 
westannor<5an bsere byrig Donua mu<5a baere ea scyt sufteast 5 
ut on t5one sse Euxinus ; 7 on suShealfe 7 on westhealfe ba?s 
mutSan sindon Maesi, Creca leode ; 7 be westan bsere byrig 
sindon Traci ; 7 be eastan baere byrig Macedonie. 7 be suban 
baere byrig, on sucShealfe baes sees earmes * be man haet Egeuw, 
sindon Atbena 7 Corintus pa land. 7 be westan su<5an Corinton 10 
is Acbie p(et land, set bsem "Wendelsse. pas land syndon Creca 
leode. 7 be westan Acbie, andlang baes "Wendelsoes, is Dalmatia 
bset land, on nonShealfe bses saes ; 7 be norSan Dalmatia sindon 
Pulgare 7 Istria. 7 be sut5an Istria is se "Wendelsse be man 
1)8? t Atriaticum ; 7 be westan ba beorgas be man bset Alpis ; 7 15 
fuigamm. \, e norSan bset westen \>cet is betux Carendan 7 Pulgarum l . 

ponne is Italia land west norSlang 7 east suSlang, 7 bit belitS 
"W'tr.delsce ymb eall utan, buton westan norSan. Mt boem ende 
bit beliega'S (5a beorgas be man boat Alpis : ba ongiimacS westaue 
fram bsem "Wendelsse i(n) Narbonense baere Seode, 7 endiatS eft 20 
east in Dalmatia bsem lande set bsem sse. 

pa land be man bset Gallia Bellica, be eastan psem is sio 
ea be man hset Kin, 7 be sutSan ba beorgas be man bat 
Alpis, 7 be westansuSan se garsecg be man bset Brittanisca, 
7 be norSan on ocSrc bealfe bses garsegges earme is Brittannia 25 
bset land. Be westan Ligore is Aequitania land, 7 be suban 
jEquitania is boos landes sum dsel Narbonense, 7 be westan- 
su£an Ispania land, 7 be westan garsegc. Be suSan Xarl)ouense 
is se Wendelsae, bser paer Rodan seo ea utecyt ; 7 be eastan 
him Profentsse ; 7 be westan him Profentsaj ofer tSa westenu 30 
*[LeafH.] sco us nearre-Ispania ; 7 be westan him 7 * norSan Equitania ; 
7 "Wascan be norSan. Profentse hsefS be norcuui byre pa 
beorgas be man Alpis haet; 7 be sutSan byre is Wendels 
7 be norSan byre 7 eastan syncl Burgendc ; 7 Wascan be 
westan 35 


Nunc quidquid Danubius a barbarico ad mare Nostrum 
secludit, expediam. Moesia ab oriente habet ostia fluminis 
Danubii, ab euro Thraciam, a septentrione Danubium. Thracia 
habet ab oriente Propontidis sinum et civitatem Constanti- 
nopolim : a septentrione sinum Euxini ponti, ab occasu et africo 
Macedonian!, a meridie Aegaeurn mare. Macedonia habet a 
meridie Achaiam. Achaja undique propemodum cincta est mari. 
Habet ab aquilone angustum terrae dorsum, ubi est Corinthus, 
habeas in Attica ad boream non longe Athenas civitatem. 
Dalmatia habet ab occasu Istriam, a meridie Adriaticum sinum. 
Pannonia, Noricus et Rhetia habent ab africo Alpes Pcnninas. 

Italiae situs a circio iu eurum tenditur, habcns ab africo 
Tyrrhenum mare, a borea Adriaticum sinum : cujus ea pars 
qua continenti terrae communis et contigua est, Alpium obiei- 
bus obstruitur : quae a Galileo mari exsurgentes, primum 
Narbonensium fines, deinde Galliam Rhetiamque secludunt, 
donee in sinu Libumico defigantur. 

Gallia Belgica habet ab oriente limitem flummis Rheni, ab 
euro Alpes Penninas, a circio oceanum Britannicum, a sep- 
tentrione Britanniam insulam. Aquitanica provincia obliquo 
cursu Tuigevis Jlnminis in orbem agitur. Haec a circio oceanum 
qui Aquitanicus sinus dicitur, ab occasu Hispanias habet, a 
septentrione et oriente Lugdunensem, ab euro et meridie Nar- 
bonensem provinciam contingit. Narbonensis provincia habet 
ab occidente Hispaniam, a circio Aquitaniam, a septentrione 
Lugdunensem, ab aquilone Belgicam Galliam, a meridie mare 
Gallicum, habens in fronte qua Bhodanus fluvius in mare exit, 
insulas S'techadas. 



Ispania land is pryscyte, 7 eall mid fleote utan ymbhaefd, 
ge eac binnan ymbhaefd ofer Sa land aegper gc of pa?m garsecge 
ge of Sam Wendelsae. An Saera garena liS suSwest ongean paet 
igland pe Gadcs batte, 7 oper east ongean past land Narbonense, 
7 se Sridda norSwest ongean Brigantia Gallia burh, 7 ongean 5 
Scotland, ofer Sone saes earm, on gerybte ongean paene muSan 
pe mon haet Scene. Seo us fyrre Ispania, byre is be westan 
garsecg, 7 be norSan "Wendelsae, be suSan 7 be eastan seo 
us nearre Ispania ; be norSan pa? re synt Equitania, 7 be 
norSaneastan is se weald Pireni, 7 be eastan Narbonense, 7 be 10 
suSan Wendelsae. 

Brittannia paet igland bit is norSeastlang ; 7 bit is eabta 
bund mila bang, 7 twa bund mila brad, ponne is be suSan 
bim on oSre healfe paes saes earmes Gallia Bellica ; 7 on 
westbealfe on opre bealfe pass saes earmes is Ib^rnia paet igland ; 15 
7 on norShealfe Orcadus paet igland. Igbernia, pcet we Scot- 
land hataS, bit is on aelce bealfe ymbfangen mid garsecge ; 7 for 
Son be sio sunne paer gaeS near on setl ponne on oSrum lande, 
*[Leaf 1 1, p XY S y lu lon lySran wedera ponne on * Brettannia. ponne be 

westannorSan Ibernia is paet ytemeste land poet man ha?t Tbila, 20 
7 bit is feawum mamnm cuS for Saere oferfyrre. Nu baebbe 
we gesaed ymbe ealle Europe landgemaero hu hi tolicgaS. 

Nu wille we ymbe Affrica (secgan), hu Sa landgemaero tolicgaS. 
Ure yldran cwaedon pcet hio waere se Sridda dael pyses middan- 
geardcs : naes na for Sam pe paes landes swa fela waere, ac for 25 
Sam pe se Wendelsae bit haefS swa todaeled, for San pe he brycS 
swiSor on Sone suSdael ponne he do on pone norSdael ; 7 sio 
haete haefS genumen paes suSdreles marc ponne se cyle paes 
norSdaeles haebbc, for Son pe aelc wiht maeg bet wyS cyle ponne 
wiS baetc. For Sam pingon is Affrica aegper ge on landum ge 30 
on mannum laessc Sonne Europe. 

Affrica onginS, swa we or cwsedon, eastan wesfcwerd fram 
Egyptuwi aet paere ee pe man Xilus haet. ponne is sio easte- 
mcste |)cod baton Libia Cirimacia. Ill'' : I tan sio m 



Hispania universa terrarum situ trigona est, et circumfusionc 
Oceani Tyrrlienique pelagi pone insula efficitur. Hujus angulus 
prior, spectans ad orientem, \Narbonensium finibus inseritur. 
Secundus angulus circium intendit : ubi Brigantia Gallaeciae 1 ' caiiaeciae. 
civitas sita. Tertius ejus angulus est, qua Gades insulae 
intentae in africum, Atlantem montem/prosjmiunt. Hispaniam 
citeriorem ab oriente iucipientem, Pyrenaei saltus a parte 
septentrionis deducunt, atque inde, ^posita in Nostri maris 
Httore Carthago determinat. Hispania ulterior habetta sep- 
tentrione Oceanum, ab occasu Oceanum. , 

Britannia Oceani insula, per longura in boream extenditur. 
Ameridie Gallias habet.,\ Haec insula liabet in longo millia 
passuurn octingenta, in lato millia ducenta : a tergo autem^ 
Orcadas insulas habet. Deinde insula Tbule, quae per in- 
finitum a ceteris separata, circium versus medio sita Oceani, 
vix paucis nota habetur. Hibernia insula;, longiore ab africo 
in boream spatio porrigitur. Haec propior Britanniae, spatio 
terrarum angustior : sed coeli solique temperie magis utilis, 
a Scotorum gentibus colitur. . Hi sunt fines totius Europae. 


Africam, cum tertiam orbis partem majores Nostri accipi- 
endam descripserint, non spatiorum mensuras, sed divisionum 
rationes secuti sunt. Mare boc siquidem Magnum, in meridiem 
magis vergens, angustiorem coartatae Africae limitem facit. 
Praeterea cum multo amplius terrae in Africa ardore Solis, 
quam in Europa rigore frigoris incultum atque incognitum sit 
(quippe cum omnia pene animantia vel germinantia, patientius 
et tolerabilius ad summum frigoris quam ad summum caloria 
accedant) ea scilicet causa est, Africam per omnia situ et 
populis minorem videri : cujus descriptio per provincias et 
gentes haec est. 

Libya Cyrenaica post Aeg} r ptum in parte Africae prima 
est. Haec incipit a civitate Paraetonio. Post se babet usque 
ad Oceanum meridianum, gentes Libyae, Aethiopum et, Gara- 

26 Alfred's orosius. 

nearre Aegyptu?, 7 be nor<5an Wendelsse, pe man hset Libia 
yEtliiopicu?/*, 7 be westan Syrtes Maiores. Be westan Libia 
.Ktbiopicum is sio us fyrre jEgyptns, 7 be sutJan se garsecg 
pe man bast iEthiopicus, 7 be westan Rogathitus. Tribulitania 
sio biod, be man o<5re naman lia?t Arzuges, bio haeftS be eastan 5 
byre pone Sirtes Maiores, 7 Rogathite ba land, 7 be norSan 

•[Leaf 15.] bone "Wendelsa?, pe man hset * Adriaticum, 7 £>a peode be man 
hset Sirtes Minores, 7 be westan Bizantium, op J?one sealtan 
mere, 7 be sucSan byre Natabres 7 Geothulas 7 Garamantes, oS 
Sone garsegc. 10 

' se i>eorh. Bizantium sio beod, baer seo burh ' is Adrumetis, 7 Seuges, 7 

seo biod baer sio mycle burh is Cartaina, 7 Numedia sio beod, 
hi habbacS be eastan him beet land Syrtes Minores, 7 pone 
sealtan mere, 7 be norcSan him is AVendelsa?, 7 be westan him 
Mauritania, 7 be suSan him Uzera ba beorgas ; 7 be suSan bam 15 
beorgum ba simbelfarendan iEthiopes o(S Sone garsecg. Mauri- 
tania, byre is be eastan Numedia, 7 be norSan "Wendelsse, 7 be 

lyvobituerted westan Malua sio ea, 7 be sutSan Astrix 2 Sa beorgas, ba todaela'S 
after Astra. " . 

\>cet waesrobaere land 7 bset deadwylle sand, pe sybban li(5 suS on 

bone garsecg. Mauritania, be man obre naman hset Tingetana, 20 

be eastan byre is Malua sio ea, 7 be norSan Abbenas ba beorgas, 

7 Calpis, ober beorh. peer scyt se ende up of bam garseege 

betuh ban twam beorgum castweard, boar Ercoles syla standaS ; 

7 be westan him is se beorh Athlans, otS Sone garsecg, 7 (be) 

suban tSa beorgas be man baet ./Espcros ; 7 be sutSan him 25 

Aulolum sio beod, oS tSone garsecg. Nu hsbbe we ymb Arnica 

» Und K e- landgemaero 3 gesasd. 


Nu wille we secgan ymb pa ygland be on ba(m) Wendeine 
*[Leafi5, * sindon. Cipros pa?t igland bit li<5 ongean Cilicia 7 Issaurio 


on bam saes earme be man hojt Mesicos, 7 hit is an bund mila 30 
long 7 fif 7 huiulsyfantig, 7 an hund mila brad 7 twa 7 twentig. 
Creto bee< igland, him is be eastan se sse be man Arfatium 
ba?t, 7 westan 7 be norSan Creticmn. se sa?, 7 be westan Sicilium, 
pe man oSre naman hait Addriaticum : hit is an hund mila 
Mond. long 4 , 7 hundsyfantig 7 fiftig mila brad. Dara iglanda be man 35 

li;it Ciclades bara sindon [>reo 7 fiftig, 7 be eastan him is se 



manlum. Huic est ab oriente Aegyptus, a scptcntrione marc 
Libycum, ab occasu Syrtes majores et Troglodytae, a meridie 
Aetliiopicus Oceanus. Tripoli tana provincia, quae et regio 
Arzugum dicitur, habet ab oriente Syrtes majores et Troglo- 
dytas, a septentrione mare Siculum, vel potius Adriaticutn, et 
Syrtes minores, ab occasu Bizantium 1 usque ad lacum Salinarum, • Byzatium. 
a meridie barbaros Getulos, Natabros 2 , et Garamantas, usque 2 Nothabres, 
ad Oceanum Aethiopicum pertiugentes. 

Byzacium, ubi Adrumetus civitas, Zeugis, ubi Carthago 
magna, Numidia, ubi Hippo regius et Eusiccarfa civitates sunt, 
habcnt ab oriente Syrtes minores et lacum Salinarum, a sep- 
tentrione mare Nostrum, ab occasu Mauritaniam Sitifensem, 
a meridie montes Uzarae; et post eos Aethiopum gentes, 
pervagautes usque ad Oceanum Aethiopicum. Sitifensis et 
Caesariensis Mauritania habent ab Oriente Numidiam, a sep- 
tentrione mare Nostrum, ab occasu flumen Malvam, a meridie 
montem Astrixim, qui dividit inter vivam terram et arenas 
jacentes usque ad Oceanum. Tingitana Mauritania ultima est 
Africae. Haec habet ab oriente flumen Malvam, a septentrione 
mare Nostrum usque ad fretum Gaditanum, quod inter Abennem 
et Calpen, duo contraria sibi promontoria, coartatur : ab 
occidente Atlantem montem, et Oceanum Atlanticum, sub 
africo Hesperium montem, a meridie gentes Aulolum, usque 
ad Oceanum Hesperium contingentes. Hie est universae ter- 
minus Africae. 

Nunc insularum quae in Nostro mari sunt, loca, nomina, et 
spatia dimetiar. Insula Cypros ab oriente mari Syrio, quod 
Mesicum 3 sinum vocant, a septentrione Aulone Cilico, a meridie 3 issicum. 
Syriae pelago cingitur : cujus spatium in longo tenet millia 
passuum centum septuaginta quinque, in lato millia passuum 
centum vigintiquinque. Insula Creta finitur ab oriente Cai-- 
pathio mari, ab occasu et septentrione mari Cretico, a meridie 
mari Libyco, quod et Adriaticum vocant : habet in longo millia 
passuum centum Beptuaginta duo, in Into quinquaginta. Insulae 

28 alfbed's oitosius. 

Risca sx, 7 be sucSan se Cretisca, 7 be norSan se Egisca, 7 be 
westan Addriaticum. Sicilia baet igland is oYyscyte. On selces 
sccatan ende sindon beorgas. pone norftsceatan man beet 
Polores ; beer is seo burh neab Mesana. 7 se sutSsceata batte 
Bacbinufti; bser neab is sio bui'h Siracussana. 7 bone west- 5 
sceatan man hast Libeum; basr is seo burh neah be man hset 
Libeum. 7 hit is an bund 7 syfan 7 fiftig mila lang, su<5 7 
uorS; 7 se bridda sceata is an hund 7 syfan 7 hundsyfantig 
westlang. 7 be eastan bsem lande is se "Wendelsse, be man 

i^am. hset Adriati(c)um, 7 be suban be 1 man hset Affricu?>t, 7 be 10 

westan be man hset Tirenum, 7 be nortSan is se sap, pe segber 
is ge nearo ge hreoh, witS Italia bam lande. Sardina 7 Corsica 
pa igland todseleS an lytel sses earm, se is twa 7 twentig mila 

*[Leaf 16.] brad. Sardina is breo 7 britti mila lang, 7 twa * 7 twentig 

mila brad, him is be eastan se "Wendelsse be man hast Tirre- 15 
num, be Tiber sio ea ut scyt on ; 7 be suoan se sse be litS 
ongean Numedia lande, 7 be westan ba twa igland be man hast 
Balearis, 7 be noroan Corsica bast igland. Corsica him is 
Romeburh be eastan, 7 Sardine be suSan, 7 be westan ba 
igland Balearis, 7 be norSan Tuscania bast land ; hit is syxtenc 20 
mila lang, 7 nygan mila brad. Balearis ba tu igland him is 

s/kadsuXan. be norSan 2 Affrica, 7 Gades be westan, 7 Ispania be norftan. 

> Resctencs- Scortlicc hsebbe we nu gessed be baem gesctenum 3 iglauduwi be 
on Ssem "Wendelsse sindon. 

(I, II.) 

/Er Ssem Se Romeburh getimbred wsere brim hund wintra 25 
7 busend wintra, Ninus, Asyria kyning, ongan manna eerest 
ricsian on Sysum middangeardc. 7 mid ungemsetlicre gewil- 
nunge anwaldes he wsps heriende 7 feohtendc fiftig wintra, oS 
he haefde ealle Asiam on hia geweal I jenyd no fra« I .. 


Cyclases, ab oriente finiuntur litoribus Asiae, ab occidente mari 
Icario, a septentrione mari Aegaco, a meridie mari Car pall do. 
Sunt autem omnes Cyclades nuraero quinquaginta tres. Sicilia 
insula tria habet promontoria, unum quod dieitur Pelorus \ et ' Peiorum. 
adspicit ad aquilonein, cui Messana civitas proxima est ; secun- 
dum, quod dieitur Pachynum, sub quo civitas Syracusana, 
respicit ad euronotum ; tertium, quod adpellatur Lilybaeum, 
ubi et civitas ejusdeni noininis sita est, dirigitur in occasum. 
Haec habet a Peloro in Pachinum millia passuum centum 
quinquaginta novem, a Pachyno in Lilybaeum centum septua- 
ginta septem. Haec ab oriente cingitur mari Adriatico, a 
meridie mari Africo, ab occidente habet mare Tyrrhenum : a 
borea fretum Adriaticum, quod dividit Tauromenitanos Siciliae, 
et Bruttios Italiae. Sardinia et Corsica insula parvo freto, hoc 
est, millium viginti, dividuntur; ex quibus Sardinia habet a 
meridie Caralitanos : contra Corsicam insulam, habet Ulbienses ; 
cujus in longo spatium tenet millia passuum ducenta triginta, 
in lato millia ducenta octoginta. Haec habet ab oriente et a 
borea Tyrrhenum mare, quod spectat ad portum urbis Romae : 
ab africo insulas Baleares longe positas, a meridie Numidicum 
sinum, a septentrione Corsicam. Corsica insula midtis j)romon- 
toriis angidosa est. Haec habet ab oriente Tyrrhenum mare, 
et portum Urbis, a meridie Sardinian!, ab occasu insulas 
Baleares, a circio et septentrione Ligusticum sinum. Tenet 
autem in longo millia passuum centum sexaginta, in lato millia 
vigintisex. Insulae Baleares duae sunt. Deinde ab aquilone 
mare Gallicum, a meridie et Africo Mauritanicum pelagus, ab 
occasu Ibericum pelagus spectat. Hae sunt insulae per totum 
Magnum pelagus constitutae. 


Ante annos Urbis conditae mille treccntos Xinus rex As- 
syriorum, primus proparjandae dominations libidine armaforas 
extulit, cruentamque vitam quinquaginta annis per totam Asiam 
bellis egit : a meridie atque a Bubro mari surgens, sub ultimo 
septentrione, Euxinum pontuin perdomuit, Scytliicamque barba- 

30 Alfred's oeosids. 

Readan Ste 7 swa HOI'S op pone sse pe man hset Euxinus ; 
ljutan psem pe he eac oftrsedlicc for mid miclu?/i gefeohtum 
on ScicSSie pa norSland, pa (5e gecwedene syndon t?a Leardestan 
men, peah hy syn on pyson woroldgesselpon pa unspedgestan. 
7 hy tSa under tSseni pe he him onwinnende wees, wurdon gerade 5 
wigcrsefta, peah hi ser hyra lif bylwetlice alyfden; 7 hy him 

* i- afic, setter psem grimme for * guidon pone wigcrseft pe hy set him 
gclcornodon ; 7 him <5a wearS emleof on hyra mode pat hi 
gesawon manncs blod agoten swa him wses para nytena meolc 
pe hy msest hi libbaS. And he Ninus Soroastrem Bactriana 10 
cyning, se cutSe manna serest dry eras ftas, he hine oferwaun 
7 ofsloh. 7 pa set nyhstan he wses feohtende wi5 Sci&Sie, on 
ane burh, 7 pser wearS ofscoten mid anre flane. 

7 sefter his deafte Sameramis his cwen fengc segper ge to 
psem gewinne ge to psem rice. 7 bio pset ylce gewin pe hio 15 
hine on bespon mid manigfealdon firenlustum twa 7 feowertig 
wintra wses dreogende. 7 byre pagyt to lytel puhte pses an- 
waldea tSe se cyningc ser gewunnen hsefde, ac hio mid wiflice 
nitSe wses feohtende on pset underiendc folc ^Ethiopian!, 7 eac 
on Tndeas, pa nan man ne ser ne sy<5(5an mid gefeohte ne gefor 20 
buton Alexander ; bio wses wilniende mid gewinnum pset hio 
hy oferswiSdc, Sa hio hit (5u(r)htcon ne mihte. Sio gitsung 

1 [^ i aki pa 7 pa gewin wseron ' grimlicran ponne hy nu syn, for Son 
hy byre nane bysene ser ne cuSan swa men nu witon, ac on 
bilvvitnesse hyra lif alyfdon. 25 

Seo ylce cwen Sameramis, sytJSan pect rice wses on byre 
gcwealdc, nales pcet an pset hio 8yrste(n)de wivs on symbol 
mannes blodcs, ac eac swelee mid ungemctlicre wranmesse 
manigfeald geligre fremmende wses ; swa pset selcne para pe 

*[Uafi7.] hio * gcacsian myhte pset kynekynnea wses, bio to byre gespon 30 
for byre geligernesse, 7 sytScSan hio hy ealle mid facne beswac 
to dcatSc. 7 pa set nebstan byre agenc sunu hio genam byre to 
geligere ; 7 for Son pe hio byre firenluste fulgan ne moste 
butan manna bysmrunge, hio gesettc ofer call hyre rice |>8ef nan 
forbyrd nwre set geligere betwuh nanre sibbe. 35 


riem, adhuc tunc imbellem et innocentem, torpentem excitare 
saevitiam, vires suas nosse, et non lacte jam pecudum, seel 
sanguine hominum vivere, ad postremum vincere, dum vincitur, 
edocuit. Novissime Zoroastrem Bactrianorum regeni, eundem- 
que magicae artis repertorem, jmgna oppressum interfecit. 
Post ipse, dum deficientem a se oppugnat urbem, sagitta ictus 


Huic mortuo Semiramis uxor successit : avidosque jam urn 
sanguinis po])ulos, per duos et quadraginta annos caedibus 
gentium exercuit. Non contenta terminis mulier, quos a viro 
suo quinquaginta annis acquisitos susceperat Aethiopiam hello 
op2>ressam, imperio adjecit. Indis quoque bellum intulit : quo 
praeter illam et Alexandmm Magnum nullus intravit. Quod 
eo tempore ideo crudelius graviusque erat quam nunc est, 
persecpd et trucidare pojndos in pace viventes : quia tunc 
apud illos nee foris erant ulla incendia bellorum, nee domi tanta 
exercitia cupiditatum. 

Haec, libidine ardens, sanguinem sitiens, inter incessabilia et 
stupra et homicidia, cum omnes, quos regie arcessitos, meretricie 
habitos, concubitu oblectasset, occideret, tandem filio inceste 
cognito, privatam ignominiam 2 ni bUco scelere obtexit. Praecepit 
enim, ut inter parentes ac filios nulla delata reverentia naturae, 
de conjugiis adpetendis ut cuique libitum esset, liber um fie ret. 

32 Alfred's oudsius. 

(I, HI.) 
./Er Sam Se Romeburh getimbred ware pusend wintra 7 an 
liund 7 syxtig. pat wastmbare land, on pam Sodome 7 Gomorre 
Sa byrig on waron, bit wearS fram heofonlicuwi fyre forbarned. 
pat was betuh Arabia 7 Palcstina. Da manigfealdan wastmas 
waron for pam swipost Se Iordanis seo ea gelce geai'e J?aet 5 
land middeweard oferfleow mid fotes piece flode, 7 hit ponne 
mid Sam gedynged wearS. pa was pat folc pas micclan wclan 
ungemetlice brucende, oS Sat him on pe miccla firenlost on 
innan aweox. 7 him com of pani firenluste Godes wraco, pat 
he eal pcet land mid sweflenum fyre forbarnde. 7 seSSan Sar 10 
was standende water ofer pam lande, swa hit peeve ea flod 
ser gefleow. 7 pas dales se dal se pcet flod ne grette ys gyt 
todag wastrnberende on alces cynnes bladum ; 7 Sa syndon 
swype fagere 7 lustsumlice on to seonne, ac ponne hig man on 
hand nymS, ponne weorSaS hig to acxan. 15 

*~Uafi7, ^Er Sam Se Romeburh ge * timbred were busend wintra 

lj.uk ] ° ' 

7 hundsyfantig Thelescises 7 Ciarsatbi pa leode betuh him 
gewin up hofon, 7 pat drugon op hi mid ealle ofslegene waron 
butan swiSe feawum. 7 swa peah pcet par to lafe wearS para 
Thelescisa hi hiora lond ofgeafan, 7 geforan Ro6um pat igland, 20 
wilniende past hi alcum gewinne oSflogcn hafdon ; acbiCreacas 
par onfundon, 7 hi mid ealle fordydon. 

(I, IV.) 
JEr 5am Se Romeburh ge timbred were eabta bund wintra. 
mid Egyptuwj wearS syfan gear se ungemetlica eorSwela, 7 hi 25 
after Sam waron on pan mastan bungre oSre syfan gear. 7 
him Sa Ioseph, rihtwis man, mid gudcunde fultume gehealp. 
From Sam Iosepe Sompeius se bapena scop 7 his cniht 
Iustinua wseran Su^ singende. Ioseph, se p<- gin(g)st waea bys 



Ante annos Urbis conditae rnille centum sexaginta coiifinem 
Arabiae regionem arsisse igne caelesti, inter alios etiam Corne- 
lius Tacitus refert, qui sic ait : Haud procul hide campi quos 
ferunt olim uberes, magnisqae urbibus habitatos, fulminum jactu 
arsisse. In confinio Arabiae et Palaestinae quinque civitates 
fuere : quippe quibus et soli foecunditas suberat, et Jordanis 
fluvius per plana diffusus augmentis ubertatis inpendebatm\ 
Huic universae regioni, bonis male utenti, abundantia rerum 
causa malorum fuit. Ex abundantia enim luxuria, ex luxuria 
foedae libidines adolevere. Itaque iratus Deus, pluit super 
hanc terram ignem et sulphur, totanique regionem exustam, 
testem judicii sui futuram, aeterna perditione damnavit : ut 
nunc quoque adpareat quidem forma regionis, sed inveniatur 
regio cineris, mediamque convallem quam Jordanis irrigaverat, 
nunc mare superfusum tegat. Illic 2 } oma virentia et formatos 
uvarum racemos, ut edentibus gignant cupiditatem, si carpas, 
fatiscunt in cinerem. 

Ante annos conditae urbis mlxx, Telcliises l et Carsathii 2 ' Teichfaes. 

2 Carpathii. 

praelium adversus Phoroneum, regem Argivorum et Parapasios, 
ancipiti spe sine fructu victoriae gesserunt. Idem que Telchises 
et Carpathii bello victi, patria profugi, credentes quod se penitus 
a congressu totius humanae habitationis abstraberent, Hbodum 
insulam quasi tutam possessionem ceperunt. 

Ante annos conditae Urbis mviii, fuisse apud Aegyptum 
primum insolitam ubertatem, deinde jugem atque intolerabilem 
famem, cui Josepb, vir Justus et sapiens, divina provisione 
subvenerit, Pompejus bistoricus, ej usque breviator Justinus 
docet : qui inter caetera sic ait : Minimus aetate inter fratres 
Joseph fuit, cujus cxcellens ingenium fratres veriti, interceptum 



2 wolde. 

gebroSra. 7 eac gleawra ofer hi ealle ; pcet, him Sa ondrae- 

dendura psem gebro(5ru?/i, hy genamon Ioseph, 7 hine gesealdan 

cipemonnu?tt, 7 hi hine gesealdon in Egypta land, pa saede 

1 firsts writ- ue Sompeius 1 beet he baer drycraeftas geleornode, 7 of beem 

ten over an i r r -i o j 

mature. drycraeftuwi bce£ he gewunode nionige wundor to wyrcenne ; 5 

7 pcci he mihte swa wel swefn reccan ; 7 eac past he of Saeni 

craefte Pharaone baem cyninge swa leof wurde. 7 he saede paet he 

of baein drycraefte geleornode godcundne wisdom, pcet he pass 

♦[Leaf 18.] landes waestinbaernesse para syfan *geara aer beforan saede, 7 

para opera syfan geara waedle be baer aefter com; 7 hu (he) 10 
gegaderode on pan aerran syfan gearan mid hys wisdome, pcet 
he pa aefteran syfan gear eall pcet folc gescylde wi(5 pone miclan 
hungor. 7 saede pcet Moyses waere baes Iosepes sunu ; pcet him 
waeran fram hym drycraeftas gecynde, for Son pe he monige 
wundor worhte in Egyptum. 7 for baein wole 2 pe on baet land 15 
beco?>t, se scop waes secgende peel Egypt i adrifen Moyses ut mid 
hys leoduw. For tSon saede Sompeius 7 pa Egyptiscan bisceopas 
pcet pa Godes wundor pe on hiora landurn. geworden waeron, 
to pon gedon (waeron) pcet hi hiora agnum godu//i getealde 
waeron, pcet sint diofolgild, nales pam soban Gode, for Son pe 20 
hiora godu syndon drycraefta lareowas. 7 pcet folc nugyt pcet 
tacn Iosepes gesetnesse aefterfylgeaS : pcet is, pcet hi geara 
gehwilce pone fiftan dael ealra hiora eorSwaestma paem cyninge 
to gafole gesyllaS. 

"Waes se hunger on paes cyninges dagum on Egyptu?H pe raon 25 
ha,'t Amoses, peah tSe hiora peaw wiere paet hi ealle hiora cyu- 
ingas hetan Pharaon. On Saere ylcan tide ricsade Baleus se 
cyning in Assirin, pasr aer waes Ninus. On paem leodum pe 
mon Argi haet ricsade Apis se cyninge. On paere tide naes na 
ma cyninga anwalda butan bysan prim ricum, ac syppan waes 30 
sio bysen of him ofer ealle world. Ac paet is to wundrianne 
paet pa Egipti swa lytle poncunge wiston Iosepe paes pe he 
hi * aet hungre ahredde, pcet hi hys c\n swa raSc geiiuaredon, 
7 hy ealle to nydlingura him gedydon. Swa eac is gyt on ealre 
byBse worulde : peah God laugre tide wille hwam hys willun 35 
to forlaetan, 7 he ponne paes eft lytelre tide polige, pcet he sona 

» Leaf 18, 

back. ] 


mercatoribus vendiderunt. A quibus deportatus in Aegyptum, 
cum niagicas ibi artes solerti ingenio percepisset, brevi ipsi 
regi percarus fuit. Nam et prodigiorum sagacissimus erat, et 
somniorum primus iutelligentiam condidit : uibilque divini 
juris humanique ei incognitum videbatur : adeo, ut etiam 
agroi-um sterilitatem futuram ante multos annos prospiciens, 
fruges congregasset. Filius Josepb Moyses fuit, quem praeter 
paternae scientiae baereditatem etiam formae pnlchritudo com- 
mendabat. Sed Aegyptii cum scabiem et vitttiginem jniterenticr, 
eum cum aegris, ne pestis ad plures serperet, terminis Aegypti 
pellunt. Sed sacerdotum Aegyptiorum fallax malitia con- 
futanda est, qui evidentem iram misericordiamque veri Dei 
memoriae subtrabere conati sunt, ne in contumeliam idolorum 
suorum eum colendum merito ostenderent, cujus consilio ad- 
nuntiata haec mala et auxilio evitata docuissent. Quamquam 
hujus temporis argumentum Jiistoriis reticentibus, ipsa sibi terra 
Aegypti testis pronuntiat : quae tunc redacta in potestatem 
regiam, ex omni fructu suo usque ad nunc quintae partis 
incessabile vectigal exsolvit. 

Fuit itaque baec fames -magna sub rege Aegyptiorum Dia- 
2>olita, cui nomen erat Amosis 1 , quo tempore Baleus Assyrios, 1 Amasis. 
Argivos Apis regebat. Hunc Joseph, quem constituit Deus 
Aegyptiis conservatae salutis auctorem, quis credat ita in brevi 
eorum excidisse memoriae, ut Jilios ejus atque universam cogna- 
tiouem paullo post servitio addixerint, laboribus adflixerint, 
internecimiibus profligarint ? Enimvero cui placet, obliviscitur : 
cui dolet, meminit. 

36 Alfred's orosius. 

forgyt pcet god pcet he ser hsefde, 7 getSenctS pset yfel poe£ he 
J Jwnnne. p on ne ' haefS. 

(I, VI.) 

iEr Ssem Se Piomebui'h getimbred wsere eahta hund wintra 
7 tyn gearan, ricsode Ambictio se cyning in Athena, Creca 
byrig. He wses se pridda cyning pe sefter Cicrope psem cyninge 5 
ricsade, pe serest wses psere burge cyning. On pses Ambictiones 
tide wurdon swa mycele wsetei'flod geond ealle world, 7 peah 
msest in Thasalia ' Creca byrig ' ymb pa beorgas pe man hset 
Parnasus, pser se cyning Theuhale on ricsode, pcet forneah eall 
pcet folc forweartS. 7 se cyningc Theuhale ealle pa pe to him 10 
mid scypura otSflugon to pseni heorgum he hi pser onfengc, 
7 hi pser afedde. Be psem Theuhaleon wses gecweden, swilce 
mon bispel ssede, pcet he wsere moncynnes tydriend, swa swa 
Noe wses. 

On )>sein dagum wses se msesta mancwealm in -/Ethiopian, 15 

Affrica leode, swa pset heora feawa to lafe wurdon. Eric on 

psem dagum waes pcet Liber Pater oferwan pa underigendan 

Indea tSeode, 7 hi forneah mid ealle fordyde, segper ge mid 

*[Leafi9.] druncennysse ge mid firenlustuni ge mid manslyhtuni ; * peah 

hi hine eft sefter hys dsege heom for god hsefdon, 7 hy sa?don 20 
pcet he wsere ealles gewinnes waldend. 

(I, VII.) 
^Er Sam tSe Romeburh getimbred wsere eahta hund wintra 
7 fif wintruw, gewearS pset Moyses lsedde Israhela folc uf Egyp- 
tura sefter psem manegum wundrum be he pser gedon hsefde. 
pset wses pset forme pent hyra wseter wurdon to blode. pa wses 25 
pset sefterre poet froxas comon geond eall Egypta land, swa fela 
peat man ne mihte nan weorc wyrcan, ne nanne mete gegvrwan, 
pent para wyrma nsere emfela psem mete, a?r he gegearwod waere. 
pridde yfel waes sefter pam pa;t gnsettas comon ofer eall pset 
land, ge inne ge ute, mid fyromeortendum bituin, 7 segpser ge 30 
pa men ge Sa nytenu unaablinnendlice piniende wseron. pa 



Anno dcccx ante Urbem conditam, Amphictyon Athenis 
tertius a Cecrope regnavit, cnjus temporibus aquarum inluvies 
majorem partem populorum Thessaliae absumpsit, paucis per 
refugia montium liberatis, maxime in monte Parnasso, in cujus 
circuitu Deucalion tunc i-egno potiebatur : qui tunc ad se 
ratibus confugientes susceptos, per gemina Parnassi juga fovit 
aluitque, a quo propterea genus bumanum reparatum ferunt. 

Tunc etiam in Aetbiopia pestes plurimas dirosque morbos 
pene usque ad desolatioDem exaestuavisse, Plato testis est. Et 
ne forte divisa tempora credantur irae Dei furorisque bellici, 
ea tempestate subactam Indiam Liber pater caedibus opplevit, 
libidinibus polluit, gentem utique nulli unquam hominum ob- 
noxiam, vernacida tantum quiete contentam. 

Anno ante Urbem conditam dcccv, infanda Aegyptiis mala 
incubuisse, Pompejus Corneliusque testantur. Post aquas in 
sanguineus versas : post horridos ranarum squalores, per omnia 
munda immundaque reptantes : post ignitos cinipbes, et nus- 
quam, se toto aere vibrante, evitabiles : 

38 alfbed's orosius. 

waes fjset feoroe, J^cet ealra scamlicost waes, pent hundes fleogan 
comon geoud eall |xet mancyn, 7 hy crupou )?aeni mannum betuh 
pa ]?eoh ge geond eall pa. kmu, swa hyt eac well gedafenode paet 
God tSa maestan ofermetto genicSrode mid peeve bisnierlicestan 
wrace 7 }?aere unweorc51icostan. paet fif(te) waea hyi a nytcna 5 
cwealm. paet syxte waes }?aet eall (f>aet) folc wees on blaedran, 7 
r tf<? 0. pa waeron swiSe hreowbee berstende, 7 J?a worms 1 utsionde. paet 
syfetSe waes pcet J?aer com hagol se waes wiS fyre gemenged, )?aet 
he aeg]?er slob, ge tSa menn ge tSa nytenu, ge eall paet on )?aem 
*[Leaf 19, lande wges * weaxendes 7 growendes. paet eahtotSe waes }>aet 10 


gaerstapan comon, 7 fraeton ealle pa gaerscicSas pe bufan }>aere 

^bagaersciSas eorSan waeron, ge furtSon J?a wyrttruman 2 seeorfende waeron. 

trnman. paet nygotSe waes pset paer com hagol, 7 swa mycel pyspernes, 

ge daeges ge nihtes, 7 swa gedrefedlie. paet hit man gefelan mihte. 

pset teoSe waes J?a?t ealle tSa cnihtas 7 ealle Sa maedena pe on 15 

paem lande (frumcennede) waeron wurdon on anre niht acwealde. 

7 }?eah paet folc nolde aer Gode abugan. hy hwaeSre pa hyra 

uncSances him geh)TSume waeron : swa swy(5e swa hi aer Moyse 

saaUercd y bys folce )?aes utfaereldes 3 wyrndon, swa micle hy waeron 

geororan p>aet hi him fra?/i fulgen. Ac seo hrcowsung pe him 20 
pa gewearcS (wear(5) swyoe raSe on wyrsan gejxinc gehwyrfed. 

Hraedlice se cyningc pa mid bis folce him waes aefterfylgende, 

7 hy gecyrran wolde eft to Egypt u»i. Se kyningc Pbaron 

haefde syx bund wigwaegna, 7 swa fela paes oSres heres waes pept 

man maeg fianon oncnawan, pa him swa fela manna ondredon 25 

swa mid Moyse waeron: J?aet waes syx hund Jmsenda manna. 

HwaeSre God j?a miclan Pharones menge gelytlode, 7 hyra ofer- 

* fnke 7. maetan ofermetto genycSerode ; 7 beforan Moyse 7 hys folce 4 he 

Sone Eeadan Sae on twelf wegas adrigde, )?aet hi drigan fotan 

paene sae oferferdon. pa paet geeawon }?a Egypte by <Sa getry- 30 

medon hyra dryas Geames 7 Mambres, 7 getruwedon mid hyra 

*.Leaf20.] drycraeftuwi )?aet hi * on tSone ilean weg ferau meabtan. Da hi 

1 a utter g a oninnan baem sa'faerelde waeron, ba gedu(r)fon 5 hi ealle 7 

erased bf/ore r > r & \ / / 

"" '■ adruncon. paet tacn nugyt is orgyte on paes Baes BtaSe, bwaer 

para wigwaegna hweol on gongende waeron. p^t deo" God to 35 
tacne eallum monkynue pat peah liit wind oftSe saes flod mid 


post muscas caninas, etiam per interiora membrorum cur- 
sitantes, inferentes tarn gravia tormenta qicam turpia : post 
omnium pecorum et jumentorum stragem generalem : post 
vesicas effervescentes, ulceraque manantia : post grandinem 
cum igne permixtam, jjassim homines, armenta atque arbores 
proterentem : post locustarum nubes, exhaustis omnibus, ipsas 
quoque radices seminum persequentes : post tenebras imagini- 
bus dims, crassitudine palpabiles, diuturnitate ferales: postremo 
post uniformem in tola Aegypto primitivae sobolis necem, qui 
jubenti Deo non cesserant, cessere punienti : sed mox pessima 
poenitentia dimissos persequi ausi, ultima nefa?idae pervicaciae 
expendere supplicia. 

Nam rex eorum universum Aegypti exercitum, curribus atque 
equitibiis instructtcm, in circumerrantes egit : cujus numerum 
hoc solo argumento conjicere possumus, quod eum sexcenta 
millia virorum timuerunt. Sed ultor contumacium Deus divi- 
sit Rubrum mare, ut inoffensi spe limitis provocati, pit viam 
desp>eratae salutis, impii foveam insperatae mortis intrarent. 
Itaque Hebraeis tuto per sicca gradientibus, refusis a tergo 
aquarum adstantium molibus, obruta est et interfecta cum rege 
suo universa Aegypti multitudo. Exstant etiam nunc certissima 
horum monumenta gestorum. Nam tractus curruum rotarum- 
que orbitae non solum in litore, sed etiam in profundo pervi- 
dentv.r. Et, si forte turbantur, continuo divinitus in pristinam 
faciem vcntis fluctibusque reparantur. 

40 Alfred's orosius. 

sonde oferdrifen, pcet hit Seali bi(5 eft swa gesyue swa hit 
aer was. 

On psere tide wees sio ofermycelo haeto on ealre worulde : 
nales pcet an pcet men waeron miclum geswencte, ac eac ealle 
nj'tenu swycSe neah forwurdon. 7 (5a sutSmestan /Ethiopian 
haefdon bryne for Saere haete, 7 Scippie pa noi'Omestan haefdon 
ungewunelice haeton. pa haefdon monige unwise menn him 
to worde 7 to leasungspelle pcet sio haete naere for hiora syn- 
num, ae saedon pcet hio waere for Fetontis forscapunge, anes 
mannes. 10 

(I, VIII.) 
Mr 'Saem Se Eomeburh getimbred waere syx hund wintran 
7 fif, in Egyptum weartS on anre niht fiftig manna ofslegen, 
ealle fram hiora agnuwi sunum ; 7 ealle Sa men comon fram 
twam gebrooran. pa pis gedon waes, pa gyt lyfedan Sa ge- 15 
broSra. Se yldra waes haten Danaus, pe paes yfeles ordfruma 
waes. Se weartS of bis rice adraefed, 7 on Arge paet land he 
fleonde becom ; 7 his se cyning paer Tenelaus mildelice onfeng ; 
peah (he) bit him eft mid .yfele forgulde, pa he hine of his rice 
adraefde. 20 

*[Leiif 20, On paem * dagum on Egyptan waes paes kyninges peaw Bo- 

siriSis pcet ealle pa cuman pe bine gesohton he to blote gedyde, 
7 hys godum bebead. Ic wolde nu, cwaeS Orosius, pcet me (5a 
geandwyrdan pa pe secgaS paet peos world sy nu w)Tse on 
Sysan cristendome ponne hio aer on paem haepenscype waere, 25 
ponne hi swylc geblot 7 swyle mortS donde waeron Bwylc her aer 
beforan saede. Hwaer is nu on aenigan cristendome betub him 
sylfum pcet mon him purfe BWllc ondraedan, pcet bine man senigam 
godum blote 1 oSSe hwaer syndon ure godas pe swylcra mana 
gyrnen swilec hiora waeron ? 30 

On paem dagum Perseus se cyningc of Creca lande in Asiam 
mid fyrde for, 7 on $a Seode winnende waes op hi him ge- 
byrsume waeron; 7 paere peode operne naman ascop be him 
Byluum, swa hi mon syftoan hot Persi. 


His etiam temporibua adeo jugis et gravis aestus incantluit, 
ut sol per devia transvectus, universum orbem non colore 
affecisse, sed igne torruisse dicatur : inpressumque fervorem et 
Aethiops j)lns solitum, et insolitum Scytba non txderit : ex 
quo etiam quidam, dum non concedunt Deo potentiam, suas 
inanes ratiunmlas conquirentes, ridiculam Phaetontis fabulam 


Item anno ante Urbem conditam dcclxxv, inter Danai 
atque Aegypti fratrum filios quinquaginta parricidia una nocte 
commissa sunt. Ipse deinde tantorum scelerum fabricator 
Danaus, regno pulsus, Ai-gos concessit. Ibique Sthenelam, qui 
eum profugum egentemque exceperat, regno expulit. 

Busiridis in Aeg)q)to cruentissimi tyranni crudelis hospitalitas 
tunc fuit : qui innocentem hospitum sanguinem diis propinahat. 

Iisdem temporibus Perseus a Graecia in Asiam transvectus 
est, ibi barbaras gentes gravi diuturnoque bello domuit, et 
victor nomen subjectae genti dedit : namque a Perseo Persae 
sunt vocati. 




*. Leaf 21.] 

- utgem. 

End of 
Cotton ex- 

Ic wat geare, cwaetS Orosius, pat ic his sceal her fela ofer- 
hehhan, 7 pa spell pe ic secge ic hi sceal gescyrtan. For Son 
pe Asyrie haefdon lx wintra 7 an hund 7 an pusend under 
fiftiga 1 cyninga rice, pcet hit na buton gewinne naes op paet 
SarSanopolim ofslegen wearS, 7 se anwald siSSan on MaeSe 5 
gehwearf. Hwa is paet pe eall <5a yfel pe hi donde waeron 
asecgean maege otSfte areccean ? Eac ic wille geswigian Tontolis 
7 Philopes para scondlicestena spella ; hu manega bismerlica 
gewin Tontolus gefremede syc5San he cyningc waes ; ymb pone 
cniht pe he neadinga genam * Ganemepis; 7 hu he his agenne 10 
sunu his godum to blote acwealde, 7 bine him sylf sitStSan to 
mete gegyrede. Eac me sceal aSreotan ymbe Philopes, 7 ymbe 
Tardanus, 7 ymb ealra para Troiana gewin to asecgenne, for 
Son on spellura 7 on leotSum hiora gewin cutSe sindon. Ic 
sceall eac ealle forlaetan pa pe of Perseo 7 of Cathma gesaede 15 
syndon, 7 eac pa Se of Thebani 7 of Spartani gesaede syndon. 
Eac ic wille geswigian para niandaeda para LemniaSum, 7 Pon- 
thionis paes cyninges, hu hreowlice (he) wearS adraefed of Othi- 
nentium his agenre peode ; 7-Atregsas 7 Thigespres hu hi heora 
faederas ofslogan, 7 ymb hiora hetelican forlignessa, ic hit eall 20 
forlaete. Eac ic hit forlaete, Adipsus hu he aegper ofsloh ge his 
agenne faeder, ge his steopfaeder, ge his steopsunu. On paem 
dagum waeron swa ungemetlica 2 yfcl pcet pa men sylf saedon paet 
hefones tungul hiora yfel flugon 3 . 

(I. IX.) 

* [Page 31.] * Mr Saem pe Pomeburg getimbred waere tiex hunde wintrum 25 

* mycie c. 7 LXgiiTO, wearS paet ungemetlice micel 4 gefeoht betuh Cre- 

tense 7 Atheniense paem folcmn. 7 pa Cretense haefdon pone 
8 [e] iak(!) grimlecan sige, 7 ealle pa a?tSel[c]stan " beam para Atheniensa 

hi genoman, 7 sealdon paem Minotauro to etanne, paet w«i?s healf 

mon, healf leo. 30 

On Saem dagum waes J?aette Lapithe 7 Thesali waeron win- 

nende him betweonnm. ponne pa Lapithe gesawon Thesali 
<• \>ki {\>af\. pajt 6 folc of hiora horsum beon feohtondc wio" hie, ponne 


At ego nunc cogor fateri, me de tanta malorum saeculi cir- 
cumstantia praeterire plurima, cuncta breviare. Nam cum 
regnum Assyriorum per mclx annos usque ad Sardanapalum, 
per quinquaginta reges actum sit, et nunquam usque in id 
tempus bellis quieverit, quis finis reperietur, si ea commemorare 
enumerando, ut non dicam describendo, conemur ? Nee milii 
nunc enumerare opus est Tantali et Pelopis facta turpia, fabulas 
turpiores : quoiinn Tantalus Ganymedem Dardaniorum regis 
filium, cum fiagitiosissime rapuisset, majore conserti certaminis 
foeditate detinuit ; qui ipsum quoque filium Pelopem epulis 
Jovis x non dubitarit inpendere. Taedet etiam ipsius Pelopis ' e J lls 
contra Dardanum atque Trojanos referre certamina : quae, quia 
in fabulis celebrai'i solita sunt, negligentius audiuntur. Hla 
quoque praetereo, quae de Perseo, Cadmo, Thebanis, Spartan- 
isque referuntur. Taceo flagitia Lemniadum, praetermitto 
Pandionis Atheniensium regis flebilem fugam, Atrei et Thyestis 
odia, stupra et parricidia dissimulo. Omitto Oedipum inter- 
fectorem patris, matris maritum, filiorum fratrem, vitricum 
suum. Nolo meminisse qualiter homines sustinuerint, quod 
etiam astra fugisse dicuntur. 


Anno ante urbein conditam dlx, atrocissimum inter Cretenses 
et Athenienses certamen fuit : ubi cruentiorem victoriam 
Cretenses exercuerunt : qui nobilium Atheniensium filios IMino- 
tauro, utrum fero horaini, an humanae bestiae a2)tius dicam 
nescio, devorandos addicebant. 

Iisdem diebus Lapithae et Thessali famosis nimium certavere 
conflictibus. Sed Thessalos Palaej)hatus prodit ipsos a La- 
pithis creditos dictosque fuisse centauros, eo quod discurrentes 

44 alj red's oeosius. 

heton hi hie Centauri — paet sindou healf hors, healf men — for 
a cesiwon 'c ^ on me on norse [ n, ' e ] ' fcohtan ne gesawen 2 aer pa. 


^Er paem pe Bx)meburg getimbred waere mi hu[n]de wintram 
7 hundeahtatiguni, Uesoges, Egypta cyning, waes winnende of 

3 oS Se c. sutSdaele Asiam, otS 3 him se rnaesta dsel wearS underpieded, 7 he 5 
Uesoges, Egypta cyning, waes sippan mid firde farende ou 
Scippie on Sa norSdaelas, 7 his aerendracan beforan asende 

* Erased, to paere Seode, 7 him untweogendlice secsan bet baet hie oSer 4 

only the*) ana ' ° c x 

t^inffviHMei sceolden, oppe tSaet lond set him alesan, oppe he hie wolde mid 

gefeohte fordon 7 forherigan. Hie him pa gesceadwislice 10 
andwyrdon, 7 cwaedon pcet hit gemalic waere 7 unryhtlic paet 
swa oferwlenced cyning sceolde winnan on swa earm folc swa 
hie waeron. Heton him peh pent awrfwyrde secgan, pcet him 
leofre waere wiS hiene to feohtanne ponne gafol to gieldanne. 
Hie paet gelaestan swa, 7 sona pone cyning gefliemdon mid his 15 
folce, 7 him aefterfolgiende waeron, 7 ealle ^Egypte awestan 
buton paem fenlondum anum. 7 pa hie hamweard wendon be 
westan paere ie Eufrate, ealle Asiam hie genieddon pat hie him 
gafol guidon, 7 paer waeron fiftene gear pcet lond herigende 

*[Page 32.] 7 westende, o?S heora wif him sendon aerendracan aefter, *y him 20 
saedon pcet hie oSer dyden, oSpe ham comen oo^Se hie him 
woldon oSerra wera ceosan. Hi pa paet lond forleton, 7 him 
hamweard ferdon. 

On paere ilean tide wurdon twegen sepelingas afliemde of 

s & originally Scippian, Flenius 7 Scolopetius waeron hatene, 7 geforan 5 paet 25 
lond, 7 gebudon betuh Capadotiam 7 Pontum neah paere laes.-an 

Lto^dto 1, Asian, 7 P xr winnende waeron, 0S 6 hie him paer eard genamon. 

*>*'• 7 hie tSajr aefter hrsedlice tide from paem londleodum purh seara 

ofslaegene wurdon. pa wurdon hiora wif swa sarige on hiora 
mode, 7 swa swiSlice gedrefed, aegpaer ge para aepelinga wff ge 30 
para operra monna pc mid him ofslaegene waeron, paette [hit] 

1 Originally waepna namau, to pon Saet hie hcora werafl wixcan 7 pohton. 



in bello equites veluti unum corpus equorvm et hominum vide- 


Anno ante Urbem conditam cccclxxx, Vesoges 1 , rex Aegypti, » Vesores. 
meridiem et septentrionem aut miscere bello, aut regno jungere 
studens, Scytbis bellum primus indixit, missis prius legatis, 
qui hostibus parendi leges dicerent. Ad quae Scytbae legatis 
responderunt, stolide opulentissimum regem adversus inopes 
sumsisse bellum, quod timendum ijisi magis versa vice fuerit, 
propter incertos belli eventus. Porro sibi non expectandum, 
dum ad se veniatur, sed ultro praedae obviam ituros. Nee 
mora : nam dicta factis insequuntur. Primum ipsum Vesogem 
refugere in regnum cogunt : destitution vero exercitum in- 
vadunt, universam quoque Aegyptum populassent, nisi paludibus 
inpediti, repellerentur. Inde continuo reversi, perdomitam 
Asiam vectigalem fecere : ubi per xv annos sine pace inmorati, 
tandem uxorum flagitatione revoeantur, denunciantium, ni re- 
deant, sobolem se afinitimis quaesituras. 


Medio autem tempore apud Scytbas duo regii juvenes, Plynos 
et Scolopetius 2 , domo pulsi in Cappadociae Pontique ora 2 Scoiopythus. 
consederunt, ubi diu proxima quaeque populati, conspirations 
finitimorum per insidias trucidantur. Horum uxores exsilio 
ac viduitate permotae, arma sumunt, et ut omnibus par ex 
simili conditionc animus fieret, viros qui superfuerant, inter- 
ficiunt : atque accensae in hostem sanguine suorum, ultionem 
caesorum conjugum, finitimorum excidio consequuntur. Tunc 
pace armis quaesita, externos concubitus inev.nt, editos mares 



1 Aniazasa- 
nas; Ama- 
zanas C. 

*[l'age 33.] 

7 hi pa hraedlice aefter paeni ofslogan ealle pa waepnedmen pe 
him on neaweste waeron. For pon hie dydon swa pe hie 
woldon p«7te pa opere wif waeren emsai-ige him, paet hie sippan 
on him fultum haefden, tSaet hie ma mehten heora weras wrecau. 
Hi pa pa wif ealle togaedere gecirdon, y on t5aet folc winnende 5 
waeron, 7 pa waepnedmen sleande, otS hie paes londes haefdon 
micel on hiora onwalde. pa under paeni gewinne hie genarnon 
frip wi(5 pa waepnedmen. Sippan waes hiera peaw pat hie aelce 
geare ymbe twelf monatS tosomne ferdon, 7 pser ponne bearna 
striendon. Eft ponne pa wif heora beam cendon, ponne feddon 10 
hie pa maedencild, 7 slogon pa hysecild. 7 paeni msedencildam 
hie fortendun paet swiftre breost foran paet hit weaxan ne 
sceolde, paet hie haefden py strengran scyte. For pon hi mon 
haet on Crecisc Amazanas l , paet is on Englisc ' fortende.' 

Heora twa waeron heora cwena, Marsepia 7 Lampida wgeron 15 
hatene. Hie heora here on tu todaeldon ; oper set ham beon 
heora lond * to healdanne, otSer ut faran to winnanne. Hie 
sippan geeodon Europe 7 Asiani pone msestan dael, 7 getini- 
bredon Effesum pa burg, 7 monege otSere on Saere Isessan 
Asiam : 7 sippan hiera heres pone niaestaii dcel ham sendon 20 
mid hiora herehype, 7 pone operne dael paer leton paet lond 
to healdonne. paer wearS Marsepia sio cwen ofslagen, 7 micel 
paes heres pe mid hiere beaeftan waes. Da?r wearS hire dohtor 
cwen Sinope. Seo ilce cwen Sinope toeacan hiere hwa?tscipe 
7 hiere monigfealdum dugupum hiere lif geendade on maegS- 25 

On paem dagum waes swa micel ege from (Saem wifrnonnmn, 
paette Europe ne Asiam 2 ne ealle pa neahpeoda ne mehton 
apencean ne acraeftan hu hi him wiffstondan mehten, a?r pon 
hie gecuron Ercol pone ent paet he hie sceolde mid eallum 30 
Creca craeftum beswican. 7 peah ne dorste he geneSan paet 
he hie mid firde gefore, aer he ongan mid Creca scipun pe 
mon ' dulmunus ' haett, pe mon saegS paet on an scip maege an 
pusend manna; 7 pa nihtes on ungearwe hi on bestael, 7 hie 
swipe forslog 7 fordyde ; 7 hwaeSere ne mehte hie paes londes 35 
benaeman. On Saem dagum par wavon fcwa cwena, p»t waron 


rnox enecant, feminas nutriunt, inustis inf intiutn dexterioribus 
maniillis, ne sagittarum jactus inpedirentw, uncle Amazones 

Harum duae fuere reginae, Marsepia a et Lanipedo 2 , quae 1 Marpesia. 

-,. . ... i it l i 2 Lampeto. 

agmine diviso m duas partes, vicissiin curam belli et domus 
custodiam sortiebantur. Igitur cum Europae maximam partem 
domuissent, Asiae vero aliquantis civitatibus cajrtis, ipsae 
Ephesum, aliasque urbes condidissent, praecipuam exercitus sui 
partem onustam praeda, domum revocant: reliquae, ad tuendum 
Asiae imperivm relictae cum Marpesia regina, concursu hostium 
trucidantur. Hujus locum capessit Sinope filia, quae singularem 
virtutis gloriam perpetua virginitate cumulavit. 

Hac fama excitas gentes tanta admiratio et formido invaserat, 
ut Hercules quoque, cum jussus fuisset a domino suo exhibere 
arma reginae, quasi ad inevitabile pericxdum destinatus, uni- 
versam Graeciae lectam juventutem contraxerit, novem lougas 
naves praepararit : nee tamen contentus examine virium, ex 
improvise- adgredi, et insperatas circumvenire maluerit. Duae 
tunc sorores regno lyraeerant, Antiope et Oritbia s . Hercules 3 orithya. 
incautas oppressit. Inter caesas captasque duae sorores An- 
tiopae. Post Oritbyam Pentbesilea regno potita est : cujus 
Trojano bello clarissima inter viros documenta virtutis accejrimus. 

48 Alfred's orosius. 

gesweostor, Anthiopa 7 Orithia ; 7 paer wearS Orithia grfangen. 
JEfter hiere feug to (Siem rice Pcntesilia, sio on paem Troianiscan 
gefeohte swipe nitere gewearS. 

Hit is scondlic, cwaeS Orosius, ymb swelc to sprecanne hwelc 

■ Beginning hit pa waes, pa swa earme wif 7 l swa elSeodge haefdon gegan 5 

(wS ?<lst word pone crseftgestan dsel 7 pa hwatestan men ealles pises niiddan- 

geardes, paet wses Asiam 7 Europe, pa hie forneah mid ealle 

aweston, 7 ealda ceastra 7 ealde byrig towurpon. 7 aefter Saeni 

2 So also c. hie dydon segper ge cyninga ricu settan ge niwu 2 ceastra 

3 Originate timbredon, 7 ealle pa worold 3 on hiora agen gewill on * wen- 10 

worolde: thee 

erased; dende waeron folneah c wmtra. 7 swa gemune men waeron 

worold C 

*3>age34.] aelces broces })3ette hie hit folneah to nanum facne ne to nanum 

\aSSe Dsefdon paette pa earman wif men hie 4 swa tintredon. 
(ii>). ' 7 nu, pa oa Gotan coman of pa?m hwatestan monuum Ger- 

mania, pe aegSer ge Pirrus se refta Creca cyning, ge Alexander, 15 

ge Iulius se crceftega casere, hie alle from him ondredon paet hi 

5 mid gefeohte hie mid gefeohten K . Hu lingemetlice ge Roinware bemurciaS r ' 

» bemurcnias 7 besprecatS post eow nu wyrs (s)ie 7 on piosan cristendome 

i " ponne paem peoduwi pa waere. for pon pa Gotan eow hwon 

oferhergedon, 7 iowre burg abraecon, 7 iower feawe ofslogon ; 20 
7 for hiora craeftu??i 7 for hiora hwaetscipe iowra selfra anwaldes 
eoweres unponccs habban mehton, pe nu lustlice sibbsumes 
From c. friSes 7 sumne dael (landes) 8 aet eow biddende sindon, to pon 
poet hie eow on fultume beon moten, 7 hit a?r piosan genog 
aemettig lseg 7 genog weste, 7 ge his nane note ne haefdon. 25 
Hu blindlice monege peoda sprecaS ymb pone cristendom, poet 
hit nu wyrse tie pon«e hit rer wa?re, poet hie nellaS gebencean 
oppe ne cunnon, hwser hit gewnide aer psem cristendome, poet 
aenegu peod opre hiere willtun fripes baede, buton hiere pearf 
were, oppe hwaer aenegu peod aet operrc mehte fri5 begictan, 30 
otSfte mid golde, otSSe mid seolfre, oppe mid a*nige feo, buton 
he him onderbiedd waere. Ac sibpan Crist gcboren waee, pe 
ealles middangeardes is sibb 7 friS, nales pcr^ an poet men hie 
mehten aliesan mid feo uf JTeowdome, ac eac [>eoda him be- 



Proh dolor, puclet erroris humani. Mulieres patria profugae 
Eui-opam atque Asiam, id est, fortissimas mundi partes intrave- 
rioit, pervagatcce sunt, deleverunt, centum pene annis evertendo 
urbes plv/rimas, atque alias constituendo, tenuerunt : nee tamen 
miseriae hominum pressura temporum cleputata est. 

Modo autem Gothi, quos Alexander evikmclos pronuntiavit, 
Pyrrhus exhorruit, Caesar etiam declinavit totis viribus tot 
Komanas ingressi fwovincias, societatem Romani foederis pre- 
cibus sperant : quam armis vindicare potuissent ; exiguae 
habitationis sedem rogant : semetipsos ad tuitionem Romani 
regni offerunt, quos solos invicta regna timuerunt. Et tamen 
caeca gentilitas, cum Tiaec Romana virtute gesta non videat, fide 
Ronianorum inpetrata non credit, nee adquiescit, cum intelligat, 
confiteri beneficio Christianae religionis (quae cognatam per 
omnes populos fidem jungit) eos viros sine praelio sibi esse sub- 
jectos, quorum feminae majorem terrarum partem inmensis 
caedibus deleverunt. 

50 Alfred's orosius. 

tweonuw buton peowdome gesibbsume waeron. Hu wene ge 
hwelce sibbe pa "weras haefden ser psem cristendome, ponne 
heora wif swa monigfeald yfel donde waeron on piosan middan- 
gearde 1 

(I, XL) 
My paem pe Romeburg getimbred waere feower bunde (win- 5 

1 From c. trum) l 7 xxxguwi wintra, gewearS J?aette Alexander, Priamises 
*[Page 35.] sunu * j^aes cyninges, of Troiana j?aere byrig, genom f»aes cyninges 

wif Monelaus, of Laecedemonia, Creca byrig, Elena. Ymb bie 
wearcS pcet maere gewinn 7 pa miclan gefeoht Creca 7 Troiana, 

2 duimuna c. swa paette Crecas haefdon m scipa para miclana dulmana 2 , 7 him 10 

betweonum gesworan J>aet hie naefre noldon on cyppe cumau 

3 gear with aer hie hiora teonan gewraecen. 7 hi Sa x gear 3 ymbe ba burg 

erasure after 

ther. sittende waeron 7 feohtende. Hwa is psette ariman maege hwaet 

* Omerus a pger moncynnes forweai - (5 on aegSere hand, pcet Omarus 4 se scop 

sweotelicost saegde ! For pon nis me paes pearf, cwaetS Orosius, 15 
to secgenne, for pon hit longsum is, 7 eac monegum cutS. peah 
Bwa hwelcne mon swa lyste paet witan, raede on his bocum 

5 ungetima c. hwelce ungetina B 7 Invoice tibernessa (hie dreogende waeron) 
aegfter ge on monslihtum ge on hungre ge on scipgebroce ge 
on mislicre forscapunge, swa mon on spellum saegft. pa folc 20 

« wrecende c. him betweonum ful x winter pa gewin wraciende c waeron. 

7 f hw f^ ran . Gepence ponne para tida 7 nu pissa, hwtepre 7 (him bet licien !) 8 . 

8 From C. 
(Iiine bet 

pa sona of paem gefeohte waes ober aeftcrfylgende. Eneas 
mid his firde for of paem Troianiscan gefeohte in Italiam. paet 
maeg mon eac on bocum sceawigean, hu monega gewin 7 hu 25 
monega gefeoht he Saer dreogende waes. 

(I, XII.) 

Mr paem pe Eomeburg getimbred waere LXiiugum wintra, 
» sarda- ricsade Sarda[no]polus 9 se c)Tiing in Asiria, peer Ninus se 
sar^anapuius cyning aerest ricsade, 7 Sardanopolus waes se sicunesta cyning 

pe on tSaem londe ricsade. He wa>s swipe furpumlic mon, 7 30 



At vero ante Urbem conditam ccccxxx anno, raptus 
Helenae, conjuratio Graeconirn, et concursus mille navium, 
dehinc decennis obsidio, ac postremo famosum Trojae excidium 
praedicattir. In quo hello quas nationes, quantosque p>opulos 
idem turbo involverit, atque adjlixerit, Homerus poeta, in primis 
clarus, luculentissinio carmine palam fecit : nee per ordinem 
nunc retexere nostrum est, quia et operi longum et omnibus 
notum videtur. Verumtameu qui diuturnitatem illins obsi- 
dionis, eversionis atrocitatem, caedem, captivitatemque didicerunt, 
videant, si rede isto, qualiscunque est, praesentis temporis statu 


Faucis praeterea annis intervenientibus, Aeneae, Troja pro- 
fugi, adventus in Italiam quae arma commoverit, qualia bella 
excitaverit, ludi litterarii disciplines nostrae quoque memoriae 
inustum est. 


Anno ante Urbem conditam lxiiii, novissimus apud Assyrios 
regnavit Sardanapalus, vir midiere corruptior : qui inter scor- 
torum greges feminae liabitu purpuram colo tractans, a praefecto 
suo Arbato, qui tunc Medis praeerat, visus atque exsecrationi 

4 — % 


*L Page 36.] 

> Ma^a C. 
2 .FVom C. 

3 From C. 

hnesclic, j swipe wrsene, swa pset he swiSor lufade wife gebsero 
ponne wsepnedmonna. pcet pa onfunde Arbatus his eaklormon, 
pe he gesett hsefde ofer MetSas Sset loud. He angan sierwan 
mid paem folce pe he ofer wees, bu be hiene beswican mehte, 
7 aspon him from ealle pa pe he ondred tSset him on fyl[s]tc 5 
beon woldon. pa se cyning tSaet anfunde, * poet him mon 
geswicen hsefde, be ?Sa biene selfne forbsernde. 7 sippan hsefdon 
MaSe onwald ofer Asirie. Hit is uniecSe to gesecgenne hu 
monege gewin sippan woeron betuh MsetSum, 7 Caldeum, 7 
SciSSian. Ac pcet mon mseg witan, ponne swa ofermsetlicu 10 
ricu onstyrede waeron, bu monege missenlice moncwealmas on 
<5sem gewinnum gewurdon. 

vEfter psem ricsade Fraortes se cyning in MeSen. ./Efter 
poem Fraorte ricsade Diodes, se HseSe l rice switSe gemiclade. 
iEfter (pam) 2 Diocle feng Astiai to rice, se nsefde nan[ne] 15 
sunu ; ac he nam his nefan him to suna of Persam poere peode, 
Cirus wses haten. Se pa, mid Son pe he geweox, him pa 
ofpyncendum 7 Ssem Pe?-seum pcet hie on his cames anwalde 
wseron 7 on para MeSa, ac hie gewin uphofau. He pa Ast(i)ai 3 
se cyning bepohte swiSost to Arpelles his ealdormenn, pcet he 20 
mid his crsefte his nefan mid gefeohte wiSstode ; for pon Se 
se cyning ne gemuude para monigra teonena pe hiora segSer 
oprum on serdagu»i gedyde, 7 hu se cyning bet his sunu 
ofslean, 7 biene sippan psem fseder to mete gegierwan, peh 
heora gewinn pa gesemed wsere. He pa se eaklormon mid 25 
fuck- for ongean psem Perseum, 7 sona pses folces pone msestan 
dad fleonde mid calle forlsedde, 7 mid sea[r]we pami Perseo 
cyninge on onwald golyde. 7 on psem gefeohtc MeSa crseft 7 
heora duguS gefcull. 

pa se cyning pa>t facn anfunde pe se ealdormon wip biene 30 
gcdon haefde, he peah gcgaderade pone fultum pe he pa moehte, 
7 wi<5 paem nefan fird gelsedde. 7 he Cirus Persea cyning hsefde 
priddan dad his firde bevftan him, on pcet gerad, gif senig 
wsare be fyr fluge pe on tSsem gefeohte woes pon»e to poem folce 
pe pivr bcaftan waes, pcet bine mon doge swa ratSe swa mon 35 
hiora fiend wokle. pa p[e]ahhwse[S]re gebyrcde him pset hie 

CYEUS. 53 

habitus, mox etiam excitis Medoruni popul's ad helium provo- 
catus, et victus, ardent i pyrae se injecit. Exin regnum 
Assyriorum in Medos concessit. Deinde multis praeliis undique 
scatescentibus, quae -per ordinem disserere nequaquam aptwm 
videtur, per varios proventus ad Scytbas Chaldaeosque, et rursus 
ad Medos parili via rediit. In qua brevitate pensandum est : 
quantae clades gentium fuere, quanta bella fluxerunt, ubi toties 
tot et talia regna uiutata sunt. 

Post baec Media Pbraortes imperitavit. Post hunc Diocles 
reguavit, qui auctum late imperium moriens Astyagi dedit. 
Astyages, virili prole vacuus, Cyruni nepotem apud Persas 
genitum babuit. Sed Cyrus, mox ut adolevit, congregata Per- 
sarum manu, ccvo certamen indixit. Porro Astyages oblitus 
sceleris sui, quod in Harpalum 1 dudum admiserat, cum filium 1 Harpagum. 
ejus interfecit, epidandumque patri adposuit. Hujus ergo facti 
inmemor, ipsi Harpalo summam belli committit, qui acceptum 
exercituni statim Cyro per proditionem tradit. 

Quo comperto, Astyages, raptis secum copiis, in Persas ipse 
proficiscitur, acriusque certamen instaurat, pro2)osito suis metu, 
si quis e praelio cedere moliretur, ferro exciperetur. Qua 
necessitate instanter Medis pugnantibus, jndsa iterum Persarvm 
acies, cum paulatim cederet, uxores eorum obviam occurrunt, 
want, in praelium revertantur : cunctantibus obscoena corporis 
ostendunt, quaei-entes, nura in uteros uxorum vellent refugere. 

54 Alfred's orosius. 

hwsethwara gebugan to fleonne. Hi pa hiera wif him ongean 
•[Page 37.] iernende [waeron], 7 hie swipe torn*wyrdon, 7 acsedon, gif hie 
feohtan ne dorsten, hwider hie fleon woldon ; pa?t hie otSer 
gener nsefden, buton hie on heora wifa hrif gewiton. Hi J?a 
hrsedlice, sefter pseru pe pa wif hie swa scondliee gera-ht hsefdon, 5 
gewendan eft ongean Jjone cyning, 7 ealne bis here gefliemdon, 
7 hiene selfne gefengou. He pa. Cirus ageaf psem cyninge 
his eame ealle ]?a are pe he ser hsefde, buton Sset he cyning 
nsere ; 7 he pset wses eall forsacende for pon pe him Arpellas 
se ealdorraon ser to beswice wear<5 mid his agenre peode. Ac 10 
him Cirus his nefa gesealde Ircaniam pa peode on anwald to 
1 Msj* c. habbanne. D*r wearcS MaetSe 1 onwald geendod. Ac Cirus 
mid Perseum to Ssem anwalde feng. Ac pa byrig pe on 
monegum beodum MseSum ser gafol guidon wurdon Ciruse to 
monegum gefeohtum. 15 

On Ssem dagum wilnade sum secSeling to ricsianne in Argen- 
tine psere Seode, Falores wses haten. He wses of Si[ci]lia )?ae»i 
londe, 7 mid ungemetlicre pi(n)unge he wses pcet folc cwiel- 
raende, to Son }?set hie him anbugen. Da wses pser sum 
argeotere, se mehte don missenlica anlicnessa. He pa se geotere 20 
2 for -Son i* gebead psem setSelinge, for tSon 2 he him cweman pohte, pcet 
lie him re[t] Ssere pinunge fylstan wolde pe he Seem folce donde 
wses. He pa swa dyde, 7 geworhte anes fearres anlicnesse 
of are, to tSoii, ponne hit hat weere, 7 mon pa sarxnan men 
oninnan don wolde, hu se hlynn maest wsere, ponne hie pcet 25 
susl pseron prowiende weeron; 7 eac pset se sepeling segtSer 
hsefde, ge his plegan ge his gewill, ponne he para manna tintrego 
oferhierde. pa pset pa onhset wses, 7 eall gedon swa se geotere 
psem seoVlinge ser behet, se setSeling pcet pa sceawode, 7 cwaetS 
pcet psem weorce nanum men ser ne gerise bet to fandianne 30 
ponne psem wyrhtan pc hit worhte. Het hiene pa niman 7 
Sseron bescufan. 

For hwi bespreca'S nu men pas cristnan tida, 7 secgatJ pset 
nu wyrsan tida sien ponne pa warren, pa, peh pe hwa wsere 


Quo facto erubescentes in prcvelium redeunt : et qnosfugiebant, 
fugere compellunt. Ibi tunc Astyages capitur, cui Cyrus nihil 
aliud quam regnum abstulit, eumque Hyrcanorum genti prae- 
posuit. Is finis imperii Medorum fuit. Sed civitates, quae 
tributariae Medoruni erant, a Cyro defecerunt : quae res Cyro 
multorum belloruni causa et origo exstitit. 


Ea tempestate Pbalaris Siculus Agrigentinos arrepto, tyran- 
nide populabatur. Qui crudelis mente invenit aliquando quern 
juste puniret ivjustus. Nam Perillus quidam aeris opifex 
adfectans tyranni amicitiam, aptum munus crudelitati illius 
ratus, taurum aeneum fecit, cui fabricae januam e latere 
composuit, quae ad contrudendos damnatos receptui foret : ut 
cum inclusus ibidem subjectis ignibus torreretur, sonum vocis 
extortae capacitas concavi aeris augeret. Sed Phalaris et ultioni 
materiam praebuit, et crudelitati : nam ipsum opificem sua 
inventione 2>univit, 

Eligant nunc Siculi, utrum in diebus Phalaridis esse maluis- 
sent, innocentum vitas poenis extorquentium, an bis temporibus 



*[Page 38.] mid paem cyningum on Mora gewill * yfel donde, pcet hie swa 
peah aet him ne inehton mid )>y nane are findan 1 j nu 
cyningas 7 caseras, peah pe hwa wicS hiora willan gegylte, 
hie (5eah for Codes lufan, he <Saes gyltes riiaepe, forgifnesse 
do$. 5 

(I, XIII.) 

JEr paeui pe Romehurg getimbred waere xxx wintra, waes 
J?sette Pelopensium 7 Atheniensium, Creca peoda, mid eallum 
hiera craeftura him betweonuw winnende waeron ; 7 hie to 
tSou swiSe forslagene wurdon on aegpere hand, pcet hiera feawa 
to lafe wurdon. On paere ilcan tide waeron eft oSre sipe pa 10 
wifmen winnende on Asiam, pe aer on Scippian wseron, 7 hie 
swiSe awestan 7 forhergedan. 

(I, XIIII.) 

JEr paem pe Romehurg getimbred waere xxgum wintrum, 
Laecedemoniae 7 Mesianc, Creca leode, him betweonu/n win- 
nende Avseron xx wintra, for pon Mesiane noldon tSset Laecede- 15 
monia maegdenmenn mid heora ofreden 7 hcora godu/n ons gden. 
pa aet nihstan hie haefden 1 getogen eal Creca folc to tSaem 
gewinnum, pa Laecedemonia besaetan pa burg Maes[ian]e X 
winter, 7 atSas gesworan pcet hie naefre noldon aet ham cuman 
aer hie paet gewrecen haefden. pa redon 2 hi him betweonmu, 7 20 
cwaedon paet hie to racSe wolden fultumlease beon aet heora 
bearnteamum, pa hi (Saer swa longe tSohton to Ixonne, 7 pcet 
mid hiera weddura 3 gefaestnod hajfdon, 7 paet hi heora feondum 
bet dyde ponne wyrs mid pvem. Gecwaedon pa pcet pa pa 
aer aet paem apum naeren, pcet J>a ham gelendon, 7 hi eallu»i 25 
heora wifu»i bearna strieudon. 7 pa ocSere sittende waeran 
ymb pa burg, oS hi hie gcwunnene haefdon ; peah hie him lytic 
hwile gehiersume waeron. 

Ac gecuron him anne scop to cyninge of Atheniensem, 7 eft 
mid firde foran wip pa Messenc. pa hi him ncahvhtan, pa 30 
getweode hie hwaetSer hie wiS him maliten. Se heora cyning 
*[rage 39.] ongan (5a * .singan 7 giddian, 7 mid paem scopleoSc hcora mod 

J hsfdon c. 

racddan C. 

'■'■ From C : 
wunduiii L 


Cbristianis, cum imperatores Romani ipsa in primis religlone 
compositi ne ipsorum quidem injurias exigunt tyrannorvm. 


Anno ante Urbem conditam xxx, Peloponnensium Athenien- 
siumque bellum totis viribua commissuni est : in quo mutuis 
caedibus ad hoc coacti sunt, ut vehit victi se ab alterutro subtra- 
herent, bellumque desererent. Tunc etiam Amazonitm gentis in 
Asiam incursus plurimam diu late vastationern strageinque 

Anno vicesimo ante Urbem conditam Lacedaemonii contra 
Messenios propter spretas virgines suas in solemni Messeniorum 
sacrificio, per annos viginti bellantes, ruinae suae totas Graeciae 
vires inplicuerunt : qui, cum se exsecrationibus devovissent, 
sacramentisque obstrinxissent, domum, nisi Messena expugnata, 
nunquam esse reditui-os, ac per decern annos longa fatigati 
obsidione, consultatione habita, veriti ne, intercepta spe sobolis, 
sibi magis hae perseverantia, quam Messeniis perditio nutriretur, 
selectos in exercitu eos, qui post jusjurandum in supplementum 
militiae venerant, Spartam remittunt, quibus proniiscuos om- 
nium feminarum concubitus permisere. Ipsi autem proposito 
insistentes expugnant Messenios, victos servitio premunt. 

At UK jugum excutiunt, arma sumunt, bellum instau- 
rant. Lacedaemonii Tyrtaeum, poetam Atbeniensem, ducem 
praelio legunt. Cum desistendum certamine propter metum 
pericali arbitrarentur, Tyrtaei ducis composito carmine et 



1 From C. 

2 y. tiene ; 
tail o/y 
erased ; C. 

swiSe getrymede, to pon pott hie cweedon pset hie Mesiana 
folce wiSstondan mehten. (Heora) ' peh wurdon feawa to lafe 
on aSre hand, j pcet Creca folc fela geara him betweonu??i 
dreogende waeron, segper ge of Leecedernonia, ge of Mesiane, 
ge of Boetium, ge of Atheniensium ; 7 rnonege opera peoda to 5 
<Ssem ilcan gewinne getugon. 

Nu is hit scortlice ymbe past gessegd J?sette a?r gewearS aer 
Romeburg getimhred waere, past wees from frymtSe middan- 
geardes feower pusend wintra 7 feower hund 7 twa 7 hund- 
eahtatig, 7 sefter paern pe hio getimbred wses, \va?s ures Dryhtnes 10 
aceunes ymb seofon hund wintra 7 vtiene 2 . Her endaS sio 
forme hoc, 7 onginS sio aefterre. 

(II, I.) 

Ic wene, cwseS Orosius, past nan wis mon ne sie, buton 
he genoh geare wite peette (rod pone serestan monn ryhtne 
7 godne gesceop, 7 eal rnonncynn mid him. Oud for pon pe 15 
he paet god forlet be him geseald wees, 7 wyrse geceas, hit 
God sippan longsumlice wrecende wees, serest on him selfum, 
7 sippan on his bearnum gind ealne pisne middangeard mid 
monigfealdum brocum 7 gewinnum, ge eac pas eorpan, pe ealle 

» From c. cwice wyhta bi libbaS, ealle hiere wcestmbeero (he) s gelytlade. 20 
Nu we witan pset ure Dryhten us gesceop; we witon eac paet 
he ure reccend is, 7 us mid ryhtlicran lufan iufacS ponne eenig 
mon. Nu we witon paet ealle onwealdas from him sindon ; we 
witon eac paet ealle ricu sint from him, for pon ealle onwealdas 
of rice sindon. Nu he para lasssena rica reccend is, hu micle 25 

* ungemetii- swipor wene we paet he ofer pa maran sie, pe on swa unmetlican 4 

cum C. 

onwcaldun ricsedon ! 

An wei's Babylonicum, peer Ninus ricsade; paet otSer wees 
•[Page 4n.] Creca, peer Alexander ricsade ; pridda woes Affricanum, * pa?r 5 
« piitoiome c. Ptolome ° ricsedon ; se feorSa is Romane, pe giet ricsiende 30 

sindon. pas feower heafodricu sindon on feower endum pyses 


pro condone recitato, rursua accensi, mox in certamen 

Et quoniam spopondisse memini dictururn me esse ab Orbe 
condito usque ad Urbem conditam, huic volumini, quod ab Orbe 
condito explicuimus, finis hie sit, ut ab TJrbe condita sequens 
libellus incipiat. Ab Orbe condito usque ad Urbem conditam 
anni iv millia cccclxxxyii. Ab TJrbe condita usque ad nativi- 
tatem Christi, dccxv. colliffuntur. 

(II, I.) 

Neininem jam esse bominum arbitror, quern latere possit, 
quod hominem in hoc mundo Deus fecerit rectum, unde etiam 
peccante bomine mundus arguitur, ac terra haec, in qua 
vivimus, defeclu caeterorum animalium, et sterilitate suorum 
fructuum castigatwr. Itaque si creatura Dei, merito et dis- 
pensatio Dei sumus, quis enim magis diligit, quam ille qui fecit 1 
quis autem ordinatius regit, quam is qui et fecit et diligit / 
Omnem potestatem a Deo esse et qui non legerunt sentiunt, 
et qui legerunt recognoscunt. Quod si potestates a Deo sunt, 
quanto magis regna, a quibus reliquae potestates progrediuntur ! 
Si autem regna diversa, quanto aequius regnum aliquod maxi- 
mum, cui reliquorum regnorum ])otestas zeniveraa subjicitur I 

Quale a principio Babylonium, et deinde Macedonicum fuit ; 
post etiam Africanum, atque in fine Eomanum, quod usque 
ad nunc manet : eademque ineffabili ordinatione per quatuor 
mundi cardines, quatuor regnorum principatus fuerunt, dis- 


middangeardes, mid unasecgendlicre Godes tacnunge. paet 
Babylonicum waes baet forme, 7 on easteweardum ; baet aefterre 
waes peet Crecisce, 7 on norSeweardum ; J?set bridde waes pset 
Affricanum, 7 on sutSweardum ; f>set feorbe is Romane, 7 on 
westewearduni. Babylonisce pact sereste 7 Romane baet siS- 5 
meste hie wseron swa feeder 7 sunu, bonne hie heora willan 
moton wel wealdan. paet Crecisce 7 baet Affri(c)anisce wseron 
swa swa hie him hiersumedon, 7 him underbieded waere. paet 
ic wille eac gescadwislecor gesecgean, baet hit mon geornor 
1 From C. ongietan (ma?ge) l , 10 

Se aeresta cyning waes Xiuus haten, swa we aer beforau 
saegden. pa hiene mon ofslog, ba feng Sameramis his cwen 
to baem rice, 7 getimbrede ba burg Babylonie, to bon beet hco 
waere heafod ealra Asiria ; 7 hit fela wintra sibban on baem 
stod, oS Saet Arbatus, Meba ealdormon, Sardanopolum Babylonia 15 
cyning ofslog. pa wearS Babylonia 7 Asiria anwald geendad, 
7 gehweaif on Jleoas. On baem ilcan geare be biss waes, 
Procos, Numetores faeder, ongon ricsian in Italia baem londe, 
baer eft Romeburg getimbred wearS. Se Procos waes Nume- 
tores faeder 7 Mulieses, 7 waes Siluian earn. Seo Siluie waes 20 
Romuses modor 7 Romules, be Romeburg getimbredon. Daet 
willc ic gecyban, baet ba ricu of nanes monnes mihtum swa 
gecraeftgade [ne] wurdou, ne for name wyrde buton from Gfodes 

Ealle Btserwriteras secgatS bttt Asiria rice aet Ninuse begunne, 25 
7 Romana rice aet Procose begunne. From osem serestan geare 
Nimises rices oo"ba j t Babylonia burg getimbred wees, wseron 
*[Page4i.] lxiiii wintra; * eac of Saein ilcan geare be Procos ricsade in 
Italia waeron eac swilce lxiiii wintra, aer mon Romeburg 
getimbrede. py ilcan geare be Romana rice weaxan ongann 30 
ond miclian, on Procos daege bees cyninges, by ilcan geare 
gefeoll Babylonia 7 call Asiria rice 7 hiora anwald, setter b;< im 
(Se mon heora cyning ofslog Sardanopolum. Sibban haefdon 
Caldci )?a lond gcbiin on freodoine, be nihst bsere byrig wseron, 


tinctis gradibus eminentes, ut Babyloniur.i regnum ab oriente, 
a meridie Carthaginense, a septeutrione Macedonicum, ab occi- 
dente Romanian : quoi-um iuter primum ac novissirnum, id est, 
inter Babylonium et Romanum, quasi inter patrem ac filium, 
Africanum et Macedonicum, brevia et media, quasi tutor cura- 
torque veneritnt, potestate temporis, non jure haereditatis, ad- 
missa. Quod utrum ita sit, apertissime expedire curabo. 


Rex primus apud Assyrios Ninus fuit. Occiso Nino, Semi- 
ramis, uxor ejus totius Asiae regina, Babyloniam urbem 
instauravit, caputque regni Assyrii ut esset instituit. Regnum 
Assyriorum diu inconcussa jDotentia stetit, sed cum Arbatus, 
praefectus Medovum, Sardanapalum regem suum apud Baby- 
loniam interfecisset, regni summam ad Medos transtulit. Ita 
Babylonis regnum eo anno in Medos derivatum est, quo anno 
apud Latinos Procas, Amulii et Numitoris pater, avus autem 
Eheae Sylviae, quae mater Romuli fuit, regnare coepit. 

Ut autem omnia haec profiindissimis Dei judiciis disposita, 
non autem humanis viribus, aut incertis casibus accidisse 
perdoceam, omnes historiae antiquae a Nino incipiunt, omnes 
historiae Romanae a Proca exoriuntur. Deinde a primo anno 
imperii Nini usque quo Babylon instaurari coepta est, inter- 
veniunt anni sexaginta et quatuor. Et a primo anno Procae, 
cum regnare coepit, usque ad conditionem Urbis, intersunt anni 
aeque sexaginta et quatuor. Ita regnante Proca futurae Romae 
sementis jacta est, etsi nondum germen adpareret. Eodem anno 
Babylonis l-egnum defecit, etsi adhuc Babylon ipsa consistit. 

62 Alfred's orosius. 

beh be MsetSe hsefden bone anwald ofer hie, oftpcet Cirus, 
Persea cyning, rics[i]an ongann, 7 ealle Babylonia aweste, 7 
ealle Asirie 7 ealle Maebe on Persa anwald gedyde. paet ba 
swa gelomp, tSsette on baere ilean tide be Babylonia Siowdome 
onfeng from Ciruse Seem cyninge, bsette Roma aliesed wearS 5 
of fieowdome bara umyhtwisestana cyninga 7 bara ofermod- 
gestana, be mon hast Tarcuinie; 7 tSa Saet eastrice in Asiria 
gefeoll, ba eac baat westrice in Roma aras. 

Giet scael ic, cwsecS Orosius, monigfealdlecor spreean wib ba 
be secgatS baet ba anwaldas sien of wyrda maegenuni gewordene, 10 
nales of Godes gestihtunge, hu emnlice hit gelomp ymb Sas 
tu heofodricu, Asiria 7 Romana, swa swa we aer saegdon, 
baette Ninus ricsade on Son eastrice lii wintra, 7 aefte?- him his 
cwen Sameramis xlii wintra, 7 on middeweardum hire rice hio 
getimbrede Babylonia ba burg. From baem g^are be heo 15 
getimbred wearS, waes hire anwald M wintra 7 c 7 LX 7 folnah 
feower, aer hio hiere anwaldes bcnuinen wurde 7 beswicen from 
Arbate hiere agnum ealdormenn 7 Meba cringe; J?eh pe 
si^ban ymbe ba burg lytle hwile freodom were buton onwalde, 
1 and swa c. swa we aer saegdon, from Caldei }?aem leodum. Swa 1 eac swilce 20 
wearS Romeburg ymb m wintra 7 c 7 lx 7 folneah feower, 
pcette Alrica hiere ealdormon 7 Gotona cyning hiere onwaldes 
•[Page 42.] hie bcniman woldon ; 7 heo *hwse(5ere 2 onwealg on hiere 
hw'^ere; onwalde aefter 8 burhwunade. peh pc a?gf>er bissa burga Jmrh 

lJn> g erased, 

3 after j>a;m Godes diegelnessa bus getacnod wurde: aerest Babylonia burh 25 
liiere agenne ealdormon, ba he hiere cyning beswac ; swa eac 
Roma, )?a Li hiere agen ealdormonn 7 Gotona cyning hiere 

ibenaman anwaldes bcniman 2 woldon — hit boh God for heora cristen- 

irith i writt n , , p i 1 e i c 1 

a ; dome ne gebafode, naper ne tor heora caseras ne tor heora 
selfra, ac hie nugiet ricsiende sindon aegbcr ge mid hiera cristeu- 30 
dome ge mid hiora anwalde ge mid hiera caserum. 

pis ic sprece nu for Saem be ic wolde baet pa ongeaten, be 
ba tida ures cristendomes leahtriaS, bwelc mildsung sij^ban 
was, styban se cristendom waes ; 7 hu monigfeald wolbaernes 
Saere worulde ar baeui wa?s ; 7 eac Jwet hie oncnewen hu 35 


Descendente autem Arbato in Medos, partem regni penes se 
retinuere Chaldaei, qui Bdbyloniam sibi adversus Medos vindi- 
caverunt. Ita Babyloniae potestas apud Medos, p>roprietas apud 
Chaldaeos fait. Babylon novissime eo tempore a Cyro rege 
subversa, quo primum Roma a Tarquiniorum regum domina- 
tione liberata est. Siquidem sub una eademque convenientia 
temporum ilia cecidit, ista surrexit : ilia tunc primum alieni- 
genarum perpessa dominatum, Jiaec turn primum etiam suoruru 
adspernata fastidium. 

FA ne diutius verbis morer, committo me dentibns insani- 
entium, sed veritatis praesidio liberandum. 


Regnavit Ninus annis quinquaginta duobus. Cui successit 
uxor sua Semiramis : quae cum et ipsa quadraginta et duobus 
annis regnaret, medio imperii sui tempore Babylonem, caput 
regni, coudidit. Ita Babylon post annos mille centum sexaginta 
et propemodum quatuor, quam condita erat, a Medis, et ab 
Arbato, rege eorum, praefecto autem suo, spoliata opibus regno : 
ipsa tamen postea aliquamdiu mansit incolumis. Similiter et 
Roma post annos totidem, hoc est, mille centum sexaginta et 
fere quatuor, a Gotbis et Alarico rege eorum, comite autem 
suo, irrupta et opibus spoliata, non regno, manet adbuc, et 
regnat incolumis : quamvis in tantum arcanis statutis inter 
utramque urbem convenientiae totius oi'do servatus sit, ut et 
ibi praefectus ejus Arbatus regnum invaserit, et bic praefectus 
bujus Attains regnare tentaverit : tametsi apud hanc solam 
merito Christiani imperatoris attentatio profana vacuata sit. 

Itaque haec ob hoc praecipue commemoranda credidi, ut 
intelligant hi, qui de temporibus Christianis murmurant, vnum 
Deum disposuisse tempora, et in principio Babyloniis, et in fine 
Romanis ; illius clementiae esse, quod vivimus. Ecce similis 

G4 Alfred's orosius. 

gelimplice ure God on paem aerran tidum pa anwaldas 7 pa 
ricu sette, se ilea [se] pe giet settende is 7 wendende aelce 
onwaldas 7 selc rice to his willan. Hu gelice onginn pa twa 
byig haefdon, 7 hu gelice heora dagas waeron, aegtSer ge on 

1 From c. (Saem) l gode ge on Seem yfele ! Ac hiora anwalda endas 5 
waeron swipe ungelice ; for pon pe Babylonie mid monigfealdum 
unryhtum 7 firenlustum mid heora cyninge buton aelere hreowe 
libhende weeran, poet hie hit na gebetan noldan, ser pon hie 
God mid paem maastan bismere geeatSmedde, pa, he hie aegSres 
benara ge heora cyninges ge heora anwaldes; ac Romane mid 10 
hiora cristnan cyninge Gode powiende waeron, paette he him 
for paem aegpres geupe, ge hiora cyninges ge heora anwaldes. 
For [)Eera magan hiora spraece gemetgian pa pe paes cristendomes 
wiperflitan sint, gif hie gemunan willaS hiora ieldrena un- 
clsennessa, 7 heora wolgewinna, 7 hiora monigfealdan unsibbe, 7 15 

*[Page43.] hiora iinmilt*sunge pe hie to gode haefdon, ge eac him sclfum 
betweonum ; (5aet hie nane mildheortnesse purhteon ne mehtan, 
aer paem him seo hot of tSaem cristendome com, pe hie nu swipost 

(II, II.) 
Ymb feowcr hunde wintra 7 ymb feowertig paes pe Troia 20 
Creca burg awested waes, wearS Eomeburg getimbred from 
sxfter-San twam gebroSrum, Remuse 7 Romuluse. 7 ra(5e aefter 2 Romulus 
hiora anginn geunclaensade mid his brotSor siege, 7 eac sippan 
mid his hiwunge 7 his gefercna : hwelce bisena he Saer stellende 
waes, mid paem pe hie baedon Sabini pa burgware pcettc hi him 25 
geutSen hiora dohtra him to wifum to habbanne, 7 hie him para 
bena forwierndon. Hi swapeah heora unSances mid swicdomc 
hie begeaton, mid paem pe hie baedon pczt hie him fylstan 
mosten Sa-t hie hiera godum pe ieS blotan mehtcn : pa hie 
him paes getygSedon, pa haefdon hi him to wifum, 7 heora 30 
fsederum eft agiefan noldon. Ymb pevt wcartS pcet maeste 
"IK'C. gewinn monig gear, 0$ 3 hie fornaeh mid ealle forslaegene 7 
forwordene waeron on aegperc hcalfe, paet hie mid nanum pinge 
ne mehton gesemede wcorpan, vcv para Romans wif mid heora 


Babylonia ortus et Romap, similin bona, smiilia mala ; tamen 
non similis exitus, similisve defectus. Ilia enim regnum amisit, 
haec retinet ; ilia interfectione regis orbata, liaec incolumi im- 

peratore s<cura est. Et hoc quare ? Quoniam ibi in rege 
libidinnm turpitudo punita, hie Christianae religionis contlnentis- 
sima aequitas in rege servata est. Quapropter desinant religio- 
nem lacerare, et lacessere patientiam Dei : prop>ter quam habent, 
uti et hoc quoque inpunitum habeant, si aliquanlo desistant. 
Recolaut sane memm majorum suorum tempora, bellis inquietis- 
sima, sceleribus exsecrabilia, diesensionibus/oefa. 


Anno pott eversionem Trojae ccccxtv, urbs Roma a Romuio 
et Remo, geminis auctoribus, condita est. Cujus regnum con- 
tinuo Romulus parricidio inbuit : parique succesm crudelitatis 
sine more raptas Sabinas, inprobis w.ptiis confoederatas, mari- 
torum et parentum cruore dotavit. Itaque Romulus, interfecto 
primuni avo Numitore, dehinc Remo fratre, arripuit imperium, 
Urbemque constiiuib : regnum avi, muro3 fratris, templum foceri 
sanguine dedicavit. Sabinorum feminas tarn inhoneste prae- 
8wnpsit, quam nefarie defendit. Ducem eorum Titum Tatium 
diu armis propulsatum, mox ut in societatem regni adsumpsit, 



*[Page 44.] 

i From C 

- From C. 

4 Lucretie C, 

be /.. 

nfi. /■ ///. i ; 
read hie. 

eildum iernende wseron gemong <5a-m gefeohtnm, 7 heora 
fsederum wseron to fotam feallende, 7 biddende bset hie for 
bara cilda lufan bses gewinnes sumne ende gedyden. Swa 
weortSlice 7 swa mildelice wa>s Romeburg on fruman gehalgod, 
mid brotSor blude, 7 mid sweora, 7 mid Romuluses came 5 
Numetores, bone be eac ofslog, tSa lie cyning wses, 7 him self 
sibban to t5sem rice feng ! puss gebletsade Romulus Romana 
rice on fruman : mid his brotSor blode bone weall, 7 mid bara 
sweora blode ba ciricean, 7 mid his cames blode pat rice. Ond 
sibban his agenne sweor to deaSe beswac, ba he hiene to him LO 
aspon, 7 him gehet * tSaet he his rice wiS hieue dselan wolde, 7 
hiene under (Ssem ofslog. 

He ba Romulus setter biosan nnderfeng Cirinensa gewinn 
bara burgwarana, for bon be he bagiet lytel landricc liable 
buton baere byrig anre, for bon be Romulus 7 ealle Rom ware 15 
oberum folcum unweorfte wseron, for bon tSe hie on cnihthade 
wseron oberra manna niedlingas. pa hie 5a hsefdon Cirinen 
(sa) ' pa burg ymbseten, 7 (5aer micelne hungor boliende wseron, 
ba geewsedan hie bset him leofre waere bset hie on ftspm iennbum 
heora lif geeudodon bomie hie Sa?t gewinn forleten, otSSe friS 20 
genamen. Hie (Sser ba winnende wseron oS hie ba burg abrse- 
con, 7 setter bsem wift ba londlcode on aelce healfe nnablinnend- 
lice winnende wseron, oS hie Sserymbutan hsefdon monega byrig 

Ac ba cyningas be setter Romuluse ricscdon wseron forcucSran 25 

7 eargran bon>?<? he wsere, 7 bsem folcum laSran 7 ungetsesran, 

08 ba-tte Tarcuinius, Se we ser ymbe ssedon, be hira (eallra) 2 
fxacobast waw — segber ge eargast, ge wrsenast, ge ofermodgast — 
ealra bara Romana wif [5a] pa he mehte he to (ge)ligre 3 
geniedde, 7 his suna gebafode bset he lseg mid Latinos wife, 311 
Lucrcttie 4 hatte, Brutu(s)es 6 sweostor, £>a 6 heo on firde wseron, 
tSeh be hie Romana bremuste wseron to Ssem cyninge. Heo 
tSa Lucretie hi 7 selfe for baun acwealdc. Da bset Latinus hiere 
wer geascade, 7 Brutus hiere bro5or, ba forleton hie 5a firde 
be hie bewitan sceoldan, 7 ba hie ham comon, J?a adrsefdon 35 
hie segtSer ge bone cyning, ge his sunu, ge ealle ba be bser 


CaeniBensium captum ac dirutum oppidum. Adsumjrtis 
semel armis, minquam quies : quippe quibus aegestas turpis, 
atqve obscoena fames domi timerentur, si unquam paci ad- 
quievissent Jam liinc incessabilia certamina, et juocta quanti- 
tatcm virium scmpeA' gravia, quam brevissime strinxerim. 

Tarquinii Superbi regnum, occisi soceri scelere adsumtum, 

habita in cives crudelitate detentum, Jlagitio adidteratae Lu- 

cretiae amissum . . . Igitur regibua Urbe propulsis, Romaiji 
cousules creaverunt. 



eynecynnes waeron of py rice mid ealle. Him (5a Romane gefter 
paem ladteowas l ge.-etto: 
heolde an gear an monn. 

> under- jjpem ladteowas l gesetton, pe hie consulas heton, pert heora rice 

(II, III.) 

45.] yEfter paem pe Rorneburg getimbred waes 11 hunde * wintrum 
7 mi, paette Brutus wees se forma consul. Romulus heora 5 
« re$e <!/>//« r- forma cvnin£ 7 Brutus heora forma consul wurdon emnretSe 2 . 

tnthi over jo/ 

eratur, '. Romulus slog his broSor, 7 his earn, 7 his sweor. Brutus slog 
his v suna 7 his wifes twegen broSor, for pon pe hie spraecon 
Saet hit betere waere paette Eomane eft heora cynecynne onfengen, 
swa hie a?r haefdon ; for paem he hie het gebiudan, 7 beforan 10 
eallum paern folce mid besman swingan, 7 sippan mid aexsum 
heora heafda of aceorfan. 

3 From c. Tarcuiniua (pa) 3 , Se a?r Romana cyning waes, aspon Tuscea 

cyning hi?n on fultum, Porsenna waes hatcn, paet he t5e ieS 
iin lite winnan wi5 Brutuse 7 wi5 eallum Romanura. He t5a 15 
Brutus gecwaetS amvig wi3 pone cyning ymb heora feondscipe; 
ac him Tarcuinius ot5erne tSegn ongean sende, Airunses sunu 
<Sses ofermodgan, 7 heora peer aegtSer o(5erne ofslog. 

yEftcr paem Porsenna 7 Tarcuinius pa cyningas ymbsaeton 
Romeburg, 7 hie eac begeaton, paer Mutius naere, an monn of 20 
■faere byrig : he hi mid his wordum gecgsade. Da hie hiene 
gefengon, tSa pinedon hie hiene mid paem paet hie his hand 
forbaer[n]don, anne finger 7 anne, 7 hiene secgan heton, liu 
fela paera manna were pe wuS pa^m cyninge Tarcuinie swi?5ost 
wiSsacen haefde. pa he t5aet secgean nolde, pa acsedou hie 25 
bine hu fela paer swclcerra manna were Bwelce he waes. pa 
_:le he him tSa»t t5aer fela para monna (waere) 4 , 7 eac gesworen 
haefdon (5aet hie oper forleosan woldon, oppe hira [agen] lif, 
oppc Porsennes paes cyninges. pa paet pa Porsenna gehierde, 
he t5aet setl 7 paet gewin mid ealle for[let], pe he aer preo winter 30 
dreotrcndc waes. 

(ii, mi.) 

vEftcr paem waes paet Sabinisce gewinn, 7 him Romane paet 



Anno post Urbem conditara ccxliv, Brutus, primus consul, 
primum conditorem regemque Romae, non solum exaequare 
parricidio, sed et vincere studuit, quippe duos filios suos, toti- 
demque uxoris suae fratres, revocandorum in Urbem regum 
placito insimulatos, in concionem protraxit, virgis cecidit, 
securique percussit. 

Ipse deinde Tarquiniensium hello, cum Arunte, Superbi filio, 
congresso sibi commortuoque, procubuit. 

Porsena rex Etruscorum, gravissimus regit nominis svffra- 
gator, tribus continuis annis ui-bem conclusit, obsedit : et nisi 
hostem Mucius constanti urendae manus iKdieatia permovisset, 
profecto Romani compulsi fuissent perpeti aut captiviiatem, aut 

Post haec Sabini magno adparat-u belli Romam contendunl: 

70 Alfred's orosius. 

*[i'ase i6.: swiSe ondrsedende wseron, 7 him gesettou hir*(r)an ladteow 
ponne hiera consul wsere, pone 6c hie ' tictatorcs ' heton, 7 hie 
mid psem tictatore micelne sige haafdon. ^Efter paem Romane 
betux him selfum, pa rican menu 7 pa earmran, micel gewinn 
upahofon, 7 liim Sset to longsumere wrace come, poer hie fte 5 
ratSor gesemed ne warden. Ou psem dagum wseron pa msestan 

1 ungftiuia c. ungetina 1 on Romanum, 8eg(5er ge on hungre ge on mou- 
cwealme, under psem twsem consulum, Tita 7 Publia hatton. 7 
hie beora gefeohta pa hwile hie gerestan, peh hie pses huugres 
7 pses nioncwealmes ne mehte, ac pa mouigfealdan iermpo pa 10 
werig.in burg swipe brocieude wseran. 

Mv (Srein pe seo wol geendod wsere, Ueigentes 7 Etrusci pa 
leode wiS Romanum gewinn up ahofon, 7 wi§ psem twsem 
consulum, Marcuse 7 Crease. 7 pa Romane him ongean foran, 7 
him betweonum apas gesworau pa;t hiera nan uolde eft card 15 
gesecan buton hie sige haefden. pa>r woeron Romane BWa 
swipe forslsegenc, peh hie sige ha-fden, pset heora an consul 

nC.i be him to lafe- wearcS forsoc bone triumhpan 3 , be him mon 

ia«V /.. 

3 triumphan ongean brohte ba he haruweard wa>s, 7 ssede pset hie haefden 

'gewyrhx., ue t ffewyrh(t) 4 bajt him mon mid heafe 6 ongean come bonne 20 
beofe c. m {([ triumphan. 

pa>t hie triumphan heton, bset wa?s bonne hie hwelc folc 

mid gefeohte ofercumen hsefdon, bonne waes heora peaw past 

■■• e-mail with sceoldon ealle hiera senatus cuman' ongean heora consulas 

n written over , . „ . ^ . 

theo. aitter psem gefeohte, siex mila from oa»rc byrig, mid crsetwsene, 25 

mid golde 7 mid gimstanum gefrsetwedton, 7 hie sceoldon 

'FromC. bringan feowerfetes twa hwit(e) 7 . ponne hie hamweard foran, 

ponne sceoldon hiera senatus ridan on crsetwsenum witfoeftan 

poem consulum, 7 pa menu beforan him drifan gebundene pe 

pser gefongene wseron, tSa^t heora moerpa sceoldon by bryndicran 30 

*[i'age47.] beon. * Ac ponne hie hwelc folc buton gefeohte on heora 

geweald genieddon, ponne hie hamweard wseron, pomte sceolile 

him man bringan ongean of psere byrig crsetwaen, Be wses mid 

siolfre gegiered, 7 selces cynnes feowerfetes feos an, hiera con 

Bulum to mserpe. pat wses ponne triumpheum. 35 

Romulus rest monna senatum : Sect wses, an hund 


quo raetu consternati Romani dictatorem creant, cujus aucfor- 
itas et potentia consulera praeiret: quae res in illo tunc hello 
plurimum emolumenti tulit. Sequitur discessio plebis a patri- 
bus. Actumque de Romano nomine intestina pemicie foret, 
nisi maturata reconciliatio subrepsisset prius, quam se discessio 
ipsa cognosceret. T. Geganio, et P. Minucio consulibus, duo 
vel maxima omnium malorum abominamenta, fames et pesti- 
lentia fessam Urbem corripuere. Cessatum est paulisper a 
praeliis, cessatum tamen a mortibus non est. 

Vejentes et Etrusci in bella surgentes, obviis M. Fabio, et 
Gn. Manlio consulibus excipiuntur : ubi post sacramentum 
jurationis, quo se Romani devoverant, non nisi post victoriam 
ad castra redituros, adeo atrox certamen fuit, et victis victori- 
busque par forma, ut amisso plurimo exercitu, occisisque in 
piiijaa Manlio consule, M. Fabius consul oblatum sibi a senatu 
triumpbum suscipere recusaret, quia tantis Eeipublicae detri- 
ments luctus potius debebatur. 


Alfred's ouosius. 

i From C. 

monna, f>eh lieora sefter fyr[s]te wsere breo Lund, pa wgeron 
simbel binnan Romebyrg wuniende, to bon pcet hie lieora 
raedbeahteras waeron, 7 consulas setton, 7 bset ealle Romane him 
hireumeden, 7 beet hie bewisten eal pcet licgende feoh under 
aiiuin hrofe beet hie begeaton obbe on gafole obbe on hergiunga, 5 
j^aet hie hit sibban mehten him eallum gemaenelice to nytte 
gedon, bseni be baer buton beowdome weeron. 

pa consulas be on (Ssem daguni bast Sabinisce gewinn under- 
fcngon, be mon het eall hiera cynn Fabiane, for bon hit ealra 
Etomana senliccst waes 7 crseftegast. Nu giet todsege hit is 10 
on lco'Sum sungen hwelcne denim hie Romanum gefeollan. 
Eac baam monega ea sindon be noman nemnede for baem 
gefeohte, 7 eac ba geata be ' hie ut of Romebyrig to breni 
gefeohte ferdon him mon ascop ba noman be hie giet habbacS. 
yEfter baein Romane curon m bund cempena 7 siex, Jxet sceolde 15 
to anwige gangan witS Bwa fela Sabina, 7 getruwedon Jwet hie 
mid hiera crseftum sceolden sige gefeohtan. Ac Sabiui mid 
heora searwum hie ealle bser ofslogon buton anum, se ba-t 
laoYpel set ham gebodade. Nses na on Romanum anum, ac 
swa hit an scopleotSum sungen i* [jset gind ealne middangeard 20 
Male caru 7 gewin 7 ege. 

CiruBj Persa cyning, be we per beforan ssegdon, pa hwile Se 
Sabini 7 Romane wunnon on ba ■:n westdsele, ba hwile wonn 
he segber ge on Scibbie ge on Indie, ob he beefde masst ealne 
*[Pago48.] bone eastdael awestj *7®fter tfaem fird gekedde to Babylonia, 25 
be ba welegre waea bonne aenigu oberu burg. Ac hiene Qandea 
/ , <: s-eo (ea) - pas oferfeereldes longe gelette, f<>r bsem be paer ecipa 
nseron : baal is ealra ferscra waatera msest baton Eufrate. pa 
gebeotode an bis Segna ba?t he mid sunde ba ea oferfaran wolde, 
mid twain tyncenum ; ac hiene se stream fordraf, Da gebeo- 30 
tode Cirue S;et he his ftegn on hire swa gewrecan wolde, ba 
he swa grom wearS on his mode 7 wip ba ea gebolgen, pa t 
hie 9 mehte wifmon be hiere cneowe oferwadan, baer heo est waM 
nigon mila brad bonne heo fledu was. Ee pal mid daedum 

1 i emu I. 

J'ABIl ; CYRUS. 73 

Glorio^is^ima ilia numero et viribus Fabiorura familia, Vejen- 

tanum sortita certarnen, quantam reipublicae orbitatem occasu 

suo intulerit, infamibus usque ad nunc vocabulis, testes sunt 

fluvius qui perdidit, et porta quae misit. Nam cum sex et 

trecenti Fabii specicde sibi adversus Yejentes decerni bellum 

expetivissent, spem temere sumptae expeditionis primis suc- 

cessibus firmaverunt : dehinc inducti in insidias, circumventique 

ab hostibus, omnes ibidem trucidati sunt : uno tantum ad enuu- 

ciandam eladem rcservato. Ad haec non Romae tantum talia 

gerebantur, sed quaeque provincia suis ignibus aestuabat : et, 

quod poetu praecipuus in una Urbe descripsit, ego de toto Orbe 

dian rim : 

Crudelis ubique 

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago. 


Igitur eodem tempore Cyrus, Rex Persarura, quern superius 
coramemoraveram, qui tunc Scytbiam, totumque Orientem 
armis pervagabatur, cum Tarquinius Superbus Urbem vel rex 
vel hush's aut servitio premebat aut bello, Babylouiam petit, 
urbem tunc cunctis opulentiorem : sed impetum ejus Gyndes 
fluvius, secundae post Eupbratem magnitudinis, intercepit. 
Nam unum regiorum equitum 1 , candors formaque excellent 'em, 'equorum. 
transmeandi jiducia permasum, abreptum, praecipitatumque 
merserat. Rex iratus ulcisci in amnem statuit, contestans eum, 
qui nunc tarn praeclarum equum voravisset, feminis vix genua 
tin ■ jentibus permeabilem relinquendum. Xec peragendo segnior, 
Gynden Jluvium per magnas concisum deductumqtte fossas, in 
quadriugentoi; sexaginta alveos comminuit. Eo opere praedoctis 

74 Alfred's oeosius. 

gelasste, 7 hie upp forlet an feower huncl ea 7 on lx, 7 sippan 
mid his fircle pser ofer for. 7 aefter psera Eufrate pa ea, seo 
is msest eallra ferscra waetera, 7 is irnende purh middewearde 
Babylonia burg, he hie eac mid gedelfe on monige ea upp 
forlet, 7 sippan mid eallum his folce on Saare ea gong on pa 5 
burg fserende wees, 7 hie gerahte. 

Swa ungeliefedlic is senigum menn pset to gesecgenne, hu 
senig mon mehte swelce burg gewyrcan swelce *io was, oSpe 
eft abrecan. MembraS se ent angan serest timbran Babylonia, 
7 Ninus se cyning gefter bim ; 7 Sameramis his cwen hie 10 
geendade setter him on middeweardum hiere rice. Seo burg 
wses getimbred an fildum lande 7 on swipe emnum, 7 heo waes 
swipe fteger an to locianne ; 7 beo is swipe ryhte feowerscyte ; 
7 paes wealles micelness 7 faestness is ungeliefedlic to secgenne : 
past is, pset he is L elua brad, 7 11 hund elna heah, 7 his 15 
ymbgong is hundseofontig mila 7 seofeSa dad anre mile, 7 he 
is geworbt of tigelan 7 of eoi Sty rowan, 7 ymbutan pone weall 
is se maesta die, on pasm is iernende se ungefoglecesla stream ; 
7 wiSutan paem dice is geworbt twegea elna heah weall, 7 bufan 
633m maran wealle ofer ealne pone ymbgong he is mid staene- 20 
num wighusum beworht. 

•[Page 49.] * Seo ilee burg Babylonia, seo Se maest was 7 serest ealra burga, 
seo is nu lcest 7 westast. Xu seo burg swelc is, pe a?r waes ealra 
weorca faestast 7 wunderlecast 7 marast, gelice 7 beo weere to bise- 
ne asteald ealltttn middangearde, 7 eae swelce beo self sprecende 25 
sie to ealluw moncynne, 7 cwepc : ' Nu ic puss gebroren earn 7 aw< g 
gewiten,bw.Tt,ge magan on mo ongietan 7oncnawan)a t ge nanubt 
mid eow nabbatS faestes no stronges psette purhwunigean mage.' 
On Sam dagum pe Ciru^ Persa cyning Babylonia abrac, Sa 
w: s Croesus se lipa cyning mid firde gefaren Babylonium t<> :*o 
fultume; ac pa be wiate past hie him «>n nanum fultome beon 
ne msehte, 7 pa't Beo burg abroceu wsbb, he him hamweard 
ferde to his agnum rice. 7 him Cirus wsea sefterfylgende, oJ> he 
hiene gefeng, 7 ofslog. Ond nu are Cristne Roma beeprico" ]■■■>} 

1 jiv r. ; hiere weallaa 1 for ealdunge brosnien, Dales na for pcem h ■■'> 

bio mid forheriunge .swa gebis[m]rad waare Bwa Babylonia 


fossoribus, etiam Euphratem longe vaUdissimum, et mcdiani 
Babyloniam interfluentem, derivavit. Ac sic meabilibus vadis 
siccum, etiam patentibus alvei partibus, iter fecit : cepitque 

Quani vel humano opere exstrui potuisse, vel humana virtute 
destrui posse, utrumque pene incredibile apud mortales erat. 
Namque Babyloniam a Nemrod gigante fuudatam, a Nino vel 
Semiramide reparatam, multi prodidere. Haec, campi planitie 
vndique conspicua, natura loci laetissima, castrorum facie moe~ 
nibus paribus per quadrum disposita ; murornra ejus vix credi- 
bilis relatu firmitas et magnitudo, id est, latitudine eubitorum 
quiuquaginta, altitudiuc quater tanta. Caeterum ambitus ejus 
quadrinyentis et octoyinta stadiis circumvenitur. Murus coctili 
latere atque interfuso bitumiue compactus, fossa extrinsecus 
late 2^tens, vice amnis circunifiuit. Ipsa autem lalitudo in 
consummatione pinnarum utroque latere habitaculis defensorum 
aeque dispositis, media intercapedine sui citas quadrigas capit. 

Et tamen magna ilia Babylon, ilia prima post reparationem 
huraani generis condita, nunc p.ene etiam minima mora victa, 
capta, subversa est. 

Ibi tunc Croesus, rex Lydorum, cum ad auxiliandum Baby- 
loniis venisset, in regnum refugit. Cyrus autem bellum transtxdit 
in Lydiam. Ipeum etiam Croesum cepit, captamque et vita 
et patrimonio donavit. Ita ad proxima adventantis Gyri tenta- 
menta succubuit magna Babylon, et mgens Lydia; et nostri 
incircn.msjecla anxie.tate caubantur, si Romanae rci publicae ni<>ls 
nunc magis imbecUlitate propriae Benectutis, qua in alienis con- 
cussae viribus contremiscunt. 



wses ; ac heo for hiere cristeudome nugiet is gescild, cScet a?g|5er 
ge hio self ge hiere anweald is tua hreosende for ealddome ponne 
[of] seniges cyuinges uiede. 

JEiter J>sein Cirus gelsedde fird on Scippie, 7 him Sa?r an 
giong cyning mid firde ongean for, 7 his modor mid him 5 
Damaris. pa Cirus for ofer J?aet londgemaere, ofer pa ea pe 
hatte Araxis, him peer se gionga cyning pses oferfsereldes for- 
wiernan mehte ; ac he for psern nolde py he mid his folce 
getruwade <5set he hiene beswican mehte, sippan he binrian (Saem 
gemsere wsere, 7 wicstowa name. Ac pa Cirus geahsade piet 10 
hiene se gionga cyning peer secean wolde, 7 eac pcet pseui folce 
seldsiene 7 uncucSe wseron wines dryncas, he for psem of tSsere 
wicstowe afor on ane digle stowe, 7 pser beaeftan forlet eall . 
pcet j?ser liSes waes 7 swetes ; pset pa se gionga cyning swi'Sor 
micle wenende wses paet hie ponou fleonde wan-en ponne hie 15 
jenitme swicdom cyban dorsten. pa hie hit ban* swa aemeune 

igemettonC. * nietton l , hie San- pa mid micelre blitSnesse buton gemctgunge 
pset win drincende wserou, ocS hi heora selfra lytel geweald 
lisefdon. He )?a Cirus hie j^aar besyrede 7 mid ealle ofslog ; 
7 sippan wa?s fai-ende pan* Sass cyuinges modor mid pa?m 20 
twsem dselum pses folces wuniende wses, pa he pone tSriddan 
dsel mid Seem cyninge beswicen hsefde. Hio pa seo cwen 
Dameris mid micelre gnornunge ymb baas cyuinges siege hiere 
sima peneende wses, hu heo hit gewrecan mehte ; 7 pcet! eac 

2 lore r. mid danlum gelseste, 7 hier 2 folc on tii todselde, segber ge 28 
wifmen ge waepnedmen, for pon pe peer wifmenn feohtatS swa 
same swa WSepnedmen. Hio mid j*a'iu heal&n da'le beforan 
paem cyninge farende wses, swelce heo fleonde wane, oS hio 
hiene gelsedde on an mice! slsed, 7 se healfa dsel woes Ciruse 
eefte*-fylgendc. peer wearb Cirus o£ lseg< d, 7 twa pusend monna 80 
mid him. Seo cwen het pa Seem cyninge poet beafod of aceor- 
fau, 7 beweorpan on anne cvlle, se wa>s afylled monnes blodes, 
7 puscwa;$: 'pu pe pyrstende wane mounea blodes xxx wintra, 
drync nu pine fylle.' 


Igitur idem C}tus proximi temporis successu Scytbis bellum 
intulit : quern Tamyris 1 regiiia, cum prohibere transitu Araxis 1 Tomyris. 
fluminis posset, transire permisit; primum propter fiduciam 
sui, debinc propter opportunitatem ex objectu fluminis hostis 
inclusi. Cyrus itaque Scythiam ingressus, promt a transmisso 
flumine castrametatus, insuper astu eadem instructa viuo 
epulisque deseruit, quasi territus refugisset. Hoc eomperto, 
regina tertiam partem copiarum et filium ad persequendum 
Cyrum niittit. Barbari, veluti ad epulas invitati, primum 
ebrietate viucuntur : mox, revertente Cyro, universi cum adole- 
scent e obtruncantur. Tomyris, filio amisso, matris dolorem 
sanguine hostium diluere jwtius, quam suis lacrymis parat. 
Simidat diffiderdiam desperatione cladis inlatae, paulatimque 
cedendo, bostem in insidias vocat. Ibi quippe, comqwsitis inter 
onontes insidiis, ducenta millia Persarum cum ipso rege delevit. 
Eegina caput Cyri amputari, atque in utrem humano sanguine 
opplctum conjici jubet, increpitans : ' Satia te,' in quit, ' sanguine 
quern sitisti, cujus per annos triginta insatiabilis perseverasti? 

78 Alfred's orosii s. 

(II, V.) 

iEfter pa?m pe Romeburg gctinibred wees twa lmnde wintra 

n:auhhboth. 7 mix, pa^tte Cambisms) 1 feng to Persa rice, Ciruses sunu, 

se, mid pon pe he Egypte oferwon, gedyde paet nan haepen 

cyning [aer] gedon ne dorste, pa?t was past be heora godgieldum 

ealluni wiSsoc, 7 hie aefter psem mid ealle towearp. 5 

JEfter him ricsade Darius, se awende ealle Asiriae 7 Caldei 

eft to Perseum, pe aer from him gebogene waeron. JEfter pivm 

he wonn on Scippie, aegper ge for Ciruses siege paes cyninges, 

2 Fmm c. his maeges, ge eae for paem pe him (raon) 2 * tSaer wifes for- 

*[Page 51.] wiernde. His heres wees seofon bund pusenda, pa he on Scippie 10 

for. Hwaepere Sa Scippie noldon hiene gesecan to folcgefeohte, 

ac pon?ie hie gind paet lond tofarene waeron, hie ponne hie 

floccmaelum slogan, pa waeron Sa Perse mid paem swipe ge- 

egsade, 7 eac ondredon p<xt mon pa brycge forwyrcan wolde 

pe aet paem gemaere wees, paet hie sippan nysten hu hie ponan 15 

comen. He pa se cyning, aefter t5a?m pe his folc swipe for- 

sla?gcn wees, jjaer forlet hundeahtatig pusenda bea?ftan him, paet 

hie (5a?r pagiet leng winnan sceoldon, 7 he self ponan gewat 

on pa laessan Asiam, 7 hie forhergeade ; 7 sippan on Maece- 

doniam, 7 on Ionas Creca leode, (7) pa hie butu oferhergeade ; 20 

7 for su5(5an firr an Crecas, 7 gewin upp ahof wit5 Athenienses, 

for paem hie Maecedoniam on fultume waeron. Sona swa Athe- 

" «i5ten c. 0. niense (wiston) 3 pcet Darius hie mid gefeohte secan wolde, hie 

acuron endlefan pusend monna, 7 him ongean foran, 7 pone 

oiorotthomo cyninfj a?t $a?re dufne] metton be mon haett ilorotthonie 4 . 25 
both. J b l j r 

Heora ladteow waes haten Htesseus ; se W8M mid his cUsdum 
snelra ponne he mae[ge]nes haefde ; se geworhte micelne dom 
on Saem gefeohte. pa wcarcS tu bund pusenda Pcrsea ofslaegen, 
7 pa opre gefliemed. Da he eft haefde fird gegaderod on 
Perseum, 7 paet wrecan polite, pa gefor he. 30 

/Kfter him feng his sunu to Persea rice Xersifl. paet gewinn 
paet his fader alcalde he diegellice for pa'in v gear scipa 
worhte, ond fultum gegaderode. pa was mid him an wraeccea 



Anno ab Urbe conclita ccxlv, Darius, Cyro apud ScytTias 
interfecto, post aliquantum intervallum forte regnum adeptus est. 
Regnavit enim medius eorum Cambyses Cyri Alius: qui, devicta 
Aegypto, cunctam Aegypti religionem abominatus, ceremonias 
ejus et templa deposuit. 

Post hunc . . . Darius rex creatus est, qui, postquam Assyrios 
ac Babyloniam a Persarum regno deficientem, hello recuperavit, 
Attyro, regi Scytharum, hac vel maxime causa bellum intulit, 
<\vlo<1 fillae ejus petitas sibi nuptias non obtinuisset. Cum sep- 
tingentis millibus armatorum Scythiam ingressus, non facien- 
tibus hostibus justae pugnae potestatem, insuper repentinis 
incursibus extrema copiarum dilacerantibus, metuens, ne sibi 
reditus iuterrupto ponte Istri Jluminis negaretur, amissis octo- 
ginta millibus bellatorum, trepidus refugit. Inde Asiam Mace- 
doniamque adgressus perdomuit. Ionas quoque superavit. Deinde 
in Atbenienses quod Ionas adversum se auxilio juvissent, im- 
petum fecit atque arma direxit. Porro autem Athenienses, 
ubi adventare Darium compererunt, instructis tanturn decern 
millibus civium, et Plataeensibus auxiliaribus mille, adversum 
sexcenta millia bostium campis Marathoniis proruperunt. Mil- 
tiades ei tunc hello praefuit, qui, celeritate magis quam virtute 
fretus, prius hosti comminus inhaesit, quam posset expedito fagit- 
tarum jactu propxdsari. Ducenta millia Persarum ea tem- 
pcstate ceciderunt. Sensit Darius hoc damnum. Cum autem 
instauraret helium, et ulcisci in victores moliretur, in ipso ad- 
paratu concidit. 


Xerxes, Dario patri in regnum succedens, bellum a patre 
susceptum, per quinquennium instruxit : quod Demaratus La- 
cedaemonius, qui tunc apud Xcrxcm cxsulabat, per tabellas 


Alfred's orosius. 

i i. . 

in. 'ilia C. 

2 waes C. o. I 

■ From C. ; 
exerois t. 

of Laecedamania *, Creca byrg, se waes baten DameraS, se pat 
facn to his cyppe gebodade, 7 bit on auum brede awrat, 7 
f?i)?j7aii mid weaxe beworhte. Xersis, pa be an Crecas for, 
haefde his agenes folces vin C pusenda, 7 he hafde of operu??*, 
peoduw abeden 1111 cm; 7 he haefde scipa, para miclena 5 
dulmuna, an ji 7 11 bund, 7 ]?ara scipa waron in M pe Mora 

[Page 52.] me te baeran ; 7 ealles his heres * wses swelc ungemet pat mon 
ea(5e cwepan mehte (Sat hit wundor waere, hwser hie landes 
ha?fden pat hie mehten an gewician, oppe wateres pat hie 
mehten him burst of adrincan. Swa peah seo ungemetlice 10 
mengeo pas folces (was) 2 pa ieftre to ofei winnanne ponne beo 
us sie nu to gerimanne oppe to geliefanne. 

LeoniSa, Lacedemonia cyning, Creca byrg, hafde mi pusend 
monna, pa he angean Xersis for on anura nearwan londfastenne, 
7 him par mid gefeohte wiSstod. Xersis 3 pcet oper folc swa 15 
swiSe forseab, beet he ascade, hwat sceolde set swa lytlum 
weorode mara fultum, buton pa ane pe him par ar abolgen 
wees on t5am aerran gefeohte, patte waes on Merothonia baere 
dune. Ac gesette pa men on senne truman pe mon hiora 
magas a?r on Stem londe slog, 7 wiste paet hie woldon georn- 20 
fulran boon pare wrace bonne opere men, 7 hie swa waron 
otS hie par maeat ealle ofslaegeue wurdon. Xersis, swipe him 
ba ofpyncendum pret his folc swa forslagen was, he self pa 
pserto for mid eallum poem mcegene pe be 'Saerto geladan mehte, 
7 par feohtende waeron in dagas, op para Persea waes un- 25 
gemetlic wael gestagen. He net pa prct faste lend utan ymb- 
faran, paet him mon sceolde an ma healfa on feohtan pon?i« 
on ane. Lconipa pcet pa geascade pat hiene mon swa bebridian 
wolde. He bonan afor, 7 his fierd geladde on an oper faestre 

• cewunode land, 7 par gewunedon 4 op hiht. 7 bim from afaran bet ealla 30 

pa burgware pe he of otSerum londe him to fnltome abeden 

hafde, pat hie him gesundc burgen, for pam he ne upe pat 

anig ma folca for his pingum forwurde bonne he self mid liis 

agenre peode. Ac he pus was sprccende 7 geomriende : ' Nu 

we untweogeiullice witan pat we ure agen lif forlatan sceolan 35 

a From c.o. fur bsem ungemetlican feondscipe pe ure ehtende (on)' sindon ; 
/.. and late. 


prinmm Bcriptas, deincle ceratas, suis prodidit. Igitur Xerxes 
scptingenta millia armatorum de regno, et trecenta .millia de 
aiu'Uiis, rostratas etiam naves mille ducenta-p, onerarias autem 
tria millia numero habuisse narratnr; ut exercitui immensaeque 
classi vix ad \>ot\\va jlumina, vix terras ad ingressum, vix maria, 
ad cursum suffeeisse memoratum sit. Huic tarn incredibili 
temporibus nostris agmini, cujus numerum nunc difficilius est 
adstrui, qnam tunc fuit vinci. 

Leonida, rex Spartanorum, cum quatuor millibus liominum 
in angustiis Thermopylarum obstitit. Xerxes autem, contemtu 
paucitatis objectae, iniri pugnam imperat. Porro illi, quorum 
cognati in campis Marathoniis occubuerant, et certaminis simul 
et clad is extitere princifrtwm. Deinde succedens sibi turba major 
ac segnior, triduo continuo non duorum pugna, sed caedes unit's 
popvli fuit. Quarta autem die cum videret Leonida undique 
hostem circumfundi, hortatur auxiliares socios, ut subtrahentes 
se pugnae, se ad meliora tempora reservent. Dimissis sociis, 
Sparianos admonet, de gloria plurimum, de vita nihil speran- 
dvm: sed occasione noctis perrtimpenda castra, commiscenda- 
arma, contv.rbanda agmina fore. Mirum dictu, sexcenti viri 
castra sexcentorum millium inrumpunt. 



uton behhwgebere aeraeftan hu we heora an }?isse niht maegen 
maest beswican, 7 us selfim betst word 7 longsumast aet urum 
♦[Page 53.] ent i e gew)Tcan.' * Hu ruicel baet is to secganne fcsette LeonitSa 
mid vi c nionna vi C m swa gebismrade, sume ofslog, sume 
gefliemile ! 

1 From C. 

2 From C, 

Xersifl wjes ba set twam cirrum on ?5a?m londe swa gescend 
mid his "orniaetan menige. He fiagiet briddan Bibe waea wil- 
niende mid scipfierde pset he pees gewinnes mehte mare 
gefremman, 7 him Ionas, Creca leode, on fultum gespon ; beli 
hie a?r ofer hiera willan him to gecierdon, 7 hie him gcheton 10 
pcet hie Saet gefeoht serest mid him selfum burhteon wolden, 
beh hie him eft facen gelsesten, ba hie on tSsem sa? feohtende 
wseron. Themestocles hatte Atheniensa ladteow. Hie wa?ron 
cumen LeoniSan to fultume, beh hie set baem serran gcfeohte 
him no niehten to euman. Se Themestocles gemyndgade Ionas 15 
bare ealdan fa?h]?e pe Xersis him to geworht haefde, hu he 
hie mid forhergiunge 7 mid heora msega slihtum on his geweald 
geniedde. He bsed hie eac piet hie gemunden bara ealdena 
treowa 7 bses dnarimedlican freondscipes pe hie ae^per haefdon 
ge to Atheniensrum ge to Lsecedemoniam aer on ealddagum, 7 20 
hie bidde(nde) 1 tos beet hie mid sume searawrence from Xerse 
bami cyninge sume hwile awende, paet hie 7 La?cedcinonie 
mosten w*i5 Persuni ]?aes gewinnes sumne ende gewyrcan ; 7 2 
hi him baere bone getygbedon. pa pn Perse pcet gesawon pcet 
him ba from bugan be hie betst getriewdon pat him Bceolde 25 

gefeohtan, hie Belfe eac fleoude waeron, 7 hiora p?ev wearc? 
fela ofslsegen 7 adruncen 7 gefangen. 

Xersis begn waea haten Martfonius. Se hiene waes georne 
leerende basl ho ma hamweard fore ponnr he j?aer leng bide, 
bylses senegu angebwsernea on liis agnuni rice ahafen wurde;30 
7 cwseb baei hit gerisenlic[re] trsare bset he bset gewinn him 
beteehte mid pxm fultume be pan- to lafe bagiel tobb leng 
to wiimaiiiic 7 ssede pcet hit barm cyninge Isesse edwit were 
yif baem folce baton him |>agie1 misspeowe, sua him eer dyde. 



Xerxes, bis victus in terra, navale praelium parat. Sed 
Themistocles, dux Atheniensium, cum intellexisset lonas {quibus 
dum auxilium sup&riore hello praebet, in se Persarum impebum 
verterat) in auxilium Xerxis instructam classem deducere, solli- 

citare eos parti suae, foostique subtrahere statuit. Locis, quibus 
Iones accessuri navlbxs videbantur, proponi symbolos, saxisque 
adjigi jubet, socios quondam et partidpes pericidorum, nunc 
autem injuste agentes, apta increpatione corripiens, atque ad 
antiquorum jura foederum rdigiosa adhortatione persuadens : 
praecipueqxie admoneus, uti commisso praelio sese hello auferant. 
. . . Cam autem, anceps pugna esset, Tones, juxta jrraeceptum The- 
mistoclis, ])aidatim se certamini subtrahere coeperunt: quorum 
defectio Persas, jam fa gam, circumspicientes , aperte fugere per- 
suasit. In qua trepidatione multae naves mersae captaeque 

Anxium tot malis regem Mardonius adgreditur, suadens, 
regem in regnum redire oportere, priua quam adversa fama 
novas res domi moliretur. Se autem, si residuae sibi copiae 
traderentur, ultionem ab hoste exacturum ; aut, si adversa belli 
per sever assent, cessurum se quidem hosti, sed tamen sine regis 
infamia. Probata consilio, exercitus Mardonio traditwr. Ilex 
Abydum, ubi pontein veluti victor maris conseruerat, cum paucis 



Se cyning pa Xersis swijje geliefedlice his £>egne gehierde, 7 
» So alto c. mid sum urn dsele his fultume ' £onan afor. pa he pa ham- 
*[i'a?eo4.] weard * to ];8ere ie com, pe he ser westweard het pa ofermaetan 
brycge mid stane ofer gewyrcan, his sige [to] tacne pe he on 
p&tru sij?e J?urhteou polite, J>a wa?s seo ea to J)on flede J?a?t he 5 
ue mehte to J?8ere brycge cuman. pa wses Seem cyninge swij?e 
ange on his mode ]?8et naf>aer ne he mid his fultume uses, ne 
(5c<et he ofer pa ea cuman ne mehte. Toeacan tSjem he him 
■wjes swi]?e ondisedende f>set him his fiend waeren aefterfylgende. 
Him pa to com an fiscere, 7 unease hiene senne ofer brohte. 10 
Hu God pa [msestan] ofermetto 7 paet ma-ste angin on swa 
heaulice ofermetto geniSerade, J>aet se, se pe him a?r gebuhte 
pa?t him nan sa? wiphabban ne mehte J?set he liienc mid Bcipun 
7 mid his fultume afyllan ne mehte. pa?t he eft was biddende 
anes lytles trogee set anuwi caiman men, J?a?t he mehte his 15 
feorli generian ! 

Morjjonius, Xersis J^egn, forlet )?a scipa pe hie on farende 
waron, 7 for to anre byrig on Boctium, Creca londe, 7 hie 
abra?c. Him mon ^aet aefter tSa'm hraedlice fnrgeald, pa hie 
mon gefliemde, 7 swij^e forslog; J?eh pe Atheniensum se sige 20 
7 seo rcafung )?aes Persiscan feos to maran sconde wurde, for 
pon, sij^an hie welegran wseron, hie eac bleatSran gewurdon. 
ter }3Pem Xcrsis wear}? his agcnre }?eode swipe umveorjj, 7 
hiene his agon ealdormon Artabatus beshede 7 ofslog. Eala, 
cwno Orosius, lui lustbeerlice tida on <5a?m daguni wa?ron, 25 
swa swa }?a secgaS, pe Jjaes crifltendomes wiSerflitan shit, Jwt 
u> mi sefter swelcnm longian maege swelce pa vraron, pa swa 
mice! folc on swa lytlan firste a-1 prim folcgefeohtum forwurdou, 
wvzb nigoo x hund puscnda of Perm anra anwealde buton 
hiera wijjerwinnnm, a^er ge of Sci]?pium ge of Crccum ! 30 
pxt tacnade LeoniSa on his psem nihstan gefeohte 7 P- 
hwelc moncwealm on Creca londe wsea mid monigfealdom 
2 si.reccende deatmm, mid poem pe he sprecci. - to his geferum * set 

♦'[Page .v..] his underngereorde, ser he to Seem gefeohte fore: 'Uton nu 


proficiscitur. Sed cum pontem Mbernis tempestatibus K disso- : 4 
lutum offendisset, piscatoria scapha trepidus transit. Erat sane 
quod spectare humanum genus et dolere debuerit, mutationes 
rerum hac vel maxime varietate permetxens, exiguo contentum 
latere navigio, sub quo ipsum pelagus ante latuisset ; vilissimo 
unius servidi egere miniderio, cujus potentiae ipsa etiam rerum 
natura cessisset. 


At vero Mardonius adflatus primum successu, mox in ex- 
trema dejeetus est. Olynthum siquidem, Graeciae oppidum, 
expugnavit, ... In Boeotiam omnem belli adparatum deducit. 
Illuc quoque eum centum millia Graecorum insecuta sunt, et 
Mardonium, deletis copiis ipsius, fugere corapulerunt : castra 
regiis opibus referta ceperunt, nou parvo quidem antiquae in- 
dustriae damno. Nam post hujus praedae divisionem, aurum 
Perskum prima Graeciae virtutis corruptio fiiit. Xerxes hello 
in Graecia infeliciter gesto, contemtibilis suis factus, per Arta- 
banum, praefectuni suum, in regia circumventus, occiditur. O 
tempora desiderio et recordations dignisslma ! dies illos inof- 
fensae serenitatis, qui nobis veluti e tenebris respiciendi propo- 
nuutur, quibus, brevissimo intervallo, de visceribus unius regni 
decies novies centcna millia virorum fcria bella rapuerunt : ut 
taceam de Graecia . . . Leonida in bello isto adcersus Xerxem, 
quod supremum ipsi atque hosfibns fuit, cum sexcentis suis 
famosissima Ula incitamenta dixisset : ' Prandete, tamquam 
apud inferos coenaturi,' a/uxiliaribw lumen miscricorditer masit, 

86 Alfred's orosius. 

brucaii pisses undernmetes swa ba sculon be hiora sefengifl 
on belle gefeccean sculon.' peh he swa |>a cwaBde, he cwaeS 
eft ober word: ' peh ic ser saede f>aet we to helle sceolden, beh 

» geortriiwise ne geortriewe ' ic na Gode baet he us ne msege gescildan to 
beteian tidun bonne we nu on sint.' Leoniba ssede baet pa 5 

* 80 alto C. tula pa yfele waeron, 7 wilnade past him toweard 2 beterau 
waeron; 7 nu sume men secgaS baet pa beterau waeren poune 
nu !-ien. Nu hie swa twywyrdige sindon, bonne waeron aegber 

ssamemeiin gode, ge ba serran, swa sum(e m)en 3 nu secgacS, ge eac bas 

erran, swa hie ver saedon, 7 nseron na<5ere an bance ; gif 10 

iFromC. hie bonne sot5 ne saedon, bonne noeron naber gode (ne ba)\ 
ne nu. 

Nu we sculon eft, cwsecS Orosius, hwiorfan near Roma, baer 

we hit ?er forleton ; for [bon] ic ne mseg eal ba monigfealdan 

5 Altered to yfel emdenes e areccean, swa ic eac calles bises niiddangean! ~ LS 

(/'//(.-): en- na maran dseles ne angite buton Oaette on twam onwealdum 
denies C. 

* Repeated gewearS, on bcem serestan 7 on osem" sibemestan: bivt suit 

above th 

<" ms. Asirie 7 Romane. 

(II, VI.) 
yEfter baeni be Romeburg getimbred waes 11 hunde wiutra 
7 hundeahtatigum — by ilcan geare be Sabini Romane swa -" 
beswicon, ba hiora in bund 7 siex men of a?g(5erre healfe 
to anwigge eodon — weaiS mice] wundor on Eeofonum gesewen, 
Ice eal se hefon birnende weere. paei tacen weai<5 on Roma- 
num Bwibe gesweotolad mid baeni miclan wolbryne monn- 
cwealmes, be him raSe Saes aefter com, swa Saet hie healfe -3 
belifene wurdon, 7 beora twegen consulas Se hie 3a hffifdon, 
ba at nihstan 5a be baer to lafe beon niostou waeron to 
tSaem metSie ba±t hie ne mehton ba gefarenan to eorban bringan. 
Sona aefter baem ealle heora beowas witS pa blafordas win- 
am; nende waeron, 7 hie benoman 7 heora heafodstedea pat hie 30 
Capitoliam heton. 7 hie micla gefeoht ymh pal haefdon, ob 
♦[Pagcofj.] hit ofslogan bone anno consul be hie pa oiwan geset haefdon, 

ROME. 87 

nt se ad meliora tempore reservarent. Ecce cum ille promisit 
futura meliora, isti asserunt meliora praeterita, quid alivd cottigi 
datur, utroque in mis detestante praesentia, nisi aut semper 
bona esse, sed ingrata, aut nuniquum omuino meliora '? 


At Romae, ut ad id tempus redeam unde digressus sum : 
nubia quippe conferre inter se tempora Orbis, non cujusquam 
partis ejus laborious insultare propositum est. 

Romae ergo, post Urbem conditam anuo ccxc gravis pesti- 
lenbia per universa/m civitatem violenter incanduit, ut merito 
praecedente prodigio coelum ardere visum sit, quando caput 
gentium tauto morborum igne flagravit. Nam eo anno Aebu- 
tium et Servilium, ambos cousules, pestilentia consumsit, mili- 
tares copias plurima ex parte confecit. 

Proximo dehinc anno servi fujitivi invaseruut Capitolium : 
ubi fortissime quidem, Valerio console et imperatore, obstitere 
juniores: sed adco atrox et grave discrimeu praelii fait, ut ipse 
quoque consul Valerius ibi merit occisus, et indiguam de servis 

88 Alfred's obosius. 

peh pa hlafordas on prem ende hsefden heanlicne sige. 7 sona 
pass, py asfterran geare, Romane wunnan wi(5 Fukisci ptet 
folc, 7 pa?r wurdon swipe forslaegene, 7 se dsel se paer to lafe 
[wses], wearS on an fsesten bedrifen, 7 peer wurdon mid hungre 
acwealde, peer heora pa ne gehulpe pa peer set ham wseron, mid 5 
tSsem pe hie gegaderedon cal moncynnes pset peer kefed woes, 
7 genamon anne earmne mon him to consule, paer he on his 
secere eode, 7 his sulh on handa hsefde, 7 sippan to Fulcisci 
pajm londe ferdon, 7 hie ut forleton. 

1 fuiiice c. Miter psem wses an ger full ' past ofcr eall Romana rice 10 

sco eorbe waes ewaciende 7 berstende. 7 selce daeg mon com 
*FromC. unarimedlice oft to (paem) 2 senatum, 7 him seed on from burgowj 
sbesuncen 7 from tunuw on eorpan besuncen 3 , 7 hie selfe wseron selce 
besuncanC daeg on paere ondrsedinge hwonne hie on pa eorpan besuncene 

wurden. iEfter Seem com swa micel ha?te giend Romane past 15 
ealle heora eortSwsestrnas ge eac hie selfe neah forwurdon. 
JEfter psem paer wear<5 se maesta hunger. 

vEfter psem Romane gesettan him x consulas, paer hie ger 
twegen haefdon, to pon pcet hie hiera ae bewisten. Hiera an 
waeB Claudius haten, se him waes on teonde ealdordom ofer 20 
pa opere, peh hie him pees gepafiende naeren, ac wi<5 hiene 
winnende wseron, op po[ne] first pe hie sume to him gecirdon, 
same noldan. Ac swa on twa todaelde him betweonum wunnan 
p(et hie forgeatan para utera gefeohta pc him anhende wseron, 
op ealle pa consulas togsederc gecirdon, 7 Claudium pone aanne 25 
!nid saglum ofbeotan ; 7 sippan heora agen loud wergende 

Icpclice, cwse<5 Orosius, 7 scortlice ic haebbe nu gessed hiora 

ingewinn, peh hi him waeron forneah pa ninstan 7 pa pleolec- 

estan. p8Bt cue ESna pset Bweflene fvr tacnade, pa bit up of 30 

hclle geate asprong on Sicilia psem londe, hwelc gewinn ba 

♦[Page 57.] weerou be Seem pe nu sindon, 7 Sicilia *fela ofelog mid bryne 7 


victoriam insuper etiam sua morte foedaverit. Sequitur annus, 
in quo cum victo exercitu consul obsessus est. Nam Minueium 
cons idem, congressum praelio, Volsci superarunt : et fugientem 
in Algido fame ferroque cinxerunt : actumque infeliciter foret, 
ni Quinctius Cincinnatus, praecipuus Me dictator, obsidionem 
oppresso hoste solvisset : qui repertus ruri, ab aratro arcessitus 
ad fasces, jugum bourn Aequis inposuit. 

xii r. 

. . . Per totum fere annum tarn crebri, tamque etiam graves 
in Italia terraemotus fuerunt, ut cle innumeris quassationibus ac 
ruinis villamm oppidorumque assiduis Roma nuntiis fatiga- 
retur. Deinde ita jugis et torrida siccitas fuit, ut praesentis 
tunc futurique anni spem gignendis terrae fructibus abnegarit. 

Potestas consilium decemviris tradita, constituendarum legum 
Atticarum gratia, magnam j.erniciem reipublicae invexit: nam 
primus ex decemviris, cedentibus caeteris, solus Appius Claudius 
sibi contimiavit imperium. 


Sici/ia, ut quam brevissime absolvam, requiem malorum, nisi 
nunc, nescit. Nam Aetna ipsa, quae tunc cum excidio urbium 
atqae agrorum crebris eruptionibus aestuabat, nunc tantum 
innoxia specie ad praeteritorum fidem fumat. 

90 Alfred's orosils. 

mid stsence. Ac sippan hit cristen wearS, pset helle fyr waes 
i nngetima c. sippan geswiSrad, swa ealle ungetina ' wseron, pset hit uu is 
-swyicum baton swolce tacnung 2 pa?s yfeles pe hit ser dyde, peh hit selce 

taciiungum C. . , . . , , 

geare sie bradre et bradre. 

(II, YII.) 

-defter psem be Romeburg getiinhred wses in hunde wintra 7 5 
an, psette Sicilie ungerade waeron him betweonu?>i, 7 hie healfe 
asponau Lsecedernonie him on fultum, 7 healfe Athenienses, 
Creca pec-da, pe ser setgsedere wi(5 Perse winnende waeron. Ac 
sippan hie on Sicilium wunnon, hie eac sippan betweonum him 
selfum winnende wseron, op pset Darius, Persa cyning, Lsece- 10 
demonium on fultume wear<5 wi(5 psem Athenienses, for paem 
gewinnuwi his ieldrena. AVses (5aet micel wunder jrset eall Persa 
anweald 7 Lsecedemonia paet hie ietS mehton Ahtene pa burg 
awestan ponne hie Saet folc mehten to heora willum geniedan ! 

7 sona sefter paeni, py ilcan geare, Darius gefor Persa cyuing. 15 

7 his 11 suna ymb pxt rice wunnon, Artecserses 7 Cirus, op 

hiora aegper \xnt mseste folc ongean operne geteah, 7 pa unsibbe 

b laowr era- m \& rrefeohtum dreogende wseron ob Cirus ofsplagen 3 wearcS, se 
mre; ofelagen b e ' . 

c ' pser gingra wses. On ptem dagum wses an burg in Affrica sio 

wses neh psem sae, otS an sseflod com, 7 hie aweste 7 pa men 20 

(II, VIII.) 
/TCfter psem pe Romeburg getimbred wses m hunde wintra 
7 lv, psette Elomane besseton Ueiorum pa burg \ winter. 7 him 
pset setl swipor derede \>onne pam pe pserinne waeron, a'gper ge 
an ciele ge an hungre ; buton Sa?m pe mon oft hergeade a^gtSer 25 
ge on hie selfe ge on heora land aet ham. 7 hie pa hrsedlice 
beforan heora feondum forweorpan sceoldon, baer hie 5a burg ne 
abrsecen mid paem craefte pe pa scondlicost wses, peh he him eft 
31 weortSesta wurde, JjsbI waes baet hie from heora wicstowum 
♦[Page o$.] * under paere eorpan dulfon, op hie binnan baere byrig up eodon, 30 


Anno ab ITrbe condita cccxxxv cum khrgini apud Siciliam 
discordia laborarent, civitasque per dissen&ionem divisa in duas 
partes esset, pars una veleranos ab I/hnera, urbe Siciliae, in auxi- 
lium vocacit. At etiam Catanenses ab Atbeniensibus auxilia 
poposcerunt. At Syravusani auxilium a Lacedaemoniis petunt. 


Igitur Athenienses, biennio apud Siciliam non sine Lacedae- 
moniorum damno conflictati, alt is domi malis circumveniuntur. 
Alcibiades enim inpulit Spartanos, ut turbatis Atheuieusibus 
bello insisterent. Darius etiam, rex Persarum, memor p>aterni 
avitique in home urbem odii, cum Lacedaemouiis foedus pacisci- 
tur, eis/jue sumlus belli et copias pollicetur. Mirum dictu, Athe- 
niensium tantas ea tempestate opes fuisse, ut, cum adversus eos 
Oraeciae totiusque Orientis viribus incursum sit, consumti magis 
videantur fuisse quani victi. 


Mortuo rege Dario, cum Artaxerxes et Cyrus, filii ejus, de 
regno ambigerent, tandem magnis adparatibus, magnis pro- 
vinciarum ac popidorum minis, ut rim que certatum. Cyrus a 
cohorte regia oppressus, finem certamini dedit. Tunc etiam 
Atalante civitas terrae contigua, repenlino maris inpetu abscissa, 
atque in insulam desolata est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita ccclv, obsidio Vejorum decern con- 
Unuis annis magis obsessores quam obsessos detrivit. Nam 
Romani repent in is saepe hostium eruptionibus comminuti, postre- 
mo famem ac frigus in conspectu hostium perpeti coacti sunt : 
urbem novissime, sine ullo digno Romanae virtutis testimonio, 
cuuiculis 7 clandestina obreptione ceperunt. Hanc utilem magis 
quam nobilem victoriam, primo dictatoris Camilli, qui earn de 
V'jrittibus patravit, exsilium, debinc irruptio Gallorum inse- 

92 Alfred's orosius. 

7 hie nihtes on frurmkepe on bestaelan, 7 pa burg mid ealle 
awestan. pysne nyttan craeft, peh he arlic ngere, funde heora 
tictator, Camillis hatte. 

Sona aefter paem wearS Romana gewinn 7 para Gallia, pe 
waeron of Senno paere byrig. paet waes Barest for paem pa Gallia 5 
haefdon beseten Tusci pa burg, pa sendon Romane aerendracan 
to Gallium, 7 hie baedon paet hie friS wi<5 hie haefden. pa on 
t5aem ilcan daege aefter paeni be hie piss gesprecen haefdon, 
fubton Gallie on pa burg ; pa gesawan hie Romana aerendracan 
on hie feohtende mid paem bu[r]g\varum. Hie for paem hie 10 
gebulgon, 7 pa burg forleton, 7 mid eallum heora fultume 
Romane sohton. 7 him Uauius se consul mid gefeohte ongean 
com, 7 eac ra$e gefliemed wearcS eft into Romebyrig, 7 him 
Gallie waeron aefterfylgende op hie ealle paer binnan waeron. 
Gelice 7 mon maed ma we, hie waeron pa burg hergende 7 15 
sleande buton aelcre ware, paet tacen nugiet cup is on paere ea 
noman paes consules sieges Fauiuses. 

Xc wene ic, cwaeft Orosius, paet aenig mon atellan maege ealne 
pone demm pe Romanuwi aet paem cirre gedon wearS, J?eh hie 
p& burg ne forbaemden, swa hie J?a gedydon. 7 pa feawan pe 20 
paer to lafe wurdon gesealdon 11 punda goldes wit) heora feore ; 
7 hie paet c ] ydon for f>aem swijjost pe hie pohtan paet hie sippan 
hiora underpeowas waeren. 7 sume binnan pcet f;esten 0$- 
flugon, paet hie Capitoliam heton. Hie pa eac befcseton, oS 
hie sume hungrc acwaelan, sume on hand eodan, 7 hie sippan 25 
oprum folcum him wi(S feo gesealdon. 

Hu pyneS cow nu, cwaetS Orosius, pe bees cristendomes tida 

leahtriaft, sippan Gallia ut of paere byrig aforan, bu bliSe tida 

*[Pagc59.] * Romane aefter Sami haefdon. pa pa iermingaa pe paer to lafe 

wurdon lit of paem holan crupon be heo on lutedan, swa be- 30 
wopene swelce hie of oberre worolde come, ponne hie besawon 
on pa besengdan burg 7 on pa westan, put him ba vrtea syndrig 
'■. ege p;»T him a?r waes Be[o] mseste ' wyn. Eac buton paem yfele 
nahton bie naber nv bserinne mete ne baarute freond. 

paet waeron ba tida be Romane nu Better sica'S, 7 cwebatS pa 
him Gotan wyrean tida gedon haebben bonne hie eer haefdon, 7 



Igitur Galli Senones, cum urbem Clusini, quae nunc Tuscia 
diet fur, obsiderent, legatos Romanorum (qui tunc componendae 
inter eos pacis gratia venerant) in acie adversum se videre 
pugnantes : qua indignatione permoti, Clusini oppidi obsidione 
diniissa, totis viribus Romam contenduut. Hos Fabius cum ex- 
ercitu consul excepit, nee tamen obstitit, imo potius hostilis 
ille impetus, quasi aridam segetem succidit, stravit et transiit. 
Testatur hanc Fabii cladem fluvius Allia, sicut Cremera Fa- 

Non emm facile aliquis similem rainam Romanae militiae re- 
censeret, etiam si Roma insuper incensa non esset. . . . Uni- 
versam reliquam juventutem in arce Capitolini montis latitantem, 
obsidione concludunt : ibique infelices teliquias fame terunt, 
subigunt, vendunt : nam mille libris auri discessionis pretium 
paciscuntur : non quod apud Gallos Roma parvi nominis fuerit, 
sed quod illam sic jam ante detriverint, lit amplius tunc valere 
non ])osset. 

En tempora, quorum comparatione praeseiitia jmideranhcr : 
, quibus recordatio suspirat. Eevera pares sunt et conferuntur 



naeron on hie bergende buton prie dagas ; j Gallie waeron aer 
siex mounts binnan [were byrig hergende, 7 ba burg baernende; 
7 him Jjaet pagiet to lytel yfel fmhte buton hie eac hie )?aes 
Hainan bcname Juet hie nan folc naeren. Eft ba Cut an }xi-r 
hvssan hwile hergedan jjaet hie for f>aes cristendomes are 7 )?urh 5 
Godes ege bcc£ hie naj?er ne J?a burg ne baerndon ne ]">a?s £one 
willan naefdon pcet hie heora noman hie benamon. Xc para 
nanne yflian noldan ]?e to t>aem Godes huse oSflugon, Jxdi hie 
hsebene wa?re ; ac swibor micle waeron wilniende pcet hie gemong 
him mid sibbe sittan mosten. 7 uneacSe mehte aer senig psem 10 
> »•./«/;,-/; fn Gallium (otSflcon) 1 o}>be ofthydan. 7 pa pa Gotan Jjger lytle 
- From c. ; hwile hergedan, ne mehte mon buton feawa ofslagenra 2 geahsian. 
D.i'i- W83B gesiene Godes irre, f?a hiora aerenan beamas 3 7 hiora 
anlicnessa, pa hie ne mehton from Galliseum fyre forbaernede 
weoipan ; ac hi hefenisc f)T aet faern ilcan cyrre forbaernde. 15 

Ne wene ic, cweeft Orosius, nu ic longe spell haebbe to 
secgenne, J?aet ic hie on }?isse bee geendian maege ; ac ic o)?ere 
anginnan sceal. 

Ofslagenre L 
From Cj 

beames /.. 

(HI, I) 

•[Page co.] * JEfrer o^aem pe Romeburg getimbred waes in hunde wintra 

7 Lvrr, on J?aem dagiuw pe Gallic Roma awest haefdon, pa 20 
geweartS seo mae^to aibh 7 seo bismerlecestc betwih Laecede- 
monium, Creca londe, 7 Persum. /Efter paiin pe LaBeedemonie 
haefdon Perse oft oferwunnen, pa gebudon him Perse ]^aet hie 
haefden in winter sibbe wij? hie, se pe Jxet wolde, 7 se pe 
pent nolde, ]xet hie wolden pa mid gefeohte gesecan. Hie pa 26 
Lsecedemoniae lustlice j^aere sibbe hirsumedan, for J?a?m lytlan 
ege be him mon gehead. On pwm mon maeg Bweotole oncnawan 
hu micelne willan hie to tSaem gewinne haefdon swa heora Bcopaa 
on heora leotSum giddiende sindon, 7 on heora leas(s)pel- 
lengum 4 . Ne gebynctS pe Bwelc gewin nohi lustbaere, cwaetS 80 
Orosius, ne pa tida |?on ma, baette him his feond maege swa 
eabe his mid wordum gestieran ? 

jEfter ]i;rin ]->(> Laecedemonie hsefdon oferwunnen Ahtene 
ba bin--, hiora agene 1 le, hi bie |?a up ahofon 7 winnaa 

'• 1. agpellen- 
: inn C. alto. 


inter se hae duae captivitates, ilia sex memibus desaeviens, et 
tribus diebua ista transcurrens. Galli, exstincto populo, urbe 
deleta, ipsum quoque Romae nomen persequentes, et Gotbi, 
relicta intentione praedandi, ad confugia salutis, hoc est, sanc- 
torum locorum, agraina ignara cogentes. Ibi vix quern quam 
inventum senatorem, qui vel absens evaserit : bic vix quemquam 
requiri, qui forte ut latens perierit. Plane fatendum est, in 
hac clade praesenti plus Deum saevisse, homines minus: quippe 
cum supra humanas vires esset, incendere aeneas trabes, et sub- 
ruere magnarwm moles structurarum, ictu falminum Forum 
cum imaginibus vanis abjectum est : horurnque omnium abo- 
minamentorum, quod inmissa per hostem flamma uon adiit, 
■missus e coelo ismis everiit. 

Et quouiam uber diceudi materia est, quae nequaquam boc 
concludi libvo potest, bic praeseutis volumiuis fiuis sit, ut in 
subsequentibus cetera prosequamur. 

Ill, I. 

Anno ab Urbe condita ccclxiv, eo siquidem tempore, quo 
Galli Eomam captam tenuerunt, Artaxerxes, Rex Persarum, 
discedere ab armis et quiescere in pace universam Graeciam prae- 
cepit, denuntians contradictorem pads bello impetendum : quern 
ita jubeatem 2>otuissent tarn constanter contemnere, quam fortiter 
saepe vicerunt, nisi p>orrectan% undecunque occasionem tarn liben- 
ter hausissent : ostenderunt enim quam aegre admisere ilia quae 
eatenus gesserunt, quae tarn facile, indigna etiam conditione, 
deposuerunt: nam quid tarn indignum liberis viris, quam hostis 
imperio anna deponere, pacique servire ? 

Lacedaemonii, postquam Atbeniensium potiti sunt, universam 
Asiam spe dominationis hauserunt. 



•[Page 61.] 

' o. I. laU C. 

2 From C. ; 
arende L 

3 Alitene C. 
* scipliere C. 

•'• |>rierertre- 
neiia both. 

■ From C. ; 
lintan L. 

angunnan on felee healfe biora, ge witS heora agen folc, ge 
wit5 Perse, ge wiS pa Isessan Asiaru, ge wi(5 Ahtene pa burg, 
pe hie aer awestan ; for (Son pa feawan pe paer lit opfiugon 
hsefdon eft ba burg gebune, 7 hsefdon Tbebane, Creca leode, 
him on fultum asponon. La?cedemonie wa?ron swa uppa- 5 
ha?fene, pcet segtSer ge hie self wendon ge ealle 5a neahbeoda 
ba?t hie ofer hie ealle mehte anwald habban. Ac him Ahteni- 
ense mid Thebana fultume wiS&todon, 7 hie mid gefeohte 

sEfter bnem Laecedemonie gecuron him to ladteowe, Ircclidia 10 
waes haten, 7 hiene sendon on Perse mid fultume wiS hie 
to gefeohtanne. Him J?a Perse mid heora twa?m ealdormon- 
num ongean coman ; ober hatte Farnabuses, ober Dissifamon. 
Sona swa bara La?cedemonia ladteow wiste pcet he wicS pa 
twegen heras sceolde, him ba raedlecre gebuhte pcet he wift 15 
oberne fri5 gename, * baet he bone ofternc be ieS ofcrcuman 
mehte. 7 he swa gedyde. 7 his aerenddracan to (ba?m) * opmm 
onsende, 7 him secgan bet bat he geornor wolde sibbe wi5 
hiene bomie gewinn. He pa se ealdormon geliefedlice mid sibbe 
bara aerenda 2 anfeng, 7 Laecedemonie ba hwile gefliemdon bone 20 
oSerne ealdormon. 

^Efter baem Versa, cyning benom bone ealdormon his scire, 
be aer baem fribe anfeng aet Lrecedemonium, 7 hie gesealde 
anu//? wrpeccean of Ahtena 3 , Creca byrg, se waes haten Conon, 
7 hiene sende mid scipehere 4 of Persum to Laecedemonim??. 25 
7 hie sendon to Egyptum La?cedemonie, 7 him fultumes bsedon; 
7 hie him gescaldon an c bara miclena priereftrena 5 . Laecede- 
monie haefdun him to ladteowe nni.e wisne thou, peh he healt 
wart-, se waes haten 6 Ageselans, 7 him to gielpworde hsefdon 
pset him leofre waere pa>t hie ha-fdou healtne cyning poll 
healt rice. Hie sibban on t5fem bse togSBdere furan. 7 )?aer 
swa angemetlice gefuhton pcet hie neah ealle forwordon, pcet 
natSer ne mehte on oprmn sige geraecan. paer wearS Laecede- 
monia anweald 7 heora dom ale^en. Ne wene ic, cwaeS Orosius, 
t5a?t senige twegen latteowaa emnar gefohten* 35 

. Kt'i.r Jv, ?,! Conon gelsedde herd eft on Laecedemonie, 7 Saet 


Itaque toll Orienti helium moventes, Hircilidam 1 ducem in ' nereyiu- 

1 _ dam. 

kanc militiam legunt, qui cum sibi ad versus duos Artaxerxis 
Persarum regis praefectos, Phavnabazum et Tissafernem, pug- 
uandum videret, proviso ael tempus consilio, ut pondus geminae 
congressionis elueleret, unum denuntiato hello aelpetit, alteram 
pacta pace suspenclit. 

Pliarnabazus Tissafernem apud Artaxerxem clefert ut pro- 
ditorem, hortaturque regem, ut in locum ejus Cononem, Athe- 
uiensem virum, qui tunc forte apud Cyprum exsulabat, ducem 
navali hello constituat. Conon elassi praefic'itur, quihus com- 
pertis, Lacedaemonii et ipsi auxilia a rege Aegypti per legatos 
petunt, a quo centum instructas triremes acceperunt. Cui 
mUitiae Agesilaum ducem decreverunt, virum pede claudum, 
sed qui in difficillimo rerum statu mallent sibi regem claudicare 
quam regnum. Raro v/nquam ita pares omni industria duces in 
unum coiere bellum, qui acerhissimis invicem praeliis fatigati, et 
multo sanguine obliti, velut invicti ab alterutro recesserunt. 

Igitur Conon, accepto iterum a rege magno stipendlo, invadit 




land buton psere byrig on selcon Jnngun mid ealle aweste, 
psette pa pe aer ute opra tSeoda anwalda girndon, him pa 
god puhte J?a?r hie mehten hie selfe set ham wi(5 tSeowdom 
bewerian. Pissandor hatte sum Lsecedemonia latteow : he 

i From C; gesohte Conon mid scipun, pa 1 he of Lgecedemonium for, 7 5 
para folca segSer on oc5erum micel wad geslogan. pier wurdon 
Lsecedemonie swa switSe forslagen paet hie naper nsefdon sippan 
ne heora namon ne heora anweald. Ac heora hryre wearS 
Ahtenum to arsernesse f?set hie Sone ealdan teonan gewrecan 
mehten pe him on serdagura gem.Tne wses. 7 hie 7 Thebane 10 

*[i'age02.] hie gegaderedon, 7 Lsecedemonie mid gefeohte sohton, *y hie 
gefliemdon, 7 hie on hiora burg bedrifon, 7 si(5(5an besaetan. 
pa burgware sendon pa sefter Iesulause, pe mid heora here 

*heC. wses in Asiam, 7 bsedon pcet hie 2 tidlice hamweard waere, 7 

' 7 1" swage- heora gehulpe. 7 swa gedydon 3 , 7 on Ahtene ungearwe be- 15 
coman, 7 hie gefliemdon. Ahteniense waeron J?a him swiSe 
ondrsedende pcet Lsecedemonie ofer hie ricsian mehten swa hie 
ser dydon, for pszm lytlan sige pe hie pa ofer hie hsefdon. 
Hie sendon pa on Perse sefter Conone, 7 hine bsedon pcet he 
him on fultume wsere. 7 he \\im pees getygpade, 7 hi mid 20 
micle sciphere gesohte, 7 hi Lsecedemonie msest ealle awestan, 
7 hi to pon gedydon pat hi hi selfe leton segper ge for heane 
ge for unwrseste. iEfter psem Conon gelende to Ahtena psere 
byrig, bis ealdcypf>e, 7 ]?ser mid micle gefean para burgleoda 

tgemyne- onfangen wses, 7 he tS&u" his sclfes longe gemyndgunge 4 gedyde 25 
..„ r. mid (pan) 5 pe he geniedde segper ge Pe/-se ge Lsecedemonie 
pcet hie gebetton pa burg pe hi ser tobrsecon, 7 eac j?set 
Lsecedemonie psere byrig sippan gehiersume wseron, J^eh hie 
a?r longe heora wipcrwiunan wseren. iEfter peosan gewinne 
gewearS ptette Perse gebudan frid eallum Creca folce, nses na 30 
for psem pe hie him senigra goda upon, ac for psem pe hie 
wunnon on Egypti, pset hie mosten for him py bet psem ge- 
winne fullgoni'aii. 

Ac Lsecedemonie haefdon pa hwile maran unstillnessa ponn? 

cox ox. 99 

hostiles agros, et qvacunque incubuit, Cuncta prosternit. Laee- 
daemonii vero domesticis malts circumventi, exteruis inhiare 
desistunt, abjiciuntque spem dominationis, imminente periculo 

servitutis. Interea Pisander, dux apud Spartam per Agesilaiem 
regem relictus, elassem instruxerat. Conserunt itaque navale 
certamen P rsae Cononc, Spa/rtani Pisandro dv.ce : milites, re- 
miges, ipsique duclores, uno pariter in mutuam caedem ardore 
rapiwntur. Magnitudinem belli istius inclinatus ex 7wc semper 
in posterwm Lacedaemoniorv/m status prodit. Namque ex illo 
fluere ac retro sublapsa referri spes Spartanorum visa, donee 
confecta, et potestate careret et nomine. Atheniensibus vero 
haec eadem pugna initium reewperandcte potentiaeju.it. Igitur 
Thebani, auxilio Atbeniensium fulti, superiore clade saucios ac 
trepidoa adgrediuntur. Thebani autem victoria potiti, Spartam 
eontendunt, ptUantes se vacuam praesidio civitatem nullo intra- 
jotio. Agvsilaus, arcessitus ex Asia, inprovisus bello 
supervenit: Thebanos jam suceessu victoriae segniores adgre- 
ditur : nee difficile superat. At vero Atbenienses. cum com- 
perissent insperata Lacedaemonios victoria sublevatos, pristinae 
servitutis trepidi roetu, exercitum contrahunt. Conon quo- 
que ad populandos Lacedaemoniorum agros revertitur. Ita 
Spartani, strepitu circu.msonaidium undique hostium clausi 
atque exterriti, ultima propemodvm desperatione tabuerunt. Sed 
Conon Athenas pergit, in rnaximo gaudio civiuru ipse tristis, 
quippe cum videret urbem miserabili rv.inarum squalore con- 
fectam. Itaque magnum pietatis monumentum in reparatione 
ejus operatus est. Xarnque earn, a Laeedaemoniis exinanitam, 
Lacedaemoniorum praedis replevit, Persis incendentibus concre- 
matam, Persis aedifieantibus reformavit. Interea Artaxerxes, 
rex Persarum, universis Graeciae populis per legatos, ut ab 
ormis discederent. et paci adquiescerent, imperavit : non quod 
misericorditer fessis consuleret, sed, ne se in Aegypto bellis 
occupato aliqua in regnum suum tentaretur irrnptio. 


Lacedaemonii, inquieti magis quam strenui, tentant furta 

7 — 2 

100 Alfred's obositjs. 

hie msegenes hsefden, 7 wseron swipor winnende on Thebane 
1 hxfdon c. poime hie fultumes hsefde \ 7 hloftum on hie staledon, 06 hie 
abrsecan Arcadum heoi*a burg. ^Efter paem Thebane hie mid 
firde gesohton, 7 him Lsecedemonie opre ongean brohton. pa 
hie longe fuhton, pa cleopade L8ecede(monie) 2 * ealdormon to 5 
Arcadium, 7 baeden 3 J?set hie Sees gefeohtes geswicen, paet hie 
11 C. mosten pa deadan bebyrgean pe heora folces ofslageu wseron. 
past is mid Crecum peaw paet mid ftsem worde bi(5 gecyped 
hwaeSer healf ha-fS ponne sige. 

For pon ic wolde gesecgan, cwae(5 Orosius, hu Creca gewiun 10 
• Hunting in (ongonn) 4 , pe of Lee[ce]demonia Saere byrg aerest onsteled" waes, 7 
•■ onst.-eied c. m i(j spellcwidum gemearcian, aerest on Athena pa burg, 7 sippan 
« Macedonie on Thebane, 7 sippan on Boeti. 7 sippan on Macedaniae 6 — piss 
wseron ealle Creca leode — 7 sippan on pa laessan Asiam, 7 5a 
on pa maran. 7 sippan on Perse, 7 Bippan on Egypti. Ic seael 15 
eac py lator Romans istoria asccgan pe ic augunnen haefde. 

(Ill, II.) 

iEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes ill hunde wintra 
7 lxxvi, waes in Achie eorpbeofung, 7 twa byrig, Ebora 7 Elice, 
on eorpan besuncon. Ic maeg eac on urum agnum tidum 
gelic anginn paem gesecgan, peh hit swelcne ende naefde, paette 20 
Constant] nopolim Creca burg on swelcre cwacunge waes, 7 hiere 
gewitgad wees of sooTsestum monnum paet heo sceolde on eorpau 
besinca; ac heo weartS gescild purh pone cristnan casere Arca- 
diusan, 7 purh paet cristcne folc. On paem bnrgnm woes getacnad 
paet Crist is eaSmodegra help 7 ofermodigfa full. Mare ic 25 
1 The first A pyses gemyndgade : bonne ic hie mid ealle ai-aede; gif his hwa 
myngode c. Bie lustful] mare to witanne, ?ece him ponne Bell paet. 

On paem dagum gewearft paette Wnlchi 7 Falisci, pe aer 
wseron i.xx wintra wiS Romane winnende, poet hi hie pa ofer- 
wuiinoii, 7 heora land oferhergedon. 7 rape after paeni Sut- 30 
trian pcet folc wseron hergende on Romane op paere burge geata. 
Hit Romane a?fter paem hrsedlice mid gefeohte 7 mid hergiunge 
him forgaldon, 7 hie gefliemdon. 


bellorum. Nam speculati absentiam Arcadian, castellum eorum 
perfringunt. Arcades vero, juncto sibi Thebanorum auxilio, 
amissa furto bello repetunt. In eo praelio Archidamus, dux 
Laccdaeraoniorum, occisorum corpora ad sepulturam poscit : 
quod signum victoriae traditae inter Graecos haberi solet. In- 
eertos bellorum orbes verbis e vestigio secutus implicui. 

Inproba dominandi Lacedaemoniorum cupiditas, quantascau- 
sas certaminum suscitarit, quis vel aumero, vel online disponed ? 
siquidtm, tracto per aliquot aetates hoc continuo bello, Athe- 
nienses, Lacedaemonii, Boeotii, Thebani, postremo Graecia, Asia, 
Persia, atque Acgyptus navales simul pedestresque conflictus in- 
dite ret is egere discursibus. 


Anno ab Urbe condita ccclxxvi, terrae motu Acbaia con- 
enssa est, et duae civitates, id est, Ebora 1 et Helice, abruptis 1 Bura. 
locorum hiatibus devoratae sunt. At ego nunc e contrario 
poteram similia in diebus nostris apud Coustantinopolim, aeque 
modo principem gentium, praedicta el facta, sed non perfecta 
narrare, cum, post ierribilem denuntiationem terra tremeret, 
donee orationibvs Arcadii principis et populi Cbristiani, prae- 
sentem perditionem Deus exoratus averteret : probans se solum 
esse et conservatorem bumilium, et punitorem malorum. Sed 
haec, ut commemorata sint magis quam explicata, verecundiae 
concesserim, ut et qui scit, recolat, et qui nescit, inquirat. 

Interea Roniani, qui per septuaginta annos ab urbe Volsco- 
rum, praeterea Faliscorum, Aequorum, et Sutrinorum, subacti 
et adtriti, assiduis belli* confeiebantur, tandem easdem cepere 
civitates, et finem dedere certamini. Praenestinos etiam eoclem 
tempore, qui usque ad portarn Rornae bellando et caedendo per- 
venerant, vicerunt. 

102 alfked's orosils. 

(Ill, III.) 

^Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred wae* in bund wintra 

7 lxxxiii, pa pa Laucius, pe opre uoman was haten Genutius, 

7 Quintus, pe opre nonian waes baten Serfilius, $a bie weeron 

consulas on Rome. gewearS se micla moncwealm on paem londe : 

« nai^i c. na i } ewa hit gewuiia is, of untidlican gewideran, J?set is, of waeturn 5 

sumerum, 7 of diygum wintrum, 7 of recre [lenctenjhaete, 7 mid 

2 unpemetiu ungemaetre 2 haerfcstwaetan 7 sefterhae]?an 3 ; ac an wind com of 

■■> iEfterha?San Calabria wealde, 7 se wol mid ]?ae//i winde. pes moncwealm was 

on Romanmn. full 11 gear ofer ealle menu gelice, }?eh pe surae 

* gedreiite c. deade waeron, surne unease gedrycnede 4 aweg coman ; o]} J?aet 10 

beora biscepas saedon paat beora gcdas laedon pcet him man 

worbte anfiteatra, pcet mon mebte pone heeSeniscan plegan paer- 

inne don, 7 hiora diofolgield, paet waeron openlicc ealle undaen- 

« e with era- nessa. Her (m)e 5 magon nu, cwaetS Orosius, pa geou -Vwyrdon 
sure before it: 

c. me. pe paes cristendomes wiSerflitan sint, bu beora godas purb heora 15 

blotunge 7 purb hiei'a diofolgield J?aes monncwealmes gebulpon, 
buton pcet bie ne angeatan mid hwelcum scinucraefte 7 mid 
bwelcum lotwrence bit deufla dydon — noes na se sooa God — Saet 
hie mid py yfele pa menu sweuctun, to Son pcet bie geliefdon 
heora ofrunga 7 beora deofolgieldum, 7 pcet hie ponan mosteu to 20 

• Wanting in pa?m sawluiu beouman, 7 pat hie (hie) G molten tawian mid pa-re 

maestan bismruuge set heora anfiteatra. pa waeron u'mirimede, 
'asecgannec. 7 me nu uionigfeald to secganne 7 , for J?on }ni, faeder Agustiuus, 
hie bsefst on piuum bocum sweotole gesaed; 7 ic gehwam wille 
paerto taecan pe biene his lvst ma to witanne. 25 

Jitter J>eosan on paem ilean geare tohlad seo eorJ?e binnan 

Romebyrig. pa saedon heora biscepaa eft ]xet heoia godaa 

baedan J?aet him mon sealde a-nne cucne mon, pa him puhte pcet 

*:Page65.] heo heora deadra to lyt haefden. *y seo eorpe sua giniende 

bad, op paet Marcus, pe op re uoman hatte Curtius, mid horse 30 
7 mid wsepnum paeroninnan besceatj 7 bio sippau togsedre 



Anno ab Urbe cbndita ccclxxxiv, L. Genucio, et Q. Servilio 
Consulibus, ingens Romam pestilentia corripuit : non, ut ad- 
solet, temporum turbata temperies, hoc est, aut siccitas hiemis, 
aut repentinus calor veris, aut humor aestatis, vel autumni 
divitis indigesta illecebra, insuper etiam exspirata de Calabria 
saltibus aura corrumpens, injtrmitatum adferre transcursus; 
sed generali cunctos per biennium tabe con fecit: ut etiam quos 
non egit in mortem, turpi made exinanitos adflictosque dimi- 
serit. Conquerentur hoc loco obtrectatores temporis Christiani, 
si forte silentio itraeterierim, quibus tunc cerimoniis Romani 
2>lacaverint deos, et sedaverint morbos. Cum pestilentia in dies 
crudesceret, auctores suasere pontifices, ut ludi scaenici diis ex- 
petentibus ederentur : ita pro depellenda temporali peste cor- 
2>orum, arcessitus est perpetuus morbus animorum. Uber nunc 
quidem mihi iste doloris atque increpationis locus est, sed, in 
quo jam Referenda tua studium mpientiae exercuil, mihi super 
eo audere fas non est. Commonuisse me satis sit, et ex qualibet 
intenlione lectorem ad illius lectionis plenitudinem remisisse. 


Sequitur hanc luem satis triste prodigium. Repente siquidem 
medio Urbis terra dissiluit. Manebat diu patenti voragine in- 
pudens specus, nefariamque vivi hominis sepulturam diis inter- 
pretibus expetebat. Satisfecit improbis faucibus praecipitio sui 
Marcus Curtius, eques armatus, injecitque crudeli terrae inopi- 
natam satietalem. 

104 axfrbd's orosius. 

(Ill, IIII.) 

^Efter ]?aem be Romeburg getimbred waes ill hand wintra 
7 lxxxviii, }?aette Gallie oferhergedan Romana lond o(5 mi niila 
to Saere byrig, 7 f>a burg mehton eaSe begitan gif hie f>aer ne 
gewicadon ; for J?on Romane waeron swa forhte 7 swa aeniode, 
Jjset bie ue wendon baet bie pa burg bewerian mebton. Ac bses 5 
on niorgemie Titus beora ladteow, be ocu - e uomaii waes baten 
Qui[n]tius, hie mid firde gesohte. paer gefeabt Mallius anwig, 
be oSre noruan waes baten Tarcwatus, witS anue Galliscne monn, 
7 hiene ofslog; 7 Titus Cuintius ba oftre same gefliemde 
same oi'slog. Be ]?aeni mon mebte ongietan hwaet ?>aer ofslageu 10 
wees, ba beora fela Susenda gefongen waes. 

(Ill, V.) 
yEfter psem be Romeburg getimbred waes mi hunde wintra 
7 11, tSaette Cartaina J?oere barge aenndracan comon to Rome, 
7 him gebudon £>aet bie fri5 him betweonu/u hsefden, for J?on hie 
1 from C. (o)n 1 au laud pa. winnende waeron, £>aet waes on Benefcnte. Mid 15 

baem pe ba serendracan to Rome comon, pa. com eac mid him 
a iieardssir.es seo ofermaete heardsaelnesse 2 7 nionegra Seoda iermba, seo longe 
setter baem weaxende waes, swa hit heofones tango! on psem 
tidun cvbende waeron, baet hit waes uiht oS midne daeg, 7 on 
Bumre tide hi1 hagalade stanum ofer ealle Romane. -0 

On baem dagum waes Alexander geboren on Crecum Bwa swa 
an micel vst come ofcr ealne middangeard. 7 Ocas, V> 
cyning, }?one mon oj^ere noman bet Artecsersis, utter pa?m pe 
he Egyptum forhergede, he gefor pi^ban on Iudana lond, 7 
lii< in tela forhergeade; sibban on Ircaniam pami londe he heora 25 
/ mc (swio*e) s fela gesette wiS bone sx pe mon Caspia hsett, 7 hie 
*[Page66.] J?aer gesetene ,<-int giet o5 j^isne daeg * mid bradam folcuua, on 
5sem bohopan p;et liie sume siSe God bonan ado to heora 
agnum lande. Sibban Artecsersis abraec Sidonew, Fenitia bui 
wraes pa welegast on Ssem dagom 30 



Anno ab urbe condita ccclxxxviii, Grallorum inundatio ad 
quartum ab Urbe lapidem consedit, facile perturbatam occu- 
patura civitatem, nisi otio torpuisset : ubi pugnam Manlius 
Torquatus singulariter inchoavit, T. Quinctius Dictator cruen- 
tissima congressione confecit. Post pa/ululum quoque Tuscorum 
pugaa sub C. Marcio consecata est : ubi conjici datur, quantum 
homiuuni caesum sit, quando octo millia sunt capta Tuscorum. 


Anno ab Urbe condita ccccn, legati a Cartliagine Romani 
missi sunt, foedusque pepigerunt. Quern ingressum Cartha- 
giniensium in Italiam malorurn grandinem secuturam, continu- 
arumque miseriarum tenebras juges, abominatio dierum, quibus 
ea gesta sunt, protestatur. Tunc etiam nox usque ad jplurimam 
diei partem tendi visa est : et saxea de nubibus grando de- 
scendens, veris terrain lapidibus verberavit. 

Quibus diebus etiam Alexander Magnus, magnus ille gurges 
miseriarum, atque atrocissimus turbo totius Orientis est natus. 
Tunc etiam Ochus, qui et Artaxerxes, post transactum in 
Aegjqito bellum, plurimos Judaeorum in transmigrationem egit, 
atque in Hyrcania ad Caspium mare habitare praecepit : quos 
ibi usque in bodiernum diem amplissimis generis sui incre- 
mentis consistere, atque exinde quandoque erupturos, opinio est. 
Et Sidonem opulentissimam Pboenicis provinciae urbem delevit. 

106 Alfred's ohosius. 

/Efter psem Romane angunnan fjfet Somniticum gewinn ymbe 
Campena land. Hie pa longe 7 oftraedlice ymb paet fuhton 
011 hweorfeiidum sigum. pa getugon Somnite hirn on fultnm 
Pirrusan Epira cyning, pone maestan feond Ronianum. paet 
gewinn wear<5 hwaeftre sume hwile gestilled, for pon Punici wlS 5 
Romane winnan angunnan. 

Sippan paet gewin angunnen waes, gif 3enig mon [sie], cwaetS 
Orosius, pe on gewritun findan maege piet Ianas dura sippan 
belocen wurde buton ainuii geare — 7 paet waes for paein pe 

»KrestouC. Romane eallne pone gear an monncwealme laegan — aer eft 1 10 
Octauianus daege paes caseres. paet bus baefdon Romane to 
tSaem anuwj tacne geworht paet on swelee bealfe swelce bie ponne 
winnende beon woldan, swa sup, swa norp, swa east, swa west, 
ponne andydan hie pa dura pe on pa bealfe open waes, paet bie 
be paein wiston hwider bie sceoldon. 7 mi<5 psem pe hie para dura 15 
hw r elce opene gesawon, pon«e tugon bie beora braegl bufan 
cneow, 7 giredon bie to wige ; 7 be paem wiston paet hie witS 
sum folc fricS ne haefdon. 7 ponne hie fritS hsefdon, pon?ie waeron 
ealle pa dura betyneda, 7 hie leton hiera braegl ofdune to fotum. 
Ac pa pa Octauianus se casere to rice feng, pa wurdon Ianas 20 
dura betyneda, 7 wearS Bibb 7 frip ofer ealne niiddangeard. 

^Efter pami pe Pe/-se friS genaraan wi(5 Romanum sippau 
gelicade eallu;/t folcum paet hie Roinanu//i underpieded waere, 
7 hiora as to behealdanne ; 7 swa swipe pone i'ritS lufedon piet 
him leofre waes paet hie Romanisce cyningas haefden ponne of 25 

*[pn g e67.j beora agnum cynnc. On prem waes sweotole getacnod * paet nan 
eorplic man ne mehte swelce lufe 7 swelce sibbe ofer eallne 
niiddangeard gedon swelce pa wgbb, ac beo for paem wa?s pe 
Crist on bsem dagum geboren waes, pe sibb is heofonwara 7 
eorftwara. pa?t eac Octauianus sweotole getacnade, pa pa 80 

» sw« s «a c. Komane him woldon ofrian swa 5 heora gewuna was. 7 saedon 

3 on c. pcet sio sibb of 3 his mihte waere : ac he segtSer fleah ge pa daed 
ge pa sa?gene, 7 eac self saede paet seo daed his naere, ne eac 
beon ne mehte naues eort&ces monnes, paette ealre worolde 



Jam bine statijn a Romania adversuni Sainuitas pro Campania 
bella susoepta sunt. Samniticum bellum ancipiti statu gestum, 
Pyrrbus, vel niaximus Romani nominis bostis, excepit. Pyrrhi 
bellum mox Punicum consecution est : et quamvis nunquam post 
mortem Xumae a bellorum clacUbus fuisse cessation 

patentes semper Jani portae indicent, ex eo tamen, veluti per 
meridiem, toto inpressus coelo malorum fervor incanduit. Porro 
auteni, inchoato semel bello Punico, utrura aliquando bella nisi 
Caesare Augusto imperante cessaverint, inquired, inveniat, prodat, 
quisquis infamanda tempora Christiana putat. Absque illo 
tamen, inter bella Punka unius anni, Roniani propter clausaa 
Jani portas, inter febres morbosque reipublicae, ad hoc brevis- 
simo pads signo inlecti sunt, ut multo gravius adjiictarentur. 

At vero, si iudubitatissime constat, sub Augusto primum 
Caesare, post Partbicam pacem, universarum terrarum orbem, 
generali pace compositu/m, Romanis paruisse legibus, Romana 
jura quam propria arma maluisse, spretisque clucibus suis, judices 
elegisse Romanos : poslremo, omnibus gentibus, unam fuisse 
voluntatem inservirc 2Xtci : quod prius ne una quidem civitas, 
unusve populus civium, vel, quod majus est, una domus f rat rum, 
jugiter babere potuisset : quod si etiam, cum imperante Caesare 
ista provenerint, in ipso imperio Caesaris illuxisse ortum in hoc 
mundo Domini nostris Jesu Cbristi, manifestum est. 



2 Decius C. 

3 From C. 

swelce sibbe bringan mehte, petite twa peoda aer habban ne 
niehtou, ne, Saette laesse waes, twa gemaegpa. 

(Ill, VL) 

/Efter paem pe Rorneburg getimbred waes mi hunde wintruw 
7 vm, gewearS paatte Romane 7 Latine wunnon. On paem 
iBomauaC unman gefeohte wearS Romane 1 consul ofslagen Mallius, pe 5 
otSre noman waes liaten Tarcuatus. 7 heora oper consul, pe mon 
Detius 2 bett, 7 otSre noman Mure, his agenne sunn ofslog, 
for pon he oferbraec beora gecwedrsedenne, paet waes pcet (bie) 3 
haefdon gecweden paet bie ealle emlice on Latine tengden. Ac 
paer an ut asceat of Latina weorode, 7 anwiges baed, 7 him Saes 10 
consules sunu ongean com, 7 hiene paer ofslog. For paem gylte 
hiene eft bett his feeder ofslean. For paem siege noldan Romane 
breugan paem console pone triumphan. pe heora gewuna waes, 
pcli he sige haefde. 

On Saern aefterran geare pa 1 ?, Minutia hatte an wifmon, pe on 15 
heora wisan sceokle nunne beon. Seo haefde gehaten heora 
gydenne Dianan poet heo wolde hiere lif on faemnhade 4 alibbau. 
pa forlaeg heo hie (sona) 5 . Hie pa Romane for paeni gylte pe 
heo hiere beot fi aleag, swa cuce 7 on eorpan bedulfan, 7 nugiet 
to daege paem gylte to tacne mon haett tSaet loud ' tfanfeld paer 20 
hie mon byrgde. 

1 fscmnan- 
hade C. 
' From >'. 

6 gehat C. 

7 cuce by C. 

Rape aefter paem on para twegea consula daege, Claudius, 

pe otSre noman hatte Marcellue, 7 Ualerius, pe ooYe noman 

*[Page6S.] hatte Flaccus, pa geweartS hit, peli hit me acondlic sie, * cwsetS 

Orosius, paette sume Bomana wif on swelcum scinlace wurdon, ^3 
7 011 swelcum wodan dreame, pcet hie woldon aelcne mon, ge 
wif ge waepned, para pe bie mebtou. mid atre acwellan, 7 hit 
on mete oppe on drynce to gepicgenne gesellan. 7 paet longe 
donde wseron aer paet folc wiste hwuiiau pert yfel come — baton 
pat hie Bsedon pcet liit ufanc of Saere lyfte come — aer pon liit purh 30 
;< mi. peowne mon geypped weartS. pa wseron ealle pa wif be- 
Ebrau Romans witan geUVSede; para w»8 in huud/ hundeahtatig. 


Anno ab Urbe condita ccccix, Romani bellum Latinia rebel- 
lantibus intulerunt, Manlio Torquato, et Decio Mure consulibus : 
in quo bello unus consul interfeotus est, alter exstitit pa/rriddd. 
Manliusenim Torquatus filium suum, interfectorem provocantis 
atque insultantis hostis, occidit. Manlius, quamvis victor, 
occwrswm tamen nobilium juvenum Eomanorum, triumphans 
parricida, non meruit. 

Anno autem post bunc subsequente Minucia, virgo vestalis, 
ob adniissum incestura damnata est, vivaque obruta in campo, 
qui nunc ' Sceleratus ' vocatur. 


At vero, parvo exin tempore interjecto, horresco referre quod 
gestum est : nam Claudio Marcello et Valerio Flacco consulibus, 
incredibdi rabie et amore scelerum Romanae matronae exarserunt. 
Erat utique foedus Me ae pest dens annus, et adhuc tamen penes 
omnes de corrupto aere credulitas erat, cum existente quadam 
ancilla indice prvm/u/m midtae matronae ut biberent, quae 
coxerant, venena, compulsae : deinde simul atque hausere, con- 
BUmtae sunt. Tanta autem multitudo fuit matronarum in Ids 
facinoribus consciarum, ut trecentae septuaginta damnatae ex 
illis simul fuisse referantur. 



> From c. (7) ' pa?r wseron geniedde pset hie pset ilce pigedan J?set hie ser 
oprum sealdon, pset hie pserryhte deade waeron beforan eallum 
psem nionnu/rt. 

(Ill, YII.) 

^Cfter psem be Romeburg getimbred wses mi hand wintra 7 
xxii, Alexander, Epirotarum cyiiing, pses maran Alexandres 5 
earn, he mid eallum his maegene witS Romane winnan angan, 7 
set Somnite gemsere 7 Romane gesset, 7 pa nihstan landleode on 
segpere healfe him on fultuwi geteah, op Somnite him gefuhton 
wiS, 7 pone cyning oMogon. Nu ic pyses Alexandres her ge- 
myndgade, cwsecS Orosius, nu ic wille eac paes maran Alexandres 10 
gemunende beon, pses opres nefan, peh ie ymbe Romana gewin 
* geargerime on p&m gearrime 2 forS ofer pent geteled hadjbe. 

5 From C. ; 
Alexaldres t 

* From r. 
111 /.. 

♦[Page 69.] 
• , he waes C. 

* From C. • 

Ic sceal hwsetSre eft gewendan pset ic hwelcnehugu dsel gesecge 
Alexandres 3 dseda ; 7 hu Philippus his feeder mi hand wintram 
setter psem pe Romeburg getimbred wses, he feng to Msece- 15 
donia rice on Crecum, 7 pcet hsefde xxv wintra, 7 binnan psem 
gearum he geeode ealle pa cynericu pe on Crecum wseron. An 
wses Ahteniense, oper wses Thebane, ill wses Thesali, 1111 (wses) 4 
Lsecedemonie, v Focenses, vi Mesi, vn Macedonie, pcet he arrest 
hsefde. Philippus pa he * cniht wses, wses 5 Thebanum to gisle 20 
geseald, Paminunde, psem stro[n]gan cyninge 7 psem gelseredestan 
philosophe, from his agnum breper Alexandre, pe Lo?cedemonia 
rice pa hsefde, 7 mid him gela?red weartS on pam prim gearum 
p;i he tSaer wses. pa weartS Alexander ofslagen his brotSor from 
his agenre meder, peh heo hiere operne sunu eac ser ofsloge for 25 
hiere geligernesse ; 7 heo wses Philippuses steopmodor fi . pa 
feng Philippus to Macedonia rice, 7 hit ealle hwile on miclan 
pleo 7 on miclan earfepan hsefde, pcet segper ge him mon utane 
of otSrum londum an wann, ge eac pset his agen folc yml>e his 
feorh sicrede, pert him pa set nihstan leofre wses pset he ute 30 
wunne pomie he set ham were. His forme gefeoht wses witS 
Atheniense, 7 hie oferwonn ; 7 sefter paem witS Hiliriros, pe we 
Pulgare hatatS, 7 heora monig tSusend ofslog, 7 heora msestan 



Anno ab Urbe condita ccccxxn, Alexander, Rex Epirotarum, 
Alexandri magni avunculus, cum bellum adversus Bomanos 
pararet, et circa fimtimas Iiomae urbes auxilia sibi adquirere 
studens, bellis exerceretur, a Samnitibus maximo bello vidua 
atque occisus est. Sed, quoniam aliquantum Ronianas clades 
recensendo progressus sum, vel Alexandri istius mentione com- 
monitus, de Philippe- Macedonian rege, jjaucissimis annis retro 
repetitis, magna par vis, in quantum potero, colligam. 


Anno ab Urbe condita cccc, Pbilippus, Alexandri pater, 
l'egnum Macedonurn adeptus, viginti quinque annis tenuit. Hie 
primum ab Alexandra fratre obses Thebanis datus, per ti-ien- 
nium apud Epaminondam, strenuissimum impei*atorem et 
s a mmum Philosophum, eruditus est. Ipso autem Alexandro 
scelere Eurydices matris occiso, quamvis ea jam commisso 
adulterio, et altero filio interfecto, generi nuptias mariti morte 
pepigisset, regnum suscepit, qui cum foris concursu exsurgentium 
v/ndique hostium, domi autem deprehensaram saepe insidiarum 
metu fatigaretur, primum bellum cum Atbeniensibus gessit. 
Qui bus victis, arma ad Illyrios transtulit, multisque millibus 
hostium trucidatis, Larissam urbem nobilissimam cepit. Inde 
Thessaliam non magis amore victoriae, quam ambitione haben- 
dorum equitum Thessalorum, quorum robur ut exercitui suo 
admisceril, invasit. Ita Thessalis ex imj>roviso praeoccupatis 
atque in potestatem redactis, jungendo equitum peditumque 
fortissimas turmas, invictissimum fecit exercitum. 


burg geeode, Larisan. 7 sib}?an on Thesali he pxt gewinn 

swij^ost dyde for peeve gewilnunge be he wolde hi him on fultum 

1 7 for j>on >e geteon for heoi'a wigcrsefte, for bon ] hie cubon on horsum ealra 

i'om.inc. folca [feohtan] 2 betst 7 eerest. Hie pa a?g<5er ge [for] his ege 

ge for his olecunge him to gecierdou. He pa gegaclerade mid 5 
3 From c.; heora fultume 7 mid his agene segj?er ge ridendra ge gangendnr' 

gongendre Z. . 

t unoferwun- unoterwmnendncne here. 

^Efter fiaem be PLilij>p?<s hfefde Atheniense 7 Thesali him 
undei(5ieded, he hegeat Arues dohtor him to wife, Malosorum 

s heo to c. cyninges, Olimphiade waes 5 hatenu. Arues wende pcet he his 10 

in l. rice gemiclian sceolde ]?a he 6 his dohtor Philippuse sealde. Ac 

he hiene on Ssere wenunge geband, 7 him Saet an genam }>get he 

self hsefde, 7 hiene sij?)5an forsende 0)? he his lif forlet. Miter 

peera Philippus feaht on Thona ba burg, on Thehana rice ; 7 

* J>set oSer c. him (Sa>r weai"]? oJ?er 7 eage mid anre flan ut ascoten. He 15 
hwaecSre f>a burg gewann, 7 call pcet moncynn acwealde J?a?t he 
Saerinne mette. 

8 his searwum 7 pefter ])sern mid searewan* he geeode eall Creca folc, 

*[Page70j * f° r J 3011 heora gewuna waes baet hie woldon of selcerre byrig 

him self anwald habban, 7 nan oSerre underbied beon, ac 20 
wseron him swa betweonum winnende. pa baedan hie Philippus 

s lie c. sest of anre byrig, bonne of oberre, ba?t hie 9 him on fultume 

wrere wi)5 ba pe him on wunnon. poime he ]?a oferswifted 
haefde pe he J^omig on winnende waes mid ba?m folce pe hiene aer 
fultumes bsed, ponne dyde he him a?gber to gewealdon : swa he 25 
belytegade ealle Crece on his geweald. pa Crece J?aet ba under- 
geaton, 7 eac him swibe of)?yncendum f>aet hie an cyniug swa 
ieSelice forneah buton aelcon gewinne on his geweald bebridian 
sceolde, gelice 7 hie him bcuwiende wan-on — he hie eac obrum 
f oleum oftrsedlice on beowot sealde, be Per nan folc ne raehte 30 
mid gefeohte gewinnan — hie J?a ealle wiS hiene gewin up 
ahofan ; 7 he hiene geeacSmedde to bsem folce pe he him pxv 
heardost ondred, bast wseron Thesalii, 7 on hie gelec bset hie 

10 Fr«m 1 .-. mid him on 10 Athene wunnon. pa hie to (Seem gemaere comon 

01111 /.. 

mid lieora firde, pa hsefdon hie hiera clusan belocene. pa 35 
I hilippws bserbinnan ne mchte put he his tconan gewrsece, he 


Igitur victis Atbeniensibu8, subjectisque Tbessalis, Olympi- 
adem, Arubae regis Molossorum scrorem, duxit uxorem. Qui 
Aruba, cum per boc quod societatem Macedonian a&finitate regis 
paciscebatur, imperium suum se dilataturum putaret, per hoc 
decepius amisit, privatusque in exilio consenuit. Deinde Phi- 
lippus, cum Metbonam urbem oppugnaret, ictu sagittae oculum 
perdidit. Ipsam vero urbem mox expugnavit, et cepit. 

Exin Graeciam prope totam, consiliis prcteventam, virions do- 
muit. Quippe Graeciae civitates, dum imperare singulae cupiuut, 
imperium omnes perdiderunt : et dum in mutuum exitium ruunt, 
omnibus perire, quod singulae amitterent, oppressae demum 
servientesque senserunt : quarum dum insanas concertationes 
Pbilippus, observat, auxiliumque semper inferioribus sugger- 
endo, contentiones fovet, victos sibi pariter victoresque subjecit. 
Tbessali Pbilippum ultro sibi ducem expetiverunt. Sed Atheui- 
enses angustias Thermopylarum occupavere. 

114 Alfred's okosius. 

pa wende on pa ane pe him pa getriewe waeron, 7 heora burg 
gefor, 7 pcet folc mid ealle fordyde, 7 heora hergas towearp. swa 

1 ahwer c. he ealle dyde pe he awer 1 mette, ge eac his agene ; op 2 him pa 
biscepas saedon paet ealle godas him irre waeren 7 wiSwinnende ; 
7 peh hie him ealle irre waeren, on paeru xxv wintrum pe he 5 
winnende waes 7 feohtende he na oferwunnen ne wearS. 

* setter \>amc. iEfter 3 he gefor on Capadotiam pcet lond, 7 paer ealle pa 
cyningas mid biswice ofslog. SipJ?an ealle Capadotiam him 
gehiersumedon. 7 hiene sippan wende on his prie gebroSor, 
7 aenne ofslog, 7 pa twegen oSflugon on Olinthum p& burg, seo 10 

*[Page 71.] wges faestast 7 welegast Macedonia * rices. 7 him Philippus . 
setter for, 7 pa burg abrsec, 7 }?a broSor ofslog 7 eall pcet 
paerinne waes. pa prie gebroSor naeron na Philippuse geme- 
dren, ac wseron gefaederen. 

4 Tiiracia c. On paern dagum on Tracia 4 psem londe waeron twegen cy- 15 

« From c. ningas ymb pcet ric(e) 5 -winnende : pa waeron gebropor. pa 
sendan hie to Philippuse, 7 baedon past he hie ymb paet rice 
gesemde, 7 on paere gewitnesse waere past hit emne gedaeled 
waere. He pa Philippus to heora gemote com mid micelre firde, 
7 pa cyningas begen ofslog 7 ealle pa witan, 7 feug him to paem 20 
ricum bsem. .^Efter paem Atheniense baedan Philippus, pset he 
heora ladteow waere wicS Focenses paem folce, f>eh hie aer hiera 
clusan him ongean beluce[n], 7 paet he o'Ser Sara dyde, oppe hie 
gesemde, oppe hi»i gefultumade pcet hi hie oferwinnan mehten. 
He him p& gehet pcet he him gefultuman wolde peel hie hie 25 
ofcrwunnen. Eac aet paem ilean cirre baedan Focense his ful- 
tumes wi(S Athene. He him pa gehet pat he hie geseman 
wolde. Sippan he buta pa clusan on his g<?wealde haefde, pa 
dyde he him eac pa ricu to gewealdon ; 7 his here geond pa 
byrig todadde, 7 him bebead pcet hie Saet lond hergiende waeron 30 

' 05 \>*t c. 0)? 6 hie hit awesten ; paet paem folce waes aegfn-es wiia, ge f>aet 
hie J?aet maeste yfel forberan sceoldon, ge eac paet hie his sciran 
ne dorstan. Ac he ealle pa ricestan forslean bet. 7 pa oore 
sume on wraecsi'5 forsende, sume on ocSra mearca gesette. Swa 
he Philippus pa miclan ricu geniperade, peh pe me aura gehwelc 35 
wende paet hit ofer monig opru anwald habban mehte, paet hie 
pa set nihstan hie selfe to nohte bemaetan. 


Igitur Philippus ubi exchcsum se ab ingressu Graeciae, para- 
tum in hostes beUum vertit in socios : nam civitates, quarum 
paido ante dux fuerat hostiliter invadit, crudeliter diripit : 
templa quoque universa subvertit, nee tamen unquam per 
viginti quinque annos quasi iratis diis victus est. Post haec in 
Cappadociam transiit, ibique captos per doluru finitimos reges 
interfecit, totamque Cappadociam imperio Macedoniae subdidit. 
Inde ]w>'icidia in fratres convertit, quos patri ex noverca genitos 
interficere adgressus est. Cum autem unum ex his occidisset, 
duo in Olynthum confugerunt : quani PhiHppus hostiliter ad- 
gressus, urbem antiquissimam et florentissimam, caedibus re- 
jrfetam, opibus homimbusque vacuavit, abstractos etiam fratres 
neci dedit. 

Cum eum fratres duo, Thraciae reges, de regni terminis 
ambigentes, judicem ex consensu praeoptavissent, Philippus ad 
judicium cum instructo exercitu ingressus, juvenes vita regnoque 
privavit, Athenienses vero, qui 2 )r ^ us Philippi ingressum 
Thermopylarum munitione repvlerant, idtro pacem ejus ex- 
petentes, Jwstem de neglecta introitus custodia commonuerunt. 
Caeterae etiam civitates, sub specie pads sponte se externae domi- 
nationi subjecerunt : maxime, cum Thessali Boeotique poscerent 
Philippum, ut se adversum Phocenses ducem exhiberet, suscep- 
tumque bellum gereret : contra Phocenses vel dijferri bellum, vel 
auferri, precibus laborarent. Philippus utrisque diversa promisit, 
Phocensibus pacem et veniam se daturum Sacramento confirmans. 
Igitur Philippus angustias Thermopylarum ingreditur, easque 
occupatas emuniit. Tunc primum se omnis Graecia captam 
esse persensit. Inde omnium urbes populatus, cruenta prae- 
sentia effecit, ut etiam absens timeretur. Premit miseros super- 
fusvs pavor, ipsaque dissimulatione dolor crescit. Alios populos 
avidsos a sedibus snis, alios in extremis regni terminis ttatuit. 




2 From C. 

« on lande c. Philippuse gepuhte aefter psem pcet he an land ' ne mehte 
psem folce mid gifan gecweman pe him an simbel wan-on mid 
winnende ; ac he scipa gegaderode, 7 wicingas wurdon, 7 sona 

♦[Page 72.] aet anum cirre an c 7 eahtatig ceapscipa gefengon. * pa geceas 
he him ane burg wicS pone sse, Bizantium waes hatenu, to Son 5 
pset him gelicade pcet hie J^aer mehten betst friS binnan habban, 
7 eac pcet hie paer 2 gehendaste waeren on gehwelc lond ponan to 
winnanne ; ac him pa burgleode paes wiScwaedon. Philippus 
mid his fultume hi besset, 7 him an wanu. Seo ilce Bizantium . 
waes aerest getimbred from Pausania, Laecedemonia ladteowe, 10 
7 aefter f>sem from Constantino paern cristenan casere geieced, 
7 be his noman heo waes gehatenu Constantinopolim, 7 is nu 
pcet hehste cynesetl 7 heafod ealles eastrices. .rEfter paem pe 
Philippus longe pa burg beseten haefde, pa ofpuhte him paet * 
he past feoh to sellanne naefde his here swa hie bewuna waeron. 15 
He ]?a his here on tu todaelde : sum ymb pa burg saett ; 7 he 
mid sumum hlopum for, 7 monega byrg bereafode on Chera- 
nisse, Creca folce ; 7 sippan for an Scippie mid Alexandre his 
suna, f>aer Atheas se cyning rice haefde, pe aer his gepofta 3 waes 
wi5 Hisdriana gewinne — 7 pa on (Sret lond faran wolde. Ac 20 
hie pa landleode wicS pcet gewarnedon, 7 him mid firde angean 
foran. pa paet pa Philippus geacsade, pa sende he aefter maran 
fultume to tSaem pe pa burg ymbseten haefdon, 7 mid ealle 
maegene an hie for. peh pe Scippie haefdon maran monmenie, 
7 self 4 hwsetran waeron, hie peh Philippus besirede mid his lot- 23 
wren cum, mid (J?sem) 5 pcet G he his heres priddan dael gehydde, 
7 him self mid waes, 7 paem twain daelum bebead, swa hie 
feohtan angunnen, pcet hie wiS his flugen, pcet he sippan mid 
paem tSriddan daele hie beswican mehte, pon»e hie tofarene 
waeron. paer wearS Scippia xx M ofslagen 7 gefangen wif- 30 
monna 7 waepnedmonna, 7 paer waes xx m horsa gefangen, J?eh 
hie Saer nan licgende feoh ne metten, swa hie aer bewuna waeron 
poxme hie waelstowe geweald ahton. On pa?m gefeohte waes 

♦[Page 73.] aerest * anfunden Scippia wanspeda. Eft p& Philippus waes 

3 From C. 
gejjolita L 

1 hy selfe C. 

5 From C. 
6 beC. 



Sed haec cum per aliquantas Graeciae civitates exercuisset, ad 
perficiendam aequahm in universis vastationem necessariam 
inaritimam urbem ratus, Byzantium aptissimam judicavit, ut re- 
ceptacidum sibi terra marique Jieret, eamque obsistentem illico 
obsidione cinxit. Haec autem Byzantium, quondam a Pau&ania 
rege Spartanorum condita, post autem a Constantino, Christiano 
principe, in majus aucta et Constantinopolis dicta, gloriosissimi 
nunc imperii sedes et totius caput (Mentis est. Philippus vero 
post longam obsidionem, ut pecuniam quam obsidendo exhauserat, 
praedando repararet, piraticam adgressus est. Oaptas itaque 
centum et septuaginta naves mercibus confertas distraxit, et anhe- 
lanti inOfAae parva recreatione subvenit. Iude propter agendam 
praedam et curandam obsidionem divisit exercitum. Ipse autem 
cum fortissimis jDrofectus, multas Cberronesi urbes cepit : profii- 
gatisque populis opes abstulit. Ad Scytbiam quoque cum Alex- 
andra filio pertransiit. Scytbis tunc Atheas regnabat : qui cum 
Istrianorum bello premeretur, auxilium a Pliilippo petiit : sed 
continuo pactionem foederis cum PMlip>po habitam dissolvit. 
Philippus Scythicum bellum adgreditur ; commissoque praelio 
cum Scytbae et numero et virtute praestarent, Pbilippi fraude 
vincuntur. In ea pugna viginti millia pwerorum ac foeminarum 
Scythicae gentis capta, pecorum magna copia abducta, auri atque 
argenti nihil repertum : et ea res pi imo fidem inopiae Scythicae 



« Tribaballe 
both MBS. 

2 From C. 

ponan cirrende, pa offbr hiene oc5ere SciJ?J?ie raid lytelre firde, 
Triballe 1 waeron hatene. Philippics him dyde heora wig 
unweorS, op hiene an cwene sceat pwh paet peoh, pert p<rt hors 
waes dead pe he onufan saet. pa his here geseah paet he mid py 
horse afeoll, hie pa ealle flugon, 7 eal pcet herefeoh forleton 5 
pe hie aer gefangen haefdon. Wees pcet micel wundor pcet swa 
micel here for paes cynges (fielle) 2 fleah, pe na aer Seem fleon 
nolde, peh his mon fela pusenda ofsloge ! Philippws mid his 
lotwrence, pa hwile pe he wund waes, aliefde eallum Crecum 
paet heora anwaldas moston standan him betweonum, swa hie 10 
ser on ealddagum dydon. Ac sona swa he gelacnad waes, swa 
hergeade he on Athene, pa sendon hie to Leecedernonium 
s t ^ ritten 9 n [7 baedon] 3 pcet hie gefriend wurden, peh hie aer longe gefiend 
waeren, 7 baedon pcet hie ealle gemaenelice cunnoden, mehten 
hi heora gemaenan fiend him from adon. Hie pa sume him 15 
getygSedon, 7 gegaderodon maran monfultum pomie Philippus 
haefde, sume for his ege ne dorstan. Philippuse gepuhte 
pa paet he leng mid folc[g]efeohtum wit5 hie ne mehte, ae 
oftraedlice he waes mid hlopum on hi hergende, 7 onbutan 
sierwende op hie eft totwaemde waeron, 7 (Sa on ungearwe on 20 
Ahtcne mid firde gefor. JEt paem cirre wurdon Ahteniense 
swa waelhreowlice forslagen 7 forhiened paet hie na sippan nanes 
anwaldes hi ne bema?tan ne nanes freodomes. 

in L. 

Miter paem Philippe gelaedde fird on Laecedemonie 7 on 
* tintergade Thcbane, 7 hi miclum tintrade 4 7 bismrade, op hie mid ealle 23 
waeron fordon 7 forhiened. yEfter paem pe Philippus haefde 
ealle Crecas on his geweald gcdon, he sealde his dohtor Alex- 
andre paem cyninge his agnum maege, pc he aer ^Epira rice 
gcseald haefde. pa on Saem daege plegedon hie of horsum, aegper 
*[Page74.] ge Philippus ge Alexander, * pe he his debtor him sellan wolde, 30 
ge Alexander his agen sunu, swa heora peaw a-t swelcum waes, 
7 cac monige opere mid him. pa Philippuse gebyrede pcet he 
for Stem plegan ut of tSaam monweorode arad, pa mette hiene 
his ealdgefana sum, 7 hiene ofstang. 


Viginti millia equarum in Macedoniam missa ; sed revertenti 
Philippo Triballi hello obviant, in quo ita Pbilippus in fern ore 
vulneratus est, ut per corpus ejus equus interficeretur. Cum 
omnes occisum jmtarent, in fugam versi, praeclam amiserunt. 
Aliquantula deinde mora dum convalescit a vulnere, in pace 
conquievit. Statim vero ut convaluit, Atbeniensibus bellum in- » Thebanos. 
tulit : qui in tanto discrimine positi Lacedaemonios * quondam 
bostes, tunc socios adsciscunt : totiusque Graeciae civitates lega- 
tionibtis fatigant, ut communem bostem communibus viribus 
petant. Itaque aliquantae tirbes Atheniensibus sese conjunxere, 
quasdam vero ad Pbilippum belli metus traxit. Praelio com- 
mi-<so, Atbenienses assiduis bellis indurata Macedonum virtute 
vincunlur : quam imgnam longe omnibus anterioribus bellis 
atrociorem fuisse, ipse rerum exitus docuit. Nam Mc dies ajmd 
universam Graeciam dominationis gloriam, et libertatis statum 


Postea Pbilippus cruentissimam victoriam in Tbebanos et 
Lacedaemonios exercuit. Alexandria quern Epiri regem consti- 
tuent, nuptias in copulando ei filiam suam celebrare decrevit. 
Die nuptiarum, cum ad ludos inter duos Alexandros, filium 
generumque, contenderet, a Pausania circumventus, occisus est. 



> From C. 

Ic nat, cwaetS Orosius, for hwi eow Roraanum sindon pa 
serran gewin swa wel gelicad 7 swa lustsumlice on leotScwidum 
to gehieranne, 7 for hwy ge pa tida swelcra broca swa wel 
hergeatS, 7 nu, peh eow lytles hwaet swelcra gebroca on becume, 
ponne gernaenatS ge hit to paem wyrrestan tidum, 7 magon hie 5 
swa hreowlice wepan swa ge magon pa[ra] opra blipelice 
hlihhan. Gif ge swelce pegnas sint, swelce ge wena'S pae(t) 1 
ge sien, ponne sceoldon ge swa lustlice eowre agnu brocu 
arsefnan, peh hie laessan sien, swa ge heora sint to gehieranne. 
ponne puhte eow pas tida beteran ponne pa, for pon eowre 10 
brocu nu laessan sindon ponne heora pa wsere. For pon Philippws 
waes xxv wintra Creca folc hienende, aeg)?er ge heora byrig 
baernende ge hiera folc sleande, 7 surae on el]?iodige forsende ; 
7 eower Romana brocu, pe ge Saer ealneg drifatS, naes buton 
prie dagas. Philippines yfel mehte peh pagiet be sumum daele 15 
gemetlic pyncan, aer se swelgend to rice feng, Alexander his 
sunu, peh ic nu his daeda sume hwile gesugiau scyle, op ic 
Romana gesecge pe on tSsem ilcan tidun gedon waeran. 

(in, vin.) 

JEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes ini hunde wintra 
7 vi 7 xxgum, Caudenes Furcules 2 seo stow gewearp swipe 20 
maere, 7 giet todaege is, for Romana bismere. paet gewearS 
aefter pa?m gefeohte pe Romane 7 Somnite haefdon, swa we aer 
*[Page75.] beforan saedon, * pa £>ara Somnita xx m ofslagen wurdon under 
Fauia )?aem consule. Ac Somnite set opran gefeohte mid maran 
fultume 7 mid maran waerscipe to Romana gemetinge coman 25 
ponne hie aer dyde, set Jjsere stowe pe mon haett Caudenes 
Furculus. 7 paer Romane swipost for paem besierede waeron 
pe him pcet land uncupre waes ponne hit Somnitum waere ; 7 on 
ungewis on an nirewett beforan, op hie Somnite utan beforan ; 
paet hie sippan oper sceoldon, oppe for metelieste heora lif 30 
alaetan, oppe Somnitum an hand gan. On paem anwalde waeion 
Somnite swa bealde paet se aepeling pe heora ladteow u 
Pontius waes haten, het ascian pone cyning his faeder, pe paer 
set ham waes, hwaeper him leofre wsere, pe he hie ealle acwealde, 

2 e altered 
from a ; 
Furculus C. 


Adserant nunc multisque haec vocibus efferant quasi virorum 
fortium laudes et facta felicia, quibus amarissimae aliorum 
calamitates in dulces fabulaa cedunt, si tamen nimquam ipsi 
injurias, quibus aliquando vexantur, relatu tristiori deplorant. 
Si vero de propriis querimoniis tantum alios audientes adjici 
volunt, quantum ipsi perpetiendo senserunl, prius ipsi non prae- 
sentibus praeterita, sed gestis gesta comparent : et utraque ex 
auditu, vehct certi alienorum arbitri, judicent, per viginti quin- 
que annos incendia civitatum, caedes hominurn, unius regis 
dominatus agitavit. 


Sufficerent ista ad exemplum miseriarurn insinuata memoriae 
nostrae gesta per Philippum, etiamsi Alexander ei non successisset 
in regnum. Cujus bella suspendo paulisper, ut pro convenientia 
temporum, Romana subjiciam. 

Anno ab Urbe condita ccccxxvi, Caudinas furcnlas satis 
celebres et famosas Romanorum fecit infamia. Nam cum su- 
periore bello viginti millia Samnitium, Fabio magistro equitnm 
pugnam conserente, cecidissent, circumspectiore cura Samnites ac 
magis instructo adparatu apud Caudinas furculas consederunt, 
ubi cum oranes copias Romanorum angustiis locorum clausissent, 
Pontius, dux eorum, in tantum abusus est victoriae securitate, 
ut Herennium patrem consulendum putaret, utrum occideret 
clausos, an parceret subjugatis : ut vivos tamen dedecori reser- 
varet, elegit. 

122 Alfred's orosius. 

ifrom c. ; be hie libbeude to bismre gerenian 1 hete. Hie ba se aebeling to 

gereniam L. 

oaem bismre getawade be ba on oaem dagum rnaest waes, ba?t be 
hie bereafade heoi'a claba 7 beora waepna, 7 siex hund gisla on 
his geweald uuderfeng, on paet gerad paet hie him sippan ece 
peowas waeren. 7 se aepeling behead sumum his folce baet hie 5 
gebi'ohten Romana consulas 7 heova witan aet beora agnuwi 
londe, 7 liim beforau drifen swa swa niedlingas, pcet heora bismer 
by mare waere. 

Geornor we woldon, cwaeS Orosius, iowra Itomaua bismra 
beon forsugiende bonne secgende, baer we for eowerre agenre 10 
gnornunge moste, be ge witS paein cristendome habbatS. Hwaet, 
ge witon baet ge giet todaege waeron Somnitum beowe, gif ge 
him ne alugen iowra wedd 7 eowre abas be ge him sealdon ; 7 
ge murcia'S nu, for baem be monega folc be ge anwald ofer 
haefdon, noldon eow gelaestau baet hie eow behetou ; 7 nellacS 15 
gebencan hu latS eow selfum waes to gelaestanne eowre a)?as baem 
be ofer eow anwald haefdon ! 

Sona baes on baem aefteran geare forbraecon Romane heora 
abas be hie Somnitum geseald hrefdon, 7 mid Papiria heora 
*[Page76.] consule hie mid firde gesohton, 7 baer deadlicne * sige geforan, 20 
for baem pe aegper para folca waes paes gefeohtes georn, Somnite 
for baem anwalde be hie on aegpere healfe haefdon, 7 Romane for 
paem bismere be hie aer aet him geforan, op Romane gefengon 
Somuita cyning, 7 heora faesten abraecon, 7 hie to gafolgieldum 
gedydon. Se ilea Papirius waes aefter baem gefeohte mid Ro- 25 
manum swelces domes beled pcet hie hiene to Son gecoren 
haefdon pcet he mid gefeohte mehte baem maran Alexandre 
wipstondan, gif he eastane of Asiam Italiam gesohte, swa he 
gecweden haefde. 

(in, vmi.) 

-lifter baem be Romeburg gctimbred waes mi hunde wintrum 30 
7 xxvi, feng Alexander to Maecedonia rice aefter Philippuse his 
faeder, 7 his aerestan tSegnscipe on Son gecypde pa he ealle 
Crecas mid his snyttro on his geweald geniedde, ealle pa be witJ 
hiene gewin upahofon. pat wear? aerest from Persum, ba hie 


ItaSamnites exercitum Romanum armis vestimentisque nuda- 
tum, sub jugum missum longum agere pompae ordinem prae- 
ceperunt. Sexcentis autem equitibus Pomanis in dbsidatum 
receptis, oneratos iguominia consules remiserunt. 

Quid de exagyeranda hujus foederis macula verbis laborem, 
qui tacere maluisseru 1 Hodie enim Eoiuani Samnio servirent, 
si fidem foederis, quam sibi servari a subjectis volunt, ipsi sub- 
jecti Samnitibus servavisseut. 

Posteriore anno infringunt Pomani firinatam cum Samnitibus 
pactionem, eosque in bellum cogunt, quod Papyrio consule in- 
sislente commissum, magnas strages utriusque popidi dedit. 
Cumque hinc ira recentis infamiae, hide gloria proximae victoriae 
pugnantes instimularet, tandem Roniani vicerunt : nee caedi 
pariter vel caedere destiterunt, nisi p>ostquam victis Samnitibus, 
et capto duci eorum, jugum reposuerunt. Idem deinde Papyrius 
Satricum expugnavit, et cepit. Hie autem Papyrius adeo tunc 
apud Pomanos strenuissimits habebatur, ut cum Alexander 
Magnus disponere diceretur ab Oriente descendens in Italiam 
transvehi, Pomani inter caeteros duces, hunc praecipuum fore, 
qui Alexandri impetum sustinere posset, meditarentur. 


Igitur Alexander, anno ab Urbe condita ccccxxvi, patri 
Pliilippo successit in regnum, qui primam exiierientiam animi 
et virtutis suae, compressis celeriter Graecorum motibus, dedit : 
quibus auctor, ut ab imperio Macedonum deficerent, Demos- 
thenes orator, auro Persarum corruptus, exstiterat. Itaque 

124 Alfred's orosius. 

sealdon Demostanase paem philosophe licgende feoh wiS paem 
pe he gelaerde ealle Crecas pcet hie Alexandre wiSsoceu. Athene 
budon gefeoht Alexandre, ac he hie sona forslog 7 gefliemde, paet 
hie sippan ungernetlicne ege from him heefdon. 7 Thebana faesten 
abraec, 7 mid ealle towearp, paette aer waes ealra Creca heafodstol, 5 
7 sippan paet folc eall on ellpeodge him wi(5 feo gesealde ; 7 ealle 
pa otSre peoda pe an Crecum waeron he to gafolgieldum gedyde, 
bnton Maecedonium pe him aest to gecirdon. 7 pouan waes 
farende an Nilirice 7 on Thraci, 7 hie ealle tc him gebigde. 
7 sippan he gegaderode fird wiS Pe?-se, 7 pa hwile pe he hie 10 
gaderade, he ofslog ealle his niaegas pe he geraecan mehte. On 
his feSehere waeron xxxii m, 7 pjes gehorsedan fifte healf M, 7 
scipa an hund 7 eahtatig. Nat ic, cwaecS Orosius, hwaeSer mare 

1 mid swa c, wundor waes, pe J)a?t he swa mid ' lytle fultume pone msestan 

*[Page77.] dael * pisses middangeardes gegan mehte, pe pcet he mid swa lytle 15 
weorode swa micel anginnan dorste. 

a forman c. On paem aerestan 2 gefeohte pe Alex(an)der 3 gefeaht wi(S Darius 
an Persum, Darius haefde siex hund H folces. He wcarp peh 
swipor beswicen for Alexandres searewe ponne for hi> g< feohte. 
paer wees ungemetlie wael geslagen Persa ; 7 Alexandres uses na 20 
ma ponne hund twelftig on psem rsedehere, 7 nigan on psem 
fetSan. pa afor Alexander ponan on Frigam, Asiam loud, 7 
heora burg abraec 7 towearp pe mon hsett Sardis. pa sa'gde 

* From c. him mon pcet Darius (haefde) * eft fird gegaderod on Persum. 

Alexander him pcet pa ondrcd for paere nearwau stowe pe he pa 25 
on wees, 7 hrsedlice for psem ege ponan afor ofer Taurasan pone 

» From c. beorg, 7 ungeliefedlicne micel(ne) 5 weg on paem daege gefor, otS 

he com to Tharsum paere byrg on Cilicium paem londe. On 

Saem daege he gemette ane ea, sio haefde ungemettlice ceald waete/-, 

seo waes CitSnus haten. pa ongan he hine baSian paeron swa 30 

sthegn swatigne f '; pa for jjoem ciele him gescruncan ealle pa aedra, twt 

erased .• siill ■,.,,... 

partially him mon paes hies nc wende. 

visible; swa- 

ttpuC. Ka(5e aafter paem com Darius mid firde to Alexandre. He 

■Fn.mc. haefde m c(pusenda) 7 feSena 7 an hund pusenda gehorsedra. 

Alexander waes pa him swiSe undra-dende for paere niiclan 35 

nieuige 7 fur pa?re lytlan pe he self haefde, peh pe he aer mid 


Atheniensibus bellum deprecantibus remisit. quos multo * metu ' millta e- 
solvit : Thebanos cum diruta civitate delevit, reliquos sub corona 
vendidit : caeteras urbes Achaiae et Thessaliae vectigales fecit. 
Illyrios quoque et Thracas, translate abhinc hello, domuit. Inde 
prqfecturus ad Persicum bellum, omnes coguatos ac proximos 
suos interfecit. In exercitu ejus fuere peditum triginta et duo 
inillia, equitum quatuor mille ducenti, et naves centum et octo- 
ginta. Hac tarn parva manu universum terrarum orbem, utrum 
admirabilius sit quod vicerit, an quod adgredi ausus fuerit, in- 
certum est. 

Primo ejus cum Dario rege congressu, sexcenta millia Fer- 
sarum in acie fuere, quae non minus arte Alexandri superata, 
quam virtute Macedonum, terga verterunt. Magna igitur caedes 
Persarum fuit. In exercitu autem Alexandri ceDtum et viginti 
equites et novem tantum pedites defuere. Deinde Gordien 
Phrygiae civitatem, quae nunc Sardis vocitatur, obsessam op- 
pugnatamque cepit ac direptioni dedit. Inde nunciato sibi 
Darii cum magnis copiis adventu, timens angustias quibus inerat 
locorum, Taurum montem mira celeritate transcendit, et quin- 
gentis stadiis sub una die cursu transmissis, Tarsum venit : 
ibique cum sudans in Cydnum praefrigidum amnem descendisset , 
obriguit, contractuque nervorum proximus morti fuit. 

Interea Darius cum trecentis multibus peditum et centum 
millibus equitum in aciem procedit. Movebat haec multitude 
hostium etiam Alexandrum maxime respectu paucitatis suae, 
quamquis jam pridem sexcenta millia hostium eadem paucitate 



2 From C. 

3 7 erased 
after fird. 

baere ilcan Darius rnaran ofercome. paet gefeoht waes gedon mid 
micelre geornfullnesse of baem folcum baern, 7 baer wseron ba 
cyningas begen gewundod. peer wae3 Persa x m ofslaegen ge- 
horsedra, 7 eahtatig M febena, 7 eahtatig m gefaDgenra. 7 baer 
1 ungemetiice wees ungemetlic x micel licffende feob funden on (Saein wicstowun. 5 

C, micel om. ° ° ° 

paer waes Darius niodor gefangen, 7 his wif, sio waes his swiostor, 
7 his 11 dohtor. Da bead Darius healf his rice Alexandre wij? 
baern wifmonnum, ah him nolde Alexander baes getygpian. 
Darius pa giet briddan sibe gegaderade fird of Persum 7 eac 
(of) 2 obrum londum *bone fultum be he him to aspanan mehte, 10 
7 wicS Alexandres for. pa hwile pe Darius fird 3 gegaderode, 
ba hwile sende Alexander Parmenionem his ladteow baet he 
<aflymdec. Darius sciphere gefliemde 4 . 7 [he] self for in Sirium, 7 hie 
him ongean comon, 7 his mid eapmodnessun anfengon, 7 he 
tSeah napelaes heora land oferhergeade, 7 baet folc sum paer sittan 15 
let, sum bonan adraefde, sume on elSiode him witS feo gesealde. 
7 Tirus ba ealdan burg 7 ba welegan he bcsaett, 7 sibban tobraec, 
7 mid ealle towearp, for pon hi him lustlice anfon noldan. 7 
sibban for on Cilicium, 7 baet folc to him geniedde; 7 sibban on 
Roc5um pcet iglond, 7 baet folc to him geniedde ; 7 after ba?m he 20 
for on Egypti, 7 hi to him geniedde ; 7 paer B het pa burg atim- 
bran be mon sibban be hi»i het Alexandria. 7 sibban he for 
to paem hearge pe Egypti saedon J?aet he waere Amones heora 
godes, se waes Iobeses sunu heora opres godes, to pon pcet he 
wolde beladian his modor Nectanebuses ba-s drys, be mon saede 25 
baet heo hie wiS forlgge, 7 baet he Alexandres feeder waere. pa 
bebcad Alexander baem haeSnan biscepe paet he becrupe on paes 
Amones anlicnesse be inne on baem hearge waes, aer ba?m be he 
7 pent folc hie Saer gegaderede, 7 saede hu he him an his gew ill 
beforan ()?am) 6 folce ondwjrdaa sceolde baes he hiene ascade. 30 
Genoh sweotollice us gedyde nu to witanne Alexander hwelce 
}?a haeSnan godas sindon to weorbianne, pat hit Bwibor is of 
bara biscepa gehlote 7 of heora agenre gewyrde p<ct pat hie 
BecgatS ponne of para goda mihte. 

5 From C. ; 

6 From C. 


superatis non solum non timere pugnam, sed eliam victoriam 
sperare didicisset. Ingentibus utrimque animis pugna commit- 
titur. In qua ambo reges vuluerantur. Eocinde caedes Per- 
saruta secuta est. Ibi tunc peditum octoginta millia, equitum 
decern millia caesa, capta autem quadraginta millia fuere. In 
castris Persarum multum av.ri caeterarumque opum repertum 
est. Inter captivos castrorum mater et uxoi', eademque soror, 
et filiae duae Darii fuere : Quarum redemtionem Darius cum 
etiam oblata regni dimidia parte non impetr avis set, tertio 
cunctis Persarum viribus sociorumque auxiliis contractis, helium 
instaurat. Sed dum haec Darius agit, Alexander Parmenionem 
ad invadendam Persicam classem mittit, ipse in Syriam pro- 
ficiscitur, ibi ex rnultis sibi regibus cum infulis ultro oc- 
currentibus, alios adlegit, alios perdidit, Tyrum urbem anti- 
quissimam et florentissimam obsistentem oppressit et cepit. 
Exin Cibeiam, Ehodum, atque Aegyptum pervadit. Inde ad 
templum Jovis Ammonis pergit, ut ignominiam sibi patris in- 
certi et infamiam adulterae matris aboleret. Nam fani ipsius 
antistitem ex occulto monuit, quid sibi tamquam consulenti 
responderi velit. Ita certus Alexander fuit, nobisque prodidit, 
diis i])sis mutis et surdis, in potestate esse antistitis quid velit 
Jingere. Revertens ah Ammone ad tertium Persicum helium, 
Alexandriam in Aegypto condidit. 



Of baere stowe for Alexander briddan sibe ongean Darius. 

7 hie set Tharse baere byrig hie gemetton. On baem gefeohte 

waeron Perse swa swibe forslagen baet hie heora [miclan] 

i anweaides anwaldes 1 7 longsuman hie selfe sibban wiS Alexander to nohte 

C. ; anwaldas 

l. ne bemaetan. pa Darius geseah baet he oferwunnen * beon 5 

age ' wolde, ba wolde he hiene selfne on t5sem gefeohte forspillan, ac 
hine his begnas ofer his willan from atugon, baet he sibban waes 
fleonde mid baere firde. y Alexander wees xxxin daga on baere 
stowe, aer he ba wicstowa y baet wael bereafian mehte. 7 sibban 
for on Perse 7 geeode Persibulis ba burg heora cynestol, seo is 10 
giet welegast ealra burga. pa sede man Alexandre baet Darius 

*FromC. heefde gebunden his (agene) 2 maegas mid gyldenre racentau. 

3 aitered/rom pa for he wi(5 his mid siex hund monna, 7 funde hiene aenne 8 
be wege licgan, mid sperum tosticad, healfcucne. He ba 
Alexander him anum deadura lytle mildheortnesse gedyde, pat 15 
he hiene hett bebyrgean an his ieldrena byrg, be he sibban 

« From c. nanum ende his cynne gedon nolde, ne his wif(e) 4 , ne his meder, 
ne his bearnum, ne patte ealra lsest waes, his gingran dohtor, he 
nolde buton haeftniede habban, seo wees lytel cild. 

« From c. UneaSe maeg mon to gel(e)afsuman 5 gesecgan swa monigfeald 20 

yfel swa on $ae»i brim gearum gewurdon, on brim folcgefeoh- 
ium, betux tweem cyningum. paet waeron fieftiene hund busend 
monna baet binnan baem forwurdon. 7 of baem ilean folcum 

6 beforan an forwurdon lytle aer. swa hit her beforan 6 seegtS, nigantiene hund 

M monna, buton miclan hergiungum, be binnan baem brim 25 
gearum gewurdon an monigre beode. pat is baet Asirie eall 
seo beod awest wearS from Alexandre, 7 monega byrig on 
As-iam, 7 Tirus seo maere burg eall toworpenu, 7 Cilicia baet 
lond eall awest, 7 Capadotia Saet lond 7 ealle Egypti on beowote 
gebroht, 7 Robum pat iglond mid ealle awest, 7 nionog obra 30 
land ymbe Tauros ba muntas. 

Nales baet an pat heora twegea gcwinn ba waere on Saem 
fastende bisses middangeardes ; ac onemn bapm Agidis, Spartana 



Darius vero quadringenta et quatuor millia peditum, et centum 
mille equitum Alexandro apud Tarsum hello opponit. Raro in 
v.llo praelio tantuni sanguinis fusum est. Sed Darius cum vinci 
suos videret, mori in bello paratus, persuasu suorum fugere 
compulsus est. Ita adtrita est in hoc bello Persarum ^/u/wcia, ut 
Persae, post imperium tot annorum, jugum servitutis acceperint. 
Alexander trigintaquatuor continuis diebus castrorum praedanx 
percenmit ; Persepolim, caput Persici regni, urbem famosissimam 
confertissimamque opibus totius orbis, invasit. Darium vero, 
cum a propinquis suis vinctum compedibus aureis teneri compe- 
risset, persequi stattiit. Cum sex millibus equitum prqfectus 
invenit in itinere solum relictum, confossum vulneribus, et 
extrenui vitae efflantem. Hunc mortuum inani misericordia 
referri in sepulchra majorum sepelirique praecepit : cujus non 
dicarn matrem vel uxorem, sed etiam parvulas filias crudeli 
captivitate retinebat. 

In tanta malorum multitudine difficillima dictis fides, tribus 
praeliis totidemque annis quinq ies decies centena millia pe- 
ditt'in equitumqv.e consuinta sunt : et haec quidem ex illig 
populis, unde jam ante annos non multo plures decies novies 
centena millia profligata referuntur : quamquam extra has clades 
per eosdem tres annos et Asiae civitates plurimae oppressae sint, 
et S}Tia tota vastata, Tyrus excisa, Cilicia exinanita, Cappadocia 
subacta, Aegyptus addicta sit : Pibodus quoque insula ultro ad 
servitutem successerit, pluriuiaeque subjectae Tauro provinciae, 
atque ipse mons Taurus jugum acceperit. 


Et ne forte nunc quisquam opinetur, vel orientem solum 
Alexandra viribus subactum, vel Italiam tantummodo Eomana 




cyning, 7 Antipater, oper Creca cyning, wunnon him betwe- 
* over erasure. num. 7 Alexander, Epira ' cyning 1 , * paes miclan Alex- 

2 Alexandres anderes 2 (earn) 3 se wilnade paes westdaeles swa se otSer dyde 

3 From c. P&s eastdaeles, 7 fird gelaedde in Italiam, 7 paer hraedlice of- 

4 SumI C 'l s ^ a S eu we arS. 7 on paere ilcan tide Zoffirion, Ponto cyning 4 , 5 

5 he his 7 c, in Scibbie mid firde gefor, 7 he (7) his 5 folc mid ealle (ba5r) G 

the Tin a late rr b > / \/ / \r / 

hand. forweartS. 

6 From C. 

7 Minotheo C 

8 hund C. 

9 Assapias C. 

10 from C. 

'2 From C. ; 

•[Page 81.] 
u From C. ; 
Ucalisten L. 

Alexander aefter Darius deape gewonn ealle Mandos, 7 ealle 
Ircaniam. 7 on tSaere hwile J?e he paer winnende waes, frefelice 
hiene gesohte Minoth(e)o 7 , seo Scip]?isce cwen, mid Jjrim unde 8 10 
wifmonna, to pon }?get heo woldon wi5 iUexander 7 wi(S his 
maerestan cempan bearna strienan. JEher paem wonn Alex- 
ander witS Parthim paem folce, 7 he hie neah ealle forslog 7 
fordyde, aer he hie gewinnan mehte. 7 aefter paem he gewonn 
Drancas poet folc, 7 Euergetas, 7 Paramomenas, 7 Aspanias ', 15 
7 monega opra peoda pe gesetene sint ymbe pa. muntas 
Caucasus, 7 paer het ane burg atiinbran, pe raon sippan bet 

Naes his scinlac ne his hergiung on pa fremdan ane, ac he 
gelice slog 7 hiende pa pe him on siml waeron mid farende 7 20 
winnende. JEst he ofslog Amintas his modrian sunu, 7 sippan 
his brotSor, 7 pa Parmenion his pegn, 7 pa Filiotes, 7 pa Cutu- 
hii-an, pa Eurilohus, pa Pausanias, 7 monege opre pe of Maece- 
donian ricoste waeron. 7 Clitus, se waes aegper ge his pegn 
ge aer Philippuses his faeder, pa hie sume si)?e druncne est 86 
heora eymble saetan, pa angunnon hi rea(h)tigcan •" hwteSer ma 
maei'lecra dceda gefremed haefde, pe Philippus pe Alexander, 
pa saegde se Clitus for ealdre hyldo poet Philippus mare u haefde 
gedon ponne he. He pa Alexander ahleop, 7 hiene for paiv 
saegene ofslog. He Alexander toecan paem pe he hienende waes 30 
aegper ge his folc ge oSerra cyninga, he waes sinpyrstende 12 
monnes blodes. 

Rape aefter paem he for mid firde on Chorasmas, 7 on Dacos, 
*7 him to gafolgielduw hie geniedde. Chalisten I3 pone Philo- 


inquietudine fatigatam, tunc etiam belluin Agidis, Spartanorum 
regis, in Graecia, Alexandri regis Epiri in Lucania, Zopyrionis 
in Scythia gerebatur : quorum Agis, rebellante secum universa 
Graecia, cum Antipatri copiis congressus, ipse procubuit. Alex- 
ander autem in Italia adfectans occidentis imperium, aemidans 
Alexandriwi JIagnum, superatus est, corpusque ejus ad sepul- 
turam venditum. Zopyrion vero praefectus Ponti Scythis 
bellum inferre avsus est : et funditus cum omnibus copiis suis 
abrasus est. 

Igitur Alexander Magnus, post Darii mortem, Hyrcanos et 
Mardos subegit : ubi etiam ilium adhuc bello intentum Mino- 
tbaea regina, excitata suscipiendae ab eo subolis gratia, cum 
trecentis mulieribus procax Amazon invenit. Post haec Par- 
thorum pugnam adgressus : quos delevit propemodum antequam 
vicit. Inde Drangas, Euergetas, Parimas, Pai'apamenos, Ad- 
aspios, caeterosque populos qui in radice Caucasi morabantur, 
subegit, urbe ibi Alexandria constituta. 

Sed nee minor ejus in suos crudelitas, quam in hostem rabies 
fuit. Docent hoe Amyntas consobrinus occisus, noverca fra- 
tresque ejus necati, Parmenio et Philotas trucidati, Attalus, 
Eurylocbus, Pausanias multique Macedoniae principes exstincti : 
Clitus quoque, amicitia vetus, nefarie interfectus. Qui cum in 
convivio adversus regent, sua opera patri PhiHppo praeponentem, 
memoriam patris tueretur, a rege transfossus, convivium moriens 
cruentavit. Sed Alexander humani sanguinis insaturabilis, sive 
hostium sive etiam sociorum, recentem tamen semper sitiebat 

Itaque Chorasmos et Dahas in deditionem accepit : Callis- 
thenem philosopbum, sibique apud Aristotelem condiscipulum, 


132 Alfred's orosius. 

sofura he ofslog, his emnscolere, (5e hi setgaedere gelserede wseron 
set Aristotolese heora magistre, 7 monege meu mid him, for pon 
hie noldon to him gebiddan swa to heora Gode. 

^Efter peein he for on Indie, to pon pcet he his rice gebraedde 
op pone eastgarsecg. On paem sipe he geeode Nisan, India 5 
heafodburg, 7 ealle pa beorgas pe mon Dsedolas ha?tt ; 7 eall 
pset rice Cleoffiles paere cwene, 7 hie to geligre geniedde, 7 for 

1 om. in both. paem he hiere (hiere) ' rice eft ageaf. /Efter psem pe Alexander 

hsefde ealle Indie him to gewildon gedon, buton anre byrg, seo 

2 ungemeun waes ungemettan 2 fseste mid cludum ymbweaxen, pa geascade he 10 

pa;t Ercol se ent pser wses to gefaren on rerdagum, to Son pa't 
he hie abrecan pohte ; ac he hit for paein ne angan pe pa?r waes 
eorpbeofung on pajre tide. He pa. Alexander hit swipost for 
psem angann pe he wolde Jsaet his msei-pa wseren maran ponne 
Ercoles, peh tSe he hie mid micle forlore pses folces begeate. 15 

JEfter psem Alexander hsefde gefeoht wiS Porose pa?in 
6trengstan Indea cyninge. On 633m gefeohte wsei'on pa maestau 
blodgytas on segpere healfe para folca. On Saem gefeohte Poros 

3 onC. 7 Alexander gefuhton amvig of 3 horsum. pa ofslog Poros 

Alexandres hors, pe Bucefal waes haten, 7 hiene selfne mehte, 20 
paer him his pegnas to fultume ne comen. 7 he haefde Poros 
monegum wundum gewundodne, 7 hiene eac gewildne ged yd, 
sippan his pegnas him to comon. 7 him eft his rice to forlet 
for his pegnscipe, py he swa swiSe wses feohtende ongean hiene. 
7 he Alexander him het sippan twa byrg atimbran : oper woes 25 
hatenu be his horse Bucefal, oper Nicea. 

Sippan he for on Rsestas pa leode, 7 on Cathenas 7 on Pre- 

*alteredfrm sidas, 7 an Gangeridas, 7 wiS hie ealle gefeaht 7 oferwon 4 . 
pa he com on India eastgemsera, pa com him pser ongean 

•[Page 82.] * ^ wa hund pusenda monna gehorsades folces, 7 hie Alexander 30 
uneaSe oferwonn segper ge for psere sumorhsete ge eac for pain 
oftraidlicau gefeohtum. Sippan a?fter psem he wolde habban 
maran wicstowa pon«e his gewuna 8 r waere, for pon he him 
sippan efter psem gefeohte swiSor on sset pouue he bbt dyde. 


cum plurimis aliis principibas, quod eum ut Deum non adoi*aret, 


Post haec Indiam petit, ut Oceano ■altimoqiie Oriente Jiniret 
imperium, Nyssam urbem adiit, Daedalos montes, regnaque 
Cleophidis reginae expugnavit : quae cum se dedisset, con- 
cubitu regnuni redemit. Perdomita Alexander India, cum ad 
saxum mirae asperitatis et altitudinis pervenisset, cognoscit 
Herculem ab expugnatione ejusdem saxi terrae motu prohibitum : 
aemulatione p&rmotus, ut Herculis acta superaret, cum summo 
labore ac periculo saxo potitus, omaes loci ejus gentes in dedi- 
tioneni accepit. 

Cum Poro, fortissimo Indorum rege, ciueutissimum bellum 
gessit : in quo Alexander cum ipso Poro singulariter congressus, 
occisoque dejectus equo, concursu satellitum praesentiam mortis 
evasit. • Porus multis vulneribus confossus, et captus est : quo 
ob testimonium virtutis in regnum restituto, duas ibi condidit 
civitates, Niceam et Bucephalam, quam de nomine equi sui ita 
vocari praecepit. 

Inde Arestas l , Cathenos 2 , Praesidas et Gangaridas Macedones i Adresta?. 
expugnavere. Cum que ad Chofides ventum esset, ibi contra 2 Cathae0? - 
ducenta millia equitum Jiostiurn pugnam conseruerunt. Et cum 
jam aetate detriti, viribus lassi, difficile vicissent, castra, ob 
memoriam plus solito maguifica condiderunt. 

134 alfked's oeosius. 

iEfter baem he for ut on garsecg of baein muban, be seo 
ea waes hatenu Eginense, on an iglond, ]?aer Siuos pcet folc 7 
Iersomas on eardedon, 7 hi Ercol f>oer aer gebrobte 7 gesette ; 

1 From c. (7) l he him ba to gewildum gedyde. iEfter baem he for to baem 
iglande, be monn pcet folc Mandras haett, 7 Subagros ; 7 hi him 5 
brohton ongean eahta c si fe)?ena 7 lx M gehorsades folces. 
7 hie lange waeron baet dreogende aer heora acSer mehte on 
obrurn sige geraecan, aer Alexander late unweorftlicne sige 

JEfter J?8em he gefor to anum faestenne. pa he peer to com, 10 
pa, ne mehton hie nanne monn on tSaem faestenne utan geseon. 
pa wundrade Alexander hwy hit swa aemenne waere ; 7 hraedlice 
Jjone weall self oferclom, 7 he Saer wearS from baern burgwaru»i 
in abroden. 7 hie his sibban waeran swa swiSe ehtende swa 

sgesceotuinC. hit is ungeliefedlic to secganne, ge mid scotum 2 , ge mid stana 15 
torfungum, ge mid eallum heora wigcraeftum, baet swabeah 

3 From c.; ealle pa. burgware ne mehton hiene aenne genieddan baet 3 he 
him an hand gan wolde. Ac ba him pcet folc swiSost an brang, 
ba gestop he to anes wealles byge, 7 hiene Saar awerede. 7 swa 
eall pcet folc weartS mid him anum agaeled beet hie baas wealles 20 
nane gieman ne dydon, oS Alexandres begnas toemnes him 
J^one weall abraecon, 7 baer in coman. Daer wearS Alexander 
burhscoten mid anre flan underneotSan ober breost. Nyte 

* n.w.n./wiir, we iiu 4 hwsetSer sie swibor to wundrianne, be bat, hu he * ana 

tcored # r r r ' 

through the \ V i(5 ealle ba, burgware hiene awerede, be eft ba him fultum 25 

first tint,-. ' ' > 

•[Page 83.] com, hu he burh pcet folc gebrang pcet he tSone ilcan ofslog 
be hiene aer burhsceat ; pe eft para pegna angin pa hie untweo- 

5 From c. gend(lice) 5 wendon pcet heora hlaford waere on heora feonda 
gewealde, otStSe cuca o$$e dead, pcet hie swabeah noldon baes 
weallgebreces geswican, baet hie heora hlaford ne gewraecen, t>eh 30 
pc hie hiene meSigne on cneowum sittende metten. 

Sibban he ba burg haefde him to gewildum gedon, pa for he 
to otSre byrg, baer Ambira se cyning on wunode. paer forwearp 
micel Alexandres heres for geaitredum gescotum. Ac Alex- 
andre weartJ on (Saere ilcan niht an swefne an wyrt oftewed. 35 
pa nam he ba on mergen, 7 sealde hie 'Saem gewundedum 


Exin Alexander ad amnem Acesinem pergit. Per hunc in 
Oceamim devehitur, ibi Gessonas Sibosque, quos Hercules con- 
didit, oppressit. Hinc ad Mallos et Syracusas 1 navigat : quae ' Oxydracas. 
gentes eum armatis octoginta millibus peditum, et sexaginta 
millibus equitum, excipiunt. Commissoque jyraelio, diu anceps 
pugna tandem tristem pene victoriam Macedonibus dedit. 

Nam fusis hostium copiis, Alexander exercitum ad urbem 
duxit. Et cum murum escendisset, vacuam civitatem ratus, 
solus introrsum desiluit, quern cum undiqv.e hostes circumdedissent 
incredibile dictu est, ut eum non midtitudo hostium, non vis 
magna telorum terruerit, solus tot millia ceciderit ac fugarit. 
At ubi se obrui a circumfusa mv.ltitudine persensit, muri obice 
2)Osteriora tutatus, contrarios eo usque sustinuit, donee pei'fractis 
muris exercitus omnis irrumperet. In eo praelio sagitta sub 
mamma trajectus, Jixo genu eatenus pugnavit, donee eum, a quo 
vulneratus esset, occideret. 

Inde ad urbem quandam, cui Ambira rex praeerat, pervenit. 
Sed in exjmgnatione civitatis magnam partem exercitus sagittis 
veneno illitis amisit: ac post herba per somnium sibi ostensa 
in potum sauciis data, cum reliquis subveniretur, urbem ex- 
pugnavit et cepit. 

136 Alfred's orosius. 

drincan ; 7 hie wurdon mid J^sem gehaeled ; 7 sippan pa burg 

Ond he sippan hwearf hamweard to Babylonia, paer waeron 
aerendracan on anbide of eallre worolde : paet waes from Spa- 
neum, 7 of Affrica, 7 of Gallium, 7 of ealre Italia. Swa 5 
egefull waes Alexander pa pa he waes on Indeum, on easte- 
weardum pissum middangearde, pcette pa from him ondredan 
pe wseron on westeweardmra. Eac him coman aerendracan ge 
of raonegum peodum, pe nan mon Alexandres geferscipes ne 
wende past man his naman wiste, 7 him fripes to him wilnedon. 10 
pagiet pa Alexander ham com to Babylonia, pagiet wges on him 
se niaesta purst monnes blodes. Ac pa pa his geferan ongeatan 
paet he Sees gewinnes pagiet geswican nolde, ac he saede paet he 
on African faran wolde, pa geleornedon his byrelas him be- 
tweonum hu hie him mehten poet lif oppringan; 7 him gesealdou 15 
ator drincan : pa forlet he his lif. 

Eala, cwseS Orosius, on hu micelre dysignesse men nu sindon 
on peosan cristendome ! Swa peh pe him lytles hwaet uniecSe 

*[Page84.] sie, * hu earfeSlice hi hit gemaenatS ! oSer para is, o(5(5e hie hit 

nyton, ot>"5e hi hit witan nyllacS, an hwelcun brocum pa lifdon 20 
pe ser him waeron. Hu wenatS hie hu Sam waere pe on Alex- 

1 From c. andres onwalde waeron, pa him tSa (swa) 1 swiSe hiene ondredan 
pe on westeweardum pisses middangeardes waeron paet hie on 
swa micle nepinge, 7 on swa micel ungewiss, aegSer ge on saes 
fyrhto, ge on westennum wildeora 7 wyrmcynna missenlicra, ge 25 
on peoda gereordum, paet hie hiene aefter fripe sohton on easte- 
weardum peosan middangearde. Ac we witon georne paet hie 
nu ma for iergtSe naper ne durran, ne swa feor fritS gesecan, ne 

» om. in c. furpon hie selfe aet ham et heora cotum hie 2 werian, ponne hie 

monn aet ham sectS. Ac paet hie magon paet hie pas tida 30 

(Ill, X.) 

iEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes mi hunde vrinira 
7 L, under paem twa?m consulum pc ocSer waes haten Fauius, 



Post Babyloniain rediit : ubi eum exterritarum totius orbis 
provinciarum legati opperibantur, hoc est, totius Africae civi- 
tatum : sed et Hispauorum, Gallorum, plurimae praeterea partis 
Italiae. Tantus tinior in summo Oriente constituti duds populos 
ultimi Occidentis invaserat, ut inde peregrinam toto mundo cer- 
neres legationem, quo vix crederes pervenisse rumorem. Alex- 
ander vero apud Babyloniain, cum adhuc sanguinem sitiens, 
ministri insidiis venenum potasset, interiit. 

dura mens hominum, et cor semper inhumanum! His- 
panus et Morinns ad supplicandum Alexandrum Babyloniam 
adiit, cruentumque ultro dominurn, ne hostem excip>eret, per 
Assyriam Indiamque quaesivit : terrarum metas lustrans et 
utrique infeliciter notus Oceano, et tamen tarn violentae necessi- 
tatis memoria vel obJivione defecit vet viluit vetustate. Ut nos 
perpetuae recordationi haesurum putamus, quod plurima orbis 
parte secura, unum angulum fugax latro violavit : quasi vero 
Gothorum et Suevorum pacem, ut non dicam versa vice Indus 
vel Assyrius, sed etiam vel ipse, qui hostem patitur, Hispanus 


Anno ab Urbe condita ccccl, Fabio Maximo V. Decio 
Mure iv consulibus, quatuor fortissimi Italiae populi in unum 

138 Alfred's orosius. 

i un^er l. j oSre namau Masimus, 7 under 1 pam pe Cwintus haten was, 
7 ot5re nonian Decius, on heora feorpan co/*sulatu on Italium 
feower pa strengstan tSeoda hi him betweonum gespracon — pat 
waron Umhri, 7 Drysci, 7 Somnite, 7 Galli — pat hie wolden 
on Romane winnan. 7 hi him pcet swipe ondradan hu hi 5 
witS him eallum emdemes mehten, 7 georne siredon hu hi hie 
totwaman mehten, 7 gewealdenne here on Drysci 7 on Umbre 
sendon an hergiunge, 7 pcet folc to amierrenne. pa hie pat 
geascedon, pa wendon hie him hamweard to tSon pcet hie heora 
land bewereden. 7 Romane ?Sa hwile mid heora maran fultume 10 
pe hie at ham hafdon foron ongean Somnite, 7 ongean Gallic 
Daer on (Sam gefeohte was Cuintws se consul ofslagen, 7 Fauius 
se otSer consul setter pas otSres fielle sige hafde. pier wearS 
Soninita 7 Gallia feowertig M ofslagen, 7 seofon M Romana on 
parn daele pe Decius on ofslagen waes. \>onne sade Libius 15 

*[Page£5.] * tSset Somnita 7 Gallia ware ocSer healf bund M ofslaegen para 
fetSena, 7 seofon 21 gehorsedra. 

Eac ic hierde to sopum secgan, cwatS Orosius, pat hit na 
naere on tSam dagum mid Romanum buton gewinne, oppe witS 
opra folc, op)?e on him selfum mid monigfealdim wolum 7 20 

2Fumus&ott. moncwealmum, swa swa hit tSa waes pa Favius 2 se consul of 

3 tnumphan pam gefeohte hamweard for. pa dyde man (Sone triumhpan 3 
him beforan, ]?e heora gewuna waes ponwe hie sige haefdon. Ac 
se gefea weartS swipe ra?Se on heora mode to gedrefednesse 
gecierred, pa hie gesawan pa deadan men swa Jnelice to eorpan 25 

• for ),on \>e beran pe par ar at ham waron ; for py * par was se micla 
moncwealm on pare tide. 

7 pas ymb an gear Somnite gefuhton wicS Romanum, 7 hie 

gefliemdon, 7 hie bedrifon into Romebyrg. 7 hradlice after 

BEfler \>vm pam Somnite awendan 6 on opre wisan agper ge heora sceorp, 30 
repeated qfler . . 

awendan. ge eall heora wapn ofersylefredau, to tacne £>at hie oper woldon, 

„ c. otScSe ealle libban oppe (ealle) 6 licgean. On pam dagum gecuron 

Romane him to ccmsule Papirius, 7 ratSe J?as fird geladdon 

ongean Somnitu?», peh pe heora biscopas from hiora godum 


foedus coierunt. Nanique Etrusci, Umbri, Samnites et Galli, 
uno agmine conspirantes, Ronianos delere conati sunt. Treme- 
facti hoc hello Romanorum animi : nee ausi totum sperare de 
viribus, dolo divisere hostes. Itaque cum, quibusdarn suis ad 
populandos hostiles agros in Uinbriani Etruriamque ^raemissis, 
Umbrorum Etruscorumque exercitum redire ad tuitionem suorum 
coegissent, cum Samnitibus et Gallis helium inire properant. In 
quo bello Decius consul occisus est. Fabius tamen post magnam 
Decianae partis stragem vicit. Eo praelio quadraginta millia 
Samnitium sive Gallorum caesa, Romanorum vero septem millia 
ex Decii tantummodo parte, qui occisus est, exstincta referuntur. 
Fuisse autem G-allorum et Samnitium peditum centum quadra- 
ginta millia trecenti et triginta, equitum vero quadraginta qua- 
tuor millia, Livius refert. 

Sed, ut saepe dictum est, semper Romanorum aut domesticam 
quietem extraneis bellis interpellatam, aut externos proventv.s 
morbis interioribus adgravatos, heme victoriam pestilentia civitatis 
oneravit, et triumphales pompas obviae mortuorum exsequiae pol- 
luerunt. Nee erat cui de triumpho gaudium suaderetur, cum 
tota civitas aut aegris suspiraret, aut mortuis. 



Sequitur annus, quo Romani, instaurato a Samnitibus bello, 
vied sunt, atque in castra fugerunt. Postea vero Samnites 
novum habitum sumentes, hoc est deargentatis armis paratoque 
animo, ni vincant, mori, bello se obferunt. Adversum quos 
Papirius consul cum exercitu jnissus, cum a pidlariis augurihus 
congredi prohiberetur, irridens eos, tarn feliciter confecit helium, 
quam constanter arripuit. Nam in hoc praelio duodecim millia 



i From C. 

8 m altered 
from n. 

*[Page 86.] 

sseden pset hie (5set gefeoht forbuden. Ac he Pa(pi)rius 1 pa 
biscepas for psere ssegene swipe bismrade, 7 pset fserelt swa peh 
gefor, 7 swa weorplicne sige hsefde swa he ser unweorftlice para 
goda biscepum 2 oferhirde. peer wearS Sorunita tweif m ofslagen 
7 mi M gefangen. 7 ra$e gefter psem mserlican sige hie wurdon 5 
eft geunret mid inoncwealme, 7 se wses swa ungernetlic 7 swa 
longsum, Sset hie tSa set nihstan witende raid deofolcrseftuui 
sohton hu hi hit gestillan raehte, 7 gefetton Escolafius pone 
scinlacan mid psere ungemetlican nsedran pe mon Epithauiu.* 
bet; 7 onlicost dydon swelce him nsefre aer psem gelic yfel an 10 
ne become, ne sefter )?sern eft ne become. 

py sefterran geare pses Fauius hieora * consul, pe otSre noman 
wses baten Gurius, gefeaht wi5 Somnitum, 7 heanlice hamweard 
otSfleah. pa wolde an senatus bieue aweoi'pan, for pon he Sset 
folc on fieame ggbrohte. pa bsed his feeder — wees eac Fauius 15 
haten — pset pa senatum forgeafen psem suna pone gylt, 7 pset 
hie gebiden paet he moste mid paem suna set oSrum cirre wiS 
Somnitu?« mid heora ealra fultume ; 7 hie him pees getygpedon. 
pa behead se fseder psem consule paet he mid his fierde angcau 
fore, 7 he beseftan gebad mid sumum psem fultume. pa he 20 
geseah pcet Pontius, Somnita cyuing, hsefde pone consul his sunu 
besired, 7 mid his folce utan befaugen, he him pa to fultume 
com, 7 hiene swiSe geanmette; 7 Pontius Somnita cyning 
gefengon. pser wearS Somnita xx M ofslagen, 7 mi m gefangen 
mitS psem cyninge. pser wearS Romana gewinn 7 Somnita 25 
geendad — for pon pe hie heora cyning gefengon — psette hie ser 
dreogende wseron lviiii wintra. 

pses on oprum geare Curius se consul mid Romanum gefeabt 
witS Sabinan, 7 heora ungemet ofslog, 7 sige hsefde; be psem 
mon mehte witan, pa he 7 pa consulas hie atellan ne mchton. 30 

(III, XL) 

x'Efter [psem] pe Romeburg getimbred wses nil hunde wintjum 

s Domiiiua(7. 7 lxiii pa $a Dolabella 7 Domotius 3 wseron consulas on Rome, 

pa Lucani, 7 Bruti, 7 Somnite, 7 Gallic of Scnno angunuan witS 


hostium caesa, tria niillia capta referuntur. Sed hanc vere lau- 
dandam victoriam oborti subito corrupere morbi. Nam tanta 
ac tam inlolerabilis pestilentia tunc corripv.it Civitatem, ut 
propter earn quacuaque ratioae sedandam, horrendumque ilium 
Epulaurium colubruru, cum ipso Aesculapii lapide advexerint : 
cpiasi vero pestilentia aut aute sedata non sit, aut post orta non 

Praeterea altero abhinc anno Fabius Gurges consul male 
adversus Samnitas pugnavit. Namque victus in Vrbem refugit. 
Itaque cum senatus de submovendo eo deliberaret, pater ejus, 
Fabius Maximus, ignominiam filii deprecatus, legatum se filio 
iturum ultro obtulit. Qua impetrata, cum subito pugnantem 
filiuni consulem, insistente Pontio Samnitium duce, et infestis 
hostium telis couclusum videret, in medium se agmen ingessit. 
Quo facto p>ermoti Romani tota ibi incubuere acie, donee ipsum 
ducem Pontium ceperunt. Caesa sunt in eo praelio Samnitium 
viginti millia, capta autem quatuor millia cum rege suo : tan- 
demque Samniticum belluin, quod per quadraginta et novem 
annos trahebatur, capti ducis destitutione finitum est. 

Anno subsequente cum Sabinis Curio Consule bellum gestum 
est, ubi quot millia hominum interfecta, quot capta sint, ipse 
consul ostendlt : qui cum multitudinem capti popidi referre vellet, 
numerum Tjxplicare non potuit. 

Anno ab Urbe condita cccclxiii, Dolabella et Domitio con- 
sulibus, Lucani, Bruttii, Samnites quoque cum Seuonibus Gallis 
facta societate, cum redivivum contra Romauos bellum moli- 

142 Alfred's orosius. 

Romanu/n winnan. pa sendon Romane aerendracan to Gallium 
ymbe friS ; ba ofslogon hie (5a serendracan. pa sendon hie eft 
Cecilium heora pretorium mid firde peer Gallie 7 Bryti aetgeedere 

» From c. waeron, 7 (he) l paer wearcS ofslaegen, 7 beet folc mid him, baet 
wees eahtatyne m. Swa oft swa Galli wi$ Romanum wunnan, 5 
swa wurdon Romane gecnysede. For bon ge Romane, 0100*8 

*[Page87.] Orosius, * bonne ge ymh £>eet an gefeoht alneg ceoriaS be eow 
Gotan gedydon, hwy nyllatS ge gebencan ba monegan gerran be 
eow Gallie of[t]raedlice bis-merlice burhtugon ? 

Ic sceal eac gemyndgian be sumuw daele baes be Alexandres 10 
eefterfylgendas dydon on beeru tidum be bis gewearS on Rome- 

2 mis9eniican byrg, hu hie hie selfe mid missellican 2 gefeohtum fordydon. Hit 

is, cwccS he, baem gelicost, bonne ic his gebencean sceal, be ic 

3 Ff o«> c - i sitte on anre heare dune, 7 geseo bonne on 3 smetSum felda 

fela fyra byrnan. Swa ofer eall Macedonia rice, beet is ofer 15 

ealle ba maran Asiam, 7 ofer Europe pone maestan deel, 7 ealle 

Libium, pcet hit na naes buton hete 7 gewinnum. pa be under 

Alexandre fyrmest waeron, baer beer hie aefter him ricsedon, hie 

Sajt mid gewinnum awestan ; 7 ]?eer beer hie na?ron, hie gedydon 

bone maestan ege, swelce se bitresta smic upp astige, 7 pomie 20 

wide tofare. 

Alexander xii gear bisne niiddangeard under him brysmde 

7 egsade. 7 his aefterfolgeras feowertiene gear hit sibban totugon 

7 totaeron J?eem gelicost bonne seo leo bringS his hungregu/rc 

hwelpum hwaet to etanne : hie Sonne gecyfta'S on t5aem aete hwelc 25 

uheptcored heora meest meeg gehrifnian. Swa bonne dyde P(t)holomeus 4 , 
through : 

Ph.iinmeusc. Alexandres begna an, ba he togeedere gesweop 6 ealle Egyptum 

gesceop c. " 7 Arabia ; 7 Laumenda his ober begn, se befeng ealle Asirie ; 7 

Tlielenws Cilicium ; 7 Filotos Hiliricam ; 7 Ecrapatas pa maran 

MetSian ; 7 Stromen ba laessan Median ; 7 Perdice ba laessan 30 

Asiam ; 7 Susana ba maran Frigan ; 7 Antigonus Liciam 7 

f-FromC; Pamphiliam ; 7 Nearchus Cariam ; 7 Leouont"*'' pa laessan 

Levmontus L. m .,_,,. _, /i i • -i-»n 

Frigan ; 7 Lisimachus Thraciam ; 7 Eumen Capadotiam 7 Pafla- 
gonian?. 7 Seleucus heefde ealle pa eeSelestan men Alexandres 

Alexander's successors. 143 

rentui", Romani ad exorandos Gallos misere legatos : Quos cum 
Galli interfecissent, Caecilius praetor cum exercitu missus, ab 
Etrmcis Gallisqxie oppressus interiit. Octodecim 1 millia militum » Tredecim. 
Romanorum illo hello prostrata sunt. Ita autem quotiescunque 
Galli exarserunt, Roma detrita est, ut sub praesenti nunc concur - 
satione Gothorum magis debeat meminisse Gallorum. 


At ego nunc revocor, ut per haec eadem tempora, qui bus 
Romani ista ^er^essi sunt, quae inter se bella gesserint Macedonum 
duces, revoham; qui mortuo Alexandro rnutuis se bellis con- 
sumserunt, quorum ego tempus ita mild spectare videor, quasi 
aliqua immensa castra de specula montis adspectans, nihil in 
magno campi spatio praeter innumeros focos cernam : ita per 
totum Macedoniae regnum, hoc est per universam Asiam et 
plurimam Europae partem, Libyaeque vel maximam, horrendi 
subito bellorum globi colluxerunt ? qui cum ea praecipiie loca, in 
quibus exarsere, populati sunt, reliqua omnia terrore rumoris, 
quasi fumi caligine, turbaverunt. 

Igitur Alexander per duodecim annos trementem sub se 
orbem ferro pressit. Principes vero ejus quatuordecim annis 
dilaniaverunt, et veluti opimam p>raedam a magno leone pro- 
stratam avidi discerpsere catuli. Itaque prima Ptolemaeo 
Aegyptus Arabiaeque pars sorte provenit. Syriam Laomedon 
ilitvlianeus, Ciliciam Philotas, Philo Illyrios accipiunt. Mediae 
majori Atropatus, minori socer Perdiccae praeponitur. Susiana 
gens Scyno, Phrygia major Antigono adsignatur. Lyciam et 
Pamphyliam Nearchus, Cariam Cassander, Lydiam Menander 
sortiuntur. Leonnatus minorcm Phrygiam accipit. Thracia 
Lysimacbo, Cappadocia cum Paphlagonia Eumeni data : summa 
castrorum Seleuco cessit ; stipatoribus regis satellitibusque Cas- 
sander praejicitur. In Bactriana et Iudiae regionibus praefecti 


Alfred's orosius. 

♦[Page 88.] 

1 From C. ; _ 

2 7 hsefde L. 

3 From C. ; 
l>ranceas L. 

* Sostianus C. 

5 From C. 
» -FVom C. 

" selfe C. 
*[ Page 89.] 

' e erated. 

heres, 7 on lengtSe mid him he begeat ealle pa eastlond. 7 
Cassander pa cempan mid Chaldeum. 7 on Pactrium 7 on 
Indeum * wseron Sa ealdormen pe Alexander gesette. 7 t5set 
lond hetux psem tvvam ean Induse 7 ItSasfene hsefde Itaxiles; 
7 Ithona hsefde Calonie pa peode on Indeum ; 7 Parapamenas ' 5 
hsefde 2 Uxiarches set paes beorges ende Caucasus; 7 Aracha 
Bihedros hsefde Siburtus ; 7 Stontos hsefd(e) Dranceas s 7 Areas 
pa peoda ; 7 Omintos hsefde Atrianws ; 7 S[i]cheus hsefde Sati- 
anos * pcct folc ; 7 Itacanor hsefde Parthos ; 7 Philippus Ircanws 
7 Fratauernis hsefde Armenie ; 7 Theleomommos hsefde Mepas ; 10 
7 Feucestas hsefde Babylonias ; 7 Polausus lisefde Archos ; 7 
Archolaus Mesopotamiatn. 

Eall heora gewiun awsecnedon serest from Alexandres epistole, 
for pon pe he pseron behead bset mon ealle pa wraeccan an cyppe 
forlete pe on ?5sem londum wseron pe he ser self gehergad hsefde. 15 
pa noldan Crecas psem bebode hieran for pon [hie] ondredon, 
ponne hie hie gegaderedon, pset hie on him gewrsecen pa teonan 
?5e hie a?r mid him gepoledon; ge eac wiSsocon pset hie leng 
Lsecedemonium hierau nolde, pser heora heafodstol wses. 7 ratSe 
Sses Atheniense gelseddon xxx m folces, 7 twa huiid scipa augean 20 
Antigone c5aem cyninge, pe eall Creca rice habhan sceolde, for 
pon pe he t5ses serendes serendra(ca) 5 wses from Alexandre. 7 
ge[set]tou him to ladteowe Demoste(n)on 6 pone filosofum ; 7 
asponon him to fultume Corinthum pa burgleode, 7 Sihonas, 7 
Margas ; 7 be&seton Antipatrum bone cyning on anum fsestenue, 25 
for pon pe he wses Antigone on fultume. J<ar wear@ Leosteuas, 
otSer heora ladteowa, mid anre flun ofscoten. pa hie from (5sere 
byrg hamweard wseron, pa metton hie Leonantius, pe sceolde 
Antijiatrume to fultume cuman, 7 pser ofslagen wear®. 

lifter psem PerSica, pe pa laessan Asiam hsefde, angau winnan 30 
wiS Ariarata, Capadoca cyninge, 7 hiene bedraf into anum 
fsestenue, 7 pa burgware self 7 hit onbserndon an feower healfa, 
pa.'t *eall forwearft pset pserbiunan wa-s. ^Efter psem Autigones 
7 PerSica gebeotedan pset hie woldon him betweonum gefeohtan, 
7 longe ymb pa^t siredon hwaer hie 8 hie 8 gemetan wolden, 735 
monig igland awestan on $se?« g^flite hwseSer hiera mehte 

Alexander's successors. 14.' 

qui sub Alexandre) esse coeperant, permansetnmt. Seras, inter 
duos amnes Hydaspem et Indum constitutes, Taxiles liabuit. 
In colonias in Indis conditas Pithon mittitur. Parapamenos 
fines Caucasi montis Axiarches ] accepit. Aracbosii Gedrosiique ' Oxjaxka, 
Sibyrtio decernuntur. DraDgas et Areos Stasanor, Bactrianos 
Amyntas sortitur, Sogdianos Scytbaeus, Nieanor Parthos, Pbi- 
lippus Hyreanios, Phratapbernes Armenios, Tlepolemus Persas, 
Peucestes Babylonios, Archon Pelasgos, Arcbelaus Mesopota- 
miam adepti sunt. 

Igitur causa et origo bellorum epistola Alexandri regis fuit, 
qua jussit omnes exsules patriae restitui. Potentes enim civi- 
tatum Graeciae tinientes, ne exsules recepta Hbertate ultionem 
meditarentur, a regno Macedonum defecerunt. Primi Atbeni- 
enses, contracto triginta millium exercitu et ducentis navibus, 
helium cum Antipatro, cui Graecia sorte obvenerat, gerunt : per 
Demostbenem quoque oratorem Sicyona, Argos et Corinthum 
sibi socias adjungunt, Antipatrum obsidione cingunt. Ibi dux 
eorum Leosthenes telo e muris jacto perfossus, occiditur. AtTieni- 
enses Leonnato, qui Antipatro auxilium ferebat, occurrunt, 
ejusque copiis comminutis ipsuni interficiunt. 

Perdicca vero bellum Ariaratbi Cappadocum regi intulit, 
eumque licit, in qua victoria nihil praeter vulnera et p&ricvla 
conquisivit, nam omnes ante imiptionem urbis suae, succensis 
domibus suis, se suaque omnia concremaverant. Post baec 
bellum inter Antigonum et Perdiccam oritur gravissime, multis 
insulis ob auxilia vel negata, vel ]»'aestita dilaceratis. Perdicca 
Aegyptum cum exercitu petit. Ptolemaeus copiis instructus, 




* first e 

3 From C. 

maran fultum him to geteon. On paem anbide Pmlica for mid 

firde an Egyptum, paer Tholomeus waes se cyning, for pon tSe 

him waes gesaed past he wolde Antigone fylstan p»m cyninge. 

' Phtoiomeus p a gegaderade Pholomeus 1 micle fird ougean him. pa hwile 

pe hie togaedereweard fundedon, gef'uhton twegen cynimj 

Neoptolomtts 7 Umenis. 7 he Umenis geflienide Neoptolomttf, 

paet he com to Antigone paem cyninge, 7 hiene 2 spon pcet he 

on Umenis unmyndlenga mid here become, pa sende Antigones 

hiene selfne 7 [his] operne (pegn) s Polipercon mid micle fultume 

paet hie hiene beswiceden. pa geascade pctt Umenis, 7 forsaetade 10 

hie t5aer tSaer hie gepoht haefdon pent hie hiene besaetedon ; 7 hie 

begen ofslog, 7 pa opre gefliemde. Mfter (5;em gefeaht Perdica 

7 Ptholomeus 7 paer wearp Perdica ofslagen. JEiter ftsem wearS 

Maecedonium cu(5 p<nt Euinen 7 Pison 7 Ilirgus 7 Alceta, 

Perdican brotSor, wolden winnan on hie, 7 fundon paet Antigones 15 

him sccolde mid firde ongean cuman. On t>aeiu gefeohte g 

fliemde Antigones Umenis, 7 hiene bedraf into anum fa-steinie, 

7 hiene Saer hwile besaet. pa sende Umenis tu Antipatre paam 

cyninge, 7 hiene fultumes baed. pa Antigones paet angeat, pa 

forlet he paet setl. Ac he Umenis him wende from Antigones 20 

hanifa±relte micelra untreowSa, 7 him to fultume aspon pa pe 

aer waeron Alexandres cempan, pa wseron hatene Argiraspides, 

for pon Se call heora waepn waeron ofersylefreda. pa on Sain 

tweon pe hie swa ungeorne his willan fulleodon, pa becom him 

Antigones mid firde on, 7 hie benaemde aegper ge heora wifa, ge 25 

heura bearna, ge heora eardes, ge ealles paes licgendes feos pe 

♦ [Page 90.] l,i e under Akxand[r]e begeatan ; * 7 hie selfe uneaSe o(5flug"ii 

ifffterjjam to Umeiie. /Efter bami ba Bendon* to Anltilgone vmb heoi'a 
sendo.. i.y 1:. Y . ,. 

paet mseste bismer, 7 hiene baedon pcet he torn ageafe paet he 

■• From c. (ser) 5 on him eereafade*. pa onbead he him ?a't he him Saes 30 

/,. readt baH v ' ... 

lie him on getvgoian wolde, gif hie him Umenes pone cyning, pe heora 

him gfr. * ' 

6 bereafode c. hlaford pa waes, gebundenne to him brohten ; 7 hie paet ge- 
fremedon swa. Ac he heora eft aegper ge mid bismere onfeng, 
ge hie eac on pone bismerlecestan card gesette, pit w»8 on t5aem 
ytemeBtan ende his monna, 7 him swaSeah nanuht agiefan nolde 35 
paes pe hie bena waeron. 

Alexander's successors. 147 

occurrere hello Perdiccae parat. Inter haec Neoptolemus et 
Eumenes cruentissimo inter se praelio digladiati sunt. Victus 
Neoptolemus, ad Antipatrum fug it : quern, ut Eumenem de 
insperato opprimat, perurget : quod Eumenes futurum rectus, 
insidiantes insidiis capit. In eo hello Polyperchon occiditur, 
Neoptolemus interiit, Eumenes victor evasit. Perdicca cum 
Ptolomaeo acerbissimo hello congressus, ipse interfectus est. 
Eumenenes, Pitbon, et Illyrius, et Alceta frater Perdiccae, 
a Macedonibus hostes pronunciantur , bellumque adversum eos 
Antigono decemitur. Eumenes victus in quoddam castellum 
fugit, unde auxilia Antipatri per legatos poposcit : quo nuntio 
territu-s Antigonus, ab obsidione discessit. Sed nee sic Eumeni 
spes firma aut salus certa. Quare Argyraspidas, ob arma 
deargentata sic dictos, hoc est, milites, qui sub Alexandro milita- 
verant, in auxilium rogat. Qui fastidiose ducem in disponendo 
hello audientes, ab Antigono victi, et uxores et liberos, simulque 
omnia, quae sub Alexandro adquisiverant, perdiderunt. Qui 
postea turpiter per legatos reddi sibi quae perdiderant victorem 
rogant. Antigonus autem redditurum se pollicetur, si sibi 
rinctum Eumenem pertraherent. Ita illi ducem stium catenatum 
duxerunt, et mox cum foedissima ignominia in exercitu Antigoni 
dispersi sunt. 




H>sem[?e]. .^Efter paem J Euredica, Aripeusses cwen, Maecedonia cyninges, 
heo waes pa?m folce monig yfel donde purh Cassander hiere 
hlafordes pegn, mid paem heo haefde dierne geligre. 7 under [cSsem] 
heo gelaerde pone cyning pset he hiene swa upp ahof paette he 
wses bufan eallum Saeni pe on psem rice waeron to (5aem cyniuge. 5 
7 heo gedyde mid hiere lare paet ealle Msecedonie waeron paem 

2 e em>ed. cyninge wicSerwearde, op hie fundon paet hie 2 sendon aefter 

Olimpeadum, Alexandres meder, paette hio him gefylste paet hie 2 
mehton aegtSer ge pone cyning ge pa cuene him to gewildum 
gedon. Hio pa Olimpiade him to com mid Eph*a fultume 10 
hiere agnes rices, 7 hiere to fultume abaed Eacedam Molosoruwi 
cyning, 7 hie butu ofslog, ge pone cyning ge pa cwene ; 7 Cas- 
sander oSfleah. 7 Olimpiade feng to paem rice, 7 paeni folce fela 
laSes gedyde pa hwile pe hio pone anweald haefde. pa I 
sander \cet geascade paet hio Saem folce latSade, pa gegaderade he 15 
fird. pa hio past geascade pa>t paes folces wees swa fela to him 
gecirred, pa ne getriewde bio paet hiere wolde se otSer dael 

3 so alto c. gelastfull beon. Ac hio genom hiere snore Roxau 3 , Alexandres 

♦ [Page 91.] lafe, 7 Alexandres sunu Ercoles, 7 fleah to * Saem faestenne pe 

Fitmam waes haten. 7 Cassander hiere aefter for, 7 paet faesten 20 
abrsec, 7 Olimpiadum ofslog. 7 pa burgleode opbrudon pa snore 

« e crated, mid hiere suna, pa hie * ongeatan paet paet festen sceolde abrocen 

bion, 7 hi sendon on otSer faestre faesten. 7 Cassander hie 

het paer besittan; 7 him ealles paes anwaldes weold Maecedoiiia 

rices. 25 

pa wende man paet paet gewin geendad waere betux Alexandres 

« [we] added, folgerum, pa pa 5 waeron gefeallen pe paer maest gewunnan : paet 
waes Perpica, 7 Eumen, 7 Alcipen, 7 Polipercon, 7 Olimpiadaa, 

• accent over 7* Antipater, 7 monige ocSre. Ac Antigones, se mid nngemete 
isoaitoc gi rn de anwalda ofer opre, 7 7 to paem faestenne for paer Alex- 30 

andres laf waes 7 his sunu, 7 hie paer begeat, to Son paet he 
wolde paet pa folc him py swipor to huge pe he haefde biera 
ealdhlafordes sunu on his gewealde. Sippan Cassander paet 
geascade, pa gepoftade he wiS Ptholomexs, 7 wio" Lisinuulius, 
sj>on:ire. 7 wiS Seleucus pone 8 eastcyning, 7 hie ealle winnende waeron 35 
witS Antigones, 7 wiS Demetrias his sunu, sume on londe, sume 


Interea Eurydice, Arridaei regis Macedonum uxor, multa 
nefaria egit per Cassandrum, quern, flagitiose cognitum, ad 
summum fastigium provexerat, qui ex libidine mulieris mxd- 
tas Graeciae civitates adflixit. Tunc Olympias, mater Alex- 
andri, cum ab Epiro in Macedoniam, proseauente Aeacida rege 
Molossorum, veuiret, Arridaeum regem et Eurydicen jussit 
occidi : quanquam et ipsa Olympias continuo meritas crudelitatis 
poenas luit. Audito adventu Cassandri, diffisa Macedonibus, 
cum Ehoxane uuru sua et nepote Hercule, in urbem Pydnam 
concedit : ubi per Cassandrum capta et imperfecta est : filius 
Alexandri Magni cum matre in arcem Amphipolitanam custo- 
diendus est missus. 


Perdicca, Alceta et Polyperchonte, caeterisque ducibus occisis, 
finita bella inter successores Alexandri videbantur. Turn Anti- 
gonus ardens cupiditate dominandi, liberandum bello Hercidem 
regis filium ab obsidione simulat. His cognitis Ptolemaeus et 
Cassander, inita cum Lysimacho et Seleuco societate, bellum 
terra marique enixe instruunt. Antigonus in eo bello cum filio 
Demetrio vincitur. 


Alfred's orosh -. 

i From c. on waetere. On p&ra. (gefeohte) 1 gefeol se msesta dall Macedonia '- 
\^efor Ure dugutSe on segpere healfe, peh. hie sume mid Antigone wsere, 
three utters). gume m ^ Cassandre. paer wearcS Antigones gefliemed 7 his 
sunu. iEfter Jjgem Demetrias, Antigones sunu, gefeaht on scipum 
wiS Ptholomeus, 7 hiene bedraf on his agen lond. .Efter psem 5 
Antigones bebead pa?t mon segSer hete cyniiig, ge hiene ge his 
sunu, for pon pe Alexandres sefterfolgeras nseron aer Jpsem swa 
gehatene, buton ladteowas. Gemong p?em gewinnum Antigones 
bixn ondred Ercoles, Alexandres sunu, pa?t )>&t folc hiene wolde 
to hlaforde geceosan, for )?on pe he ryhtcynecynnes (waes) 3 . Het 10 
pa aegper ofslean ge hiene ge his modor. pa peet pa of>re 4 
geascedon J?set he hie ealle heswican polite, hie pa eft hie gegade- 
redon, * 7 wiS hiene wunnon. pa ne dorste Cassander self on 
(Saem faerelte cuman, for his (5aem nihstan feondum pe him ymb 
wseron. Ac ?ende his fultum to Lisimache his gebof(tan) 5 ; 15 
7 haefde his wisan swif>ost be|?oht to Seleucuse, for ]?on pe he 
monege anwealdas mid gewinnum geeode on j^aem eastlondum : 
}?aet wa?s a?rest Babylonie 7 Pactriane. iEfter 6 he gefor on 
Indie, pasr nan mon aer ne sif?]?an mid firde gefaran ne dorste, 
buton Alexandre. 7 lie Seleucws geniedde ealle pa ladteowae to 20 
his hiersumnesse, 7 hie alle Antigones et Demetrias his sunu 
mid firde gesohton. On]38em gefeohte wees Antigones ofslageu 7 
his sunu of J^aem rice adrafed. Ne wene ic, cwaetS Orosius, J^set 
aenig waere pe )?aet atellan mehte J?aet on <5aem gefeohte gefeol 1 ~. 

On }?sere tide gefor Cassander 7 his sunu feng to )?a?m rice 25 
Philippus. pa wende man eft ojjei-e si}?e ]?a?t f>set gewinn 
Alexandres folgcra geendad were. Ac hie sona pxs him be- 
tweonum wunnon ; 7 Seleucus 7 Demetrias, Antigones sunu, hi 
togsedere geJ>oftcdan, 7 wiS jwni prim wunnon, Philippuse, 
' andres suna, 7 wiS Ptholomeuse, 7 wi$ Lisimachuse. 7 hie 30 
f>?et gewinn )?a pses licost angunnan pe hi liit aer ne angunnen. 
On Jwm gewinne ofslog Antipatcr his modor, Cassandres lafe, 
peh pe heo earmlice hiere feores to him wilnade. pa baed Alex- 
ander, hiere sunu, Demetrias Jwt he him gefylste )?aet he his 
modor siege on his breSer gewrccan mehte, 7 hi hiene raSe }?aes 35 

3 From C. 
* W c. 

*[Page 92.] 
5 From C. 

15 7 spfterjx) 1 

7 gefor C. 

Alexander's successors. 151 

Ptolernaeus iterum cum Demetrio navali praelio conflixit, 
et victus in Aegyptv/in refugit. Hac victoria elatus Antigonus, 
regem se cum Demetrio filio adpellari jubet. Inde cum jam 
Hercules Alexandri filius quartuordecim esset annorum, timens 
ne eum Macedones quasi legitimum regem praeoptarent, occi- 
dendum cum matre curavit. Igitur ceteri alterius factionis 
duces, cum decipi se ab Antigono singillatim videreut, coeuiidi 
in uuura tempus locumque condicunt: et bellum adversus Anti- 
r/onum instrv.ant. Cassander finitimorum bellis implicitus, 
Lysimachum cum ingenti manu pro se sociis iu auxilium 
misit. Seleucus quoque novus Antigono Jwstis accessii. Hie 
siquidem Seleucus plurima per orientem bella gessit. Principio 
Babyloniam hello expugnavit et cepit. Bactrianos perdomuit. 
Trausitum deinde in Indiam fecit, quae post mortem Alexandri 
praefectos ejus occiderat. Adunatis itaque copiis Ptolemaei 
sociorumque ejus, 2>ugna committitur : cujus quanto potentior 
adparatus, tanto ruina gravior fuit. In ipso bello Antigonus 
occisus est ; sed fnis hujus beUi inilium alterius fuit. 

Nam cum inctorihus de praeda non conveniret, iterum in duos 
factiones diducuntur. Seleucus Demetrio, Ptolemaeus Lysimacbo 
jungitur. Cassandro defuncto, filius Philippus ^uccedit. Sic 
quasi ex integro nova Macedoniae bella nascuntur. Antipater 
matrem suam, Cassandri uxorem, quamvis miserabiliter pro 
vita precantem, manu sua transverberavit. Alexander frater 
ejus, dum bellum adversus fratrem ob ultionem matris instruit, 
a Demetrio, cujus auxilium petierat, ci/rcumventus occiditur. 


ALJr'KJtD 6 OKU^lLb. 

1 From ft ; 

* hundseo- 
fontig ft 

JEfter paem gewunnon Demetrias 7 Lisiniachus; ac Lisi- 
machus ne mehte Demetriase wiftstondan, for pon pe Dorus 
Thraeea cyniiig him eac an wanu. pa waes Demetrias on paere 
hwile swrpe geanmet, 7 fird gelaedde to Ptholomeuse. pa he 

*[Page 93.] jjget geascade pa begeat he Seleucus * him to fultume, 7 Pinus 5 
Epira cyning. 7 Pirius him for pam swipost fylste, pe 1 he 
him selfuni facade Macedonia anweald ; 7 hie pa Demetrias 
of paern rice adrifon, 7 Pirrus to feng. /Efter paein Lisimachus 

2 Agathocien ofslug his agenne sunu Agothoclen 2 7 Antipater his apu?n. On 

paern dagum Lisimachus sio burg besauc on eorpan mid folce 10 
mid ealle. Ond sefter psem pe Lisimachus haefde swa wiS his 
sunu gedon 7 wi5 his apum, pa anscunedou hiene his agene 
leode, 7 monige from him cirdon, 7 Seleucus sponan pset he 
Lisimachus beswice. pagiet ne mehte se nift betux bim twaem 

sheora >a 0. gelicgean, peh heora s na ma ne lifde para pe Alexandres folgeras 15 
waeron, ac swa ealde swa hie pa waeron hie gefuhton : Seleuem 
haefde seofon 7 seofontig 4 wiutra, 7 Lisimachus haefde preo 
7 seofuntig wintra. paer wearS Lisimachus ufslagen. 7 pass 
ymb preo niht com Ptolomeus, pe Lisimabbus bis i-weu?tor 
haefde, 7 diegellice aefter Seleucnse for, pa he hamweard waes, 20 
op his fird tofaren wses, 7 hiene peer ofslog. Da waes seo sibb 
7 seo mildheortnes geendad pe hie set Alexandre geleornedon ! 
pajt wees paet hie twegen pe paer lengest lifdon haefdon piitig 
cyninga ofslagen heora agenra ealdgeferena, 7 him haefdon sippan 
ealle pa anwealdas pe hie ealle aer hsefdon. Gemong pxm 25 
gewinnuwi Lisimachus forlet bis xv suna : sume he self ofslog, 
sume an gefeohtum beforan bim selfum mon afi-log. 

Dyllicue gebroSorscipe, cwaeS Orosius, hie beoldon him be- 
tweonu//i, pe ;iu anum hierede waeron afedde" 7 getyde! paette hit 
is us nu swipor bismre geHc pset we paet 6 bespreca<5, 7 paet, paet 30 
we gewinn nu hatatS, pon/<w us fremde 7 ellpeodge au becumap, 

•[Page 9-t.] 7 lytles hwaet on us bereafiao", 7 us eft hraedlice forlsetaS ; * 7 
nyllaS gepencan hwelc hit pa waes, pa nan mon ne mehte set 
oprum his feorh gebycggan, ne furpon partte pa wuldeii gefiiend 
beon pe waeron gebrotSor of faeder 7 of meder. 7 her endaft 35 
-i" pridde boc, 7 ongiuS seo feorpe. 

•"> wseron re- 
peated 0, 1. 

6 J>a?r both. 

Alexander's successors. 153 

Lysimachus cum Dori : regis Thracum bello urgeretur, ad- x Doricetis. 
versus Demetrium pugnare non potuit. Demetrius augmento 
Graeciae et totius Macedoniae elatus, in Asiam transire disponit. 
Ptoleniaeus autem et Seleucus societate pacta helium in Europam 
traasferunt adversus Demetrium. His se Pyrrhus rex Epiri 
jungit, sperans Demetrium Macedonia posse depelli. Ipso in 
fugam icto, regnum Macedoaiae Pyrrhus invasit. Deinde Lysi- 
machus generum suum Antipatrum interfecit, filiumque suum 
Agathoclem occidit. Quibus quidem diebus Lysimachia civitas 
terraemotu eversa, oppressoque populo suo, crudele sepulchrum 
fuit. Lysimachum autem adsiduis se parricidiis cruentantem 
omnes socii deseruerunt, et ad Seleucum deficientes, proaum jam 
regem, ut helium Lysimacho inferret, bortati sunt. Res foedis- 
simi spectaculi erat, duos reges, quorum Lysimachus annos 
septuaginta et quatuor natus, Seleucus autem septuaginta et 
septeni, arma gerere. Ultimum hoc quidem helium Alexandri 
commilitonum fuit, . . . extinctis jam triginta et quator Alex- 
andri ducibus. In eo bello Lysimachus, vel amissis vel inter- 
fectis prius quindecim liberis, postremus occisus est. Sed ne 
Seleucus quidem tanta victoria impune laetatus est : quippe 
insisteute Ptolemaeo, cujus sororem Lysimachus in matrimonio 
habuerat, insidiis circumventus et occisus est. 

Haec sunt inter parentes et JUios, fratres ac socios consan- 
fjwidtatis societatisque commercia ! Eruhescant sane de recorda- 
tione praeteritorum, qui nunc inter ventu Jilei Christianae, vivere 
se cum hostibus, nee pati hostilia sciunt ; quibus probatur quia 
nunc tantam Jidem adhihita in sacramentum servant evangel ia 
quantum tunc nee inter parentes ac filios potuit servare natura. 
Nunc autem finis libri Hat. 



1 From C, 
Areata L. 

2 Romana C, 

3 \>wre ' '. 

* From I . 

(IV, I.) 

zEfter paern pe Romeburg getimbred waes feower h untie win* 
trum 7 feower 7 siextegurn, paette Tarentine )?a?t folc plegedon 
binnan Tarentan heora byrg §t heora peatra 1 pe paerbinnan 
geworht waes. pa gesawon hie Romane 2 Bcipa on Saem 8 sae 
irnan. pa hreedlice comon Tarentine io heora agnum scipum, 5 
7 pa opre bindan offoran, 7 hie ealle him to gewilduwi getlydan 
buto(n) 4 v. 7 pa pe j?aer gefongne waeron hie tawedan mid paie 
maestan unieSnesse : sume ofslogon, sume ofswungon, sume him 
wiS feo gesealdon. 

Da Romane paet geacsedau, pa seudon hie aerendracan to him. 10 
7 baedon paet him man gebette paet him ^aer to abylgSe gedon 
waes. Da tawedan hie eft pa serendracan mid pvem maestan 
bismere, swa hie pa opre aer dydon, 7 hie sippan ham forleton. 

iEfter paeni foran Romane on Tarentine. 7 swa claene hie 
namon heora fultum mid him, paette heora proletarii ue moston 15 
him beaeftan beon — paet waeron pa pe hie gesett haefdon pajt 
sceoldon be heora wifum bearna Btrienan, pou«e hie on gewin 
foron — 7 cwaedon p;et him wislecre puhte paet hie (5a ne forluren 
pe paer ut foi*e, haefde beam se pe mehte. Hie pa Romane comon 
on Tarentine, 7 paer eall aweston paet hie metton "', 7 monega 20 
byrg abnecon. 

pa sendon Tarentine aegwern r eefter fultume, baer hie him 
*[Page95.] aeniges wendon. 7 Pirrus, Epira eyning, him com to * mid 
pami maestan fultume, aegper ge an gangehere, ge on rsedehere, 

in Bciphere. He waes on tSsem dagum lad ofer ealle 25 

obere cyningas, aegper ge mid his miclan fultume, ge mid his 
raedbeahtunge, ge mid his wigcrsefte. For pon fyl[s]te I'irrus 
Tarentinu/// for pon pe Tarente seo burg w®B getimbred of 
Laecedemonium, pe his rice pa waes. 7 he haefde Thesalium him 
to fultume 7 Msecedonie 7 . 7 he hsafde xx elpenda to paem 30 
gefeohte mid him, pe Romane aer na ne ne gesawon: he waes 
se forma mon pe hie aerest on Italium brohte. He wa-s eae on 
1 },','. h \rJt"\iwe p an11 dagum gleawast to wige 7 to gewinne, buton paem annm pe 
''mm c. hie(ne) his godaa 7 his deofolgeld beswicon pe he begon(gen)de 9 

gemettan ' 

Bgwar ' '. 

' From < : 
nionie /-. 

LaKentines ; pymihus. 155 

IV, 1. 

Anno ab urbe condita cccclxiv, Tarentini Romanam classem 
forte praetereuntem, spectaculo theatri prospectam hostiliter in- 
vaserunt, qninque tantum navibus per fugam elapsis : omnes 
hello utiles caesi, reliqui pretio venditi sunt. 

Coatiuuo missi Tarenturn a Romanis legati, ut de illatis 
quererentur injuriis, pulsati ab iisdein, auctas insvper injurias 

His causis helium exortum est. Romanos ultima adegit neces- 
sitas, proletaries quoque hi arma cogere, boc est, eos qui semper 
sufficiendae prolis causa vacabant, militiae adscrihere : quippe 
cum frustra de prole cura sit, nisi rebus praesentibus considatur. 
Itaque irruit in Tarentinorum fines Roinanus exercitus, vastat 
omnia, plurima expugnat oppida. 

Continuo Tarentinos, irturimis fiaitimorum praesidiis fiultos, 
niaxime Pyrrhus auxit, qui etiam in se, ob magnitudinem 
virium consiliorumque, summam belli nomenque traduxit : nam 
Tarenturn, utpote ex Lacedaemoniis conditam civitatem, vindi- 
catuims, totas vires Thessabae et Macedoniae, elepbantos etiam, 
usque in id tempus invisos Romanis, nuinero xx, in Italiam 
primus invexit : terra, mari, viris, equis, armis, belluis, ad 
postremurn viribus mis dolisque terribilis : nisi quod Delpliici 
illius spiritus responso circumventus ambiguo, exitum fecit ejus, 
qui noil consuluisset. 

156 Alfred's orosius. 

i From c. waes. pa he Lie ascade his (godas) 1 hwaeper heora sceolde on obru//t 

2 7}>a. sige habban, be he on Ronianum, be Romane on him, ba 2 

oncZwyrdon hie him tweolice, 7 ewaedon : ' ba haefst obbe naefst.' 
paet forme gefeoht baet he wi5 Romauum haefde hit waes in 
Coinpania. noah pnere ie pe mou Lisum ha?tt pa aefter baem 5 
pe bser on aegbere healfe micel wad geslagen waes, ba bet Pirrus 
den ba elpendaa on baet gefeoht. Sibban Romane bat gesawan 
baet him mon swelcne wrenc to dyde swelcne hie aer ne gesawon 
ne secgan ne hirdon, pa, flugon hie ealle buton anum men, 

3 geneSde c. se waes Minutius hat en. He genedde 3 under aenne elpent 4 pset 10 
he hiene on bone nafelan ofstang. pa, sibban he irre waes 
7 gewundod, he ofslog micel baes folces, baet aegber ge ba for- 
wurdon pe him onufan waeron, ge eac ba obre elpendas sticade 
7 gremede, baet pa eac maest ealle forwurdon pe baeronufan 
waeron. 7 peh pe Romane gefliemed waeren, hie waeron beh 15 
gebielde mid baem paet hie wiston lm hie to Saeni elpendon 
seeoldon. On Seem gefeohte waes Romana 1111 x M ofslagen febena 

5 scored 7 eahtatig 6 7 [vm] bund gefangun, 7 para gehorsedra waeron of- 

throuoh ; 

hondeahtaUg slagen * in bund 7 an M, 7 baer waeron seofon bund guofonena 

*[i'age96.] geuumen. Hit naes na gesaed hwaet Pirruses folces gefeallen 20 

waere, for pon hit naes peaw on baem tidum bait mon amig wael on 

'■ 1,1-1 jh-.- ba healfe rimde be bon><e wieldre waes, buton baer by la?s ofslagen 6 
uwrdtm r . 

erwture. ware, swa mid Alexandre waes on [c5aeni] fcrman gefeohte be he 
witS Darius feaht : bar naes his folces na ma ofslagen ponne 
nigon. Ac Pirrus gebicnede eft hu him se sige gelieade be he 25 
7 dura 0. ofer Romane haefde, pa he cwaeS aat his godes dure 7 , 7 hit swa 
» Macron C. on 8 awrat : ' pone hafa pa, Iofes, paet ic pa moste oferwinnan 
pe ar waeron unoferwunnen, 7 ic eac from him oferwunnon earn. 
pa ascedan hiene bis begnas hwv be swa beanliee word be him 
selfu/M gecwa'de, bat be oferwunneu waere. pa ondwyrde he 30 
him, 7 cwcelS: 'gif ic eft gefare swelc[n]e sige aet Romanum, 
ponne maeg ic sibban buton aelcon begne Creca lond secan.' 
paet wearS eac Romanum an yfelmn tacne obiewed aer psem 
gefeohte, pa liie on firde waeron, paet baes folces sceolde micel 
hryre beon, ba punor ofslog xxun heora fodrera, 7 pa o})re 35 
gebrocade aweg coin.ui 

PYKRHl S. 157 

Ttaque apud Heracleam Campaniae urbem, fluviurnque Lirini 1 , i sirim. 
prima inter Pyrrhum et Laevinum consulem pugna commissa 
est. Consumtus est gravissimo certamine dies. Introductos 
autem inter concurrentia agmina elephantos ut videre Rowani, 
novo pugnandi genere circumventi diffugerunt. Sed postquam 
Minucius protentam in se manum belluae gladio desecuit, et con- 
tu.rbatam dolore vulneris in suos saevire compulit. Yictos fuisse 
Rornanos iurpis fuga prodidit, quorum tunc cecidisse referuntur 
peditum quatuordecim millia octingenti et octoginta : capti 
mille trecenti et decern ; equites autem caesi ducenti quadraginta 
duo, capti octingenti et duo, signa amissa viginti duo. Nam 
quantus numerus sociorum Pyrrhi fuerit exstinctus, memoriae 
traditum non est : quia scriptorum veterum mos est, ex ea parte 
quae vicerit occisorum non commemorare numerum : nisi 
forte cum adeo pauci cadunt, ut admirationem virtutis augeat 
/'""citas perditorum, sicut in prima Persici belli congressione 
apud Alexandrum fuit: cui novem tantummodo in exercitu ejus 
pedites defuisse referuntur. Sed Pyrrhus atrocitatem cladis diis 
suis testatus est, adjigens titulum in templo Jovis, in quo haec 
scripsit : 

Qui ante hac invicti fuvere viri, pater optime Olympi, 
Hos ego in pugna vici, victusque sum ab iisdem. 
Et cum a sociis increparetur, cur se victum dicei-et, respondisse 
fertur : Ne ego, si iterum eodem modo vicero, sine ullo milite 
Ej.irum revertar. Interea Eomanus exercitus, postquam richis 
clam fugit e castris, miserabilem belli cladem gravioribus mon- 
stris auctam persensit. Nam pabulatores tempestas fulminibus 
exussit : quippe triginta et quatuor eorum idem turbo prostravit, 
viginti et duo semineces relicti. 


alfiied's oho- 

/Efter pxm gefuhton Pirrus 7 Romane in Abulia baere beode. 
peer weartS Pirrus wund on obran earme ; 7 Romane hsefdon 
sige. 7 hsefdon geleornad ma crsefta hu liie ba elpendas beswican 

1 \>eC mehton, mid psem ]>?et l bie namou treowu, 7 slogon on oberne 

ende monige scearpe isene nseglas, 7 bie mid flexe bewuudon, 5 
7 onbserndon hit, 7 bebyddan liit poune on bone elpcnd bindan, 
J?set bie bonne foran wedende segber ge for J?ses flexes bryne ge 
for bara nsegla sticunge, beet set gelcon ba forwurdon serest pe 

* From a him onufan wa?ron, 7 si]?ban ba?t ober folc wasron (swa switSe) 2 

sleande swa hi him scildan sceoldou. On psem gefeohte wees 10 

*[Page97] Roraana eahta busend ofslagen, 7 enlefan guSfonan * genumen, 
7 Pirruses heres wees xx M ofslagen. 7 his guoTona geuumen. 

s l*c. peer 3 wearS Pirruse cuS pset Agathocles, Siraceusa cyning 

t From c. ba(ra) 4 burgleoda, wses gefaren on Sicilia )?3em londe. pa for 

he bider 7 J?cet rice to hi?n geniedde. 15 

Sona swa bset gewinn mid Romanum geendad wa?s, swa wa?s 
pxr seo monigfealdeste wol, mid moncwealme, ge eac baettu 
nanuht beren(des) 5 , ne wif ne nieteu, ne mehton nanuht lib- 
bendes geberan ; ]wt hie pa xi nibstan wteron ortriewe hwseber 
him senig moneaca cuman sceolde. 20 

pa wende Pirrus from Sicilium eft to Eomanum, 7 him 
angean com Curius se consul, 7 biora baet bridde gefeoht wa?s 
on Lucaniam, on Arosinis baere dune ; beh be Romane sume 
hwile haefdon swij?or fleam geboht ponne gefeoht, a?r jjan hie 
gesawon bast mon ba elpendas on pa't gefeoht dyde. Ac sip>}xin 25 
hi ba gesawan, hie hie gegremedan, ba?t hie pa wsbtod swij?e 
sleande be bie fylstan sceoldon ; 7 Pirruses here wearC for baem 
swibost on fleame. On &em gefeohte Pirrus hsefde eahtatig M 
fepeua, 7 V M gehorsedra. 7 bser wa?s xxxvi m ofslagen, 7 mi 
hand gefaugen. ^Efter baem Pirrus fur of Italium ymb fif gear 30 
pxs p>e he aer bseron com. 7 rabe baas be he ham com, he wolde 
abrecan Argus J^a burg, 7 b»r wearS mid ane stane ofWorpen. 


Secunda inter Pyrrhum et Romanos consules pugna in Apuliae 
Jinibas fuit : ubi victoria ad Romanos concessit, yam Pyrrkus, 
transfixo brachio saucius, prior cessit e praelio. Elephanti in 
fugam cogi posse deprehensi : deinde subjectis inter posteriora 
ignibus exagitati, exitio suis fuere. Caesa sunt in^ea pugna 
quinque millia Romanorum : de exercitu vero Pyrrlii viginti 
millia prostrata sunt. Regis signa ablata quinquaginta et trio, 
Romanorum undecim amissa sunt. Pyrrhus, Agathocle mortuo 
rege Syracusano, ad Siciliae arcessitus imperium, Syracusas 


Cum /oris cessatur a praelio, agitur introrsum ira de coelo. 
Xam pestilentia gravis Urbem invasit, quae cum omnes, turn 
praecipue mulieres pecudesque corripiens, necatis in utero foe- 
tibus, futura prole vacuabat. Adeo ut defectura successio 

tnterea reversum ex Sicilia Pyrrhum Curius consul excepit ; 
tertiumque id bellum contra Epirotas apud Lucaniam in Arusinis 
campis gestum est. Itaque cum Pyrrhi milites Romanorum in- 
pressione trejndarent, et circumspectantes fugam bello cedere 
molirentur, Py rrhus elepbantos jussit induci. Romani furentes 
belluas in eorum excidia, quorum subsidia fuerant, retorserunt. 
Octoginta millia peditum in illo praelio habuisse regem dicunt, 
equitum vero sex millia. Ex his caesa referuntur triginta tria 
millia, capti autem sunt mille trecenti. Pyrrhus quinto demum 
anno, quam venerat, ab Italia aufugit, qui apud Argos saxo 
ictus occubuit. 

160 Alfred's oeostus. 

i j>aer with t ./Efter brem be Tarentine geacsedan bset ' Pirnifl dead wees, 

writU n over; 

p*t '-'• ba sendon hie on Affrice to Cartaginenses sefter fultume ; 7 eft 

wi(5 Romanum wunnon ; 7 racSe bses be hie togsedere coman 
Romane hsefdon sige. peer anfundan Cartaginenses pcet hie mon 
oferswiban mehte, beh hie nan folc ser mid gefeohte oferwinnan 5 
ne mehte. Gemong bsem be Pirrns witS Romane winnende wses, 

♦[Page os.] hi hsefdon eahta legian. * pa hsefdon hie pa eahtetSan Regien?e 
to fultume gesette. pa ne getruwade se eahteba dsel bara legian 
ba-t Romane Pirruse wiftstondan mehte : angunnan ba hergean 
7 hienan ba be hie ft-ibian sceoldon. pa Romane bset geacsedan, 10 
ba sendon hie bider Genutius heora consul mid fultume, to bon 
bset he an him gewrseee beet hie ba slogon 7 hiendon be ealle 
Romane fribian woldon. 7 he ba swa gedyde : sume he ofslog, 
sume geband 7 ham sende ; 7 bser wteron sibban witnade, 
7 sibban ba heafda mid ceorfsexsum of acorfena. 15 

(IV, II.) 

yEfter ba?m be Romeburg getimbred wses feower hunde win- 
tram 7 lxxvii, gewurdon on Rome ba yfelan wundor. pset wses 
serest bset bunor toslog heora hiehstan godes hus Iofeses. 7 eac 
bsere burge weall micel to eorban gehreas. 7 eac bsette brie 
wulfas on arire niht brohton anes deades monnes lichoman 20 
binnan ba burg, 7 hieue bser sibban Btyccemaeluwi fcobrudon, 
ob ba men onwocan, 7 ut union, 7 hie sibban aweg flugon. On 
bsem dagum gewearft bsette on anre dune neah Romebvrig 
tohlad seo eorbe, 7 was byrnende fyr up of bsere eorban, bset 
on selce healfe bas fyres seo eorbe was fif secra brsede to axan 25 
geburnen. Sona bas on bsem sefterran geare gefor Sempronios 
se consul mid firde wiS Pencentes Italia folc. pa micS bsem be 
hi hie getrymed hafdon, 7 togsedere woldon, ba weartS eorbbeof- 
ung, bset segfter bara folca wende untweogendlice bset hie 
sceoldon on ba eorban besincan. 7 hie beah swa ondrsedendlice 30 
•[Page99.T gfibidon bat se ege ofergongen wses, * 7 bser sibban walgrimlice 
gefuhton. par was se msesta hlodgyte on agftere healfe bara 


Tareutini, Pyrrbi niortc comperta, Carthaginiensium auxilia 
I'-gatos poscunt. Conserto praelio, vicere Roraani: ubijam 

tunc Cartbaginienses, quamvis nondum hostes adjudicati, vinci 
tameu a Romania se posse senserunt. AJvcntcinte dudum 
Pp-rho, octava legio, diffidens Romanae spei, Rbeginenses omnes, 
quibus subsidio proeerot, inferfedt : praedam sibi omnem vindi- 
eavit. Hoc /acinus puniendum Genucio cousuli jussum est: qui, 
captis omnibus. Romam misit : qui vlrgis caesi, securique per- 
Cussi sunk 


Anno ab urbe condita cccclxxyii, obscoena et diva prodigia 
vel visa Romae vel nunciata sunt. Aedes Salutis ictu fulminis 
dissoluta, pars muri de caelo facta est. Lupi tres, ante lucem 
ingressi urbeni, cadaver intulerunt, sparsumque membratim, ipsi, 
strepitu borninum exterriti, reliquerunt. Apud agrum Calenum 
repente flamma, scisso terrae biatu eructata, quiuque agri jugera 
in cinerem extorruit. Sequenti abhinc anno Sempronius consul 
adversus Picentes duxit exercitum. Et cum drrecta utraque 
acies constitisset, repente terra tremuit. Dvl adtoniti utrimque 
populi haesitavere. Tandem procursu concito iuiere certamen. 
Triste adeo id bellum fuit, ut merito dicatur tantum humanum 
sanguincm sv.sceptura terra tremuisse. Roraani pauci admodum, 
radio qui evasere, vicerunt. 




fulca, J?eh pe Romane sige hsefden, pa feawa be baer to lafe 
wurdon. paer waes gesiene baet seo eor]}beofung tacnade pa 
miclan bloddryncas be biere mon on psere tide to forlet. 

(IV, III.) 

iEfter baem be Romeburg getimbred waes mi hunde wintrum 
i From C. 7 lxxx, gemong bsem obrum (monegum) y wundruwi be on ]?3em 5 
dagnm gelumpan, bset mon geseah weallan blod of eorban 
7 rinan meolc of heofonum. On Saem dagum Cavtaginenses 
sendon fultum Tarentinura, Jxet bie pe iS mebton wip Romanum. 
pa sendon Romane aerendracan to him, / hie acsedon for hwy 
bie Sset dyden. pa oftsworan hie pa?m aerendracan mid paem 10 
bismerlicestan acSe paet hie him naefre on fultume nsere, peh 
be ba atSas warren near mane ponne sotSe. On tSsem dagum 
Ulcinienses 7 Thrusci "Sa folc forneah ealle forwurdon for hiora 
agnum dysige. For baem pe hie sume heora J?eowas gefreodon, 
7 eac him eallum wurdon to niihle 7 to forgiefene. pa ofpuhte 15 
heora ceorlum paet mon pa peowas freode, 7 hi nolde. pa 
wi'Ssawon hie paem hlafordum, 7 pa j?eowas mid him, o]? bie 
wyldran wseron ponne hie, 7 bie sippan mid ealle of paem earde 
s From C. adrifon (7 him to wifum dydon pa pe aer wseran heora hlaefdian) 2 ; 

pa si]?ban gcsohton pa hlafordas Romane, 7 hi him gefylstan pent 20 
hie eft to hiora agnuwi becoman. 

(IV, IV.) 

<Efter paem be Romeburg getimbred waes mi hunde wintrum 

7 lxxxi, becom on Romane micel moncwealm, paet hie Sa set 

nibstan ne acsedon hwset bare gefarenra waere, ac hwset heora 

ponne to lafe waere. Ond eac pa diofla be hie an simbel 25 

FromC. weorpedon hi amirdon, toeac(an) 8 paem opv\im monigfealduw 

*om. inc. bismrura be hi him 4 laerende waeron, pcet hie ne cujxm angitan 

1110.] beet hit Godes wracu waes ; * ac heton pa biscepas J?aet hie 

saedon tScem folce f?aet heora godas him waeron irre, to bon pcet 

hie him }?agit swibor ofreden 7 bloten ponne hie aer dyden. 30 

On San-e ilcan tide Caperronie wsbs hatenu heora goda nunne. 
pa gebyrede hiere pcet beo bie forlaeg. Hie J?a Romane fur baeni 


Anno ab urbe conclita cccclxxx, inter multa prodigia, sanguis 
e terra, lac visum est nianare de eoelo. Eo tempore Carthagi- 
nienses, dato adversum Romanos auxilio Tarentinis, cum a senatic 
per legatos arguerentnr, turpissimam rupti foederis labem ad- 
cumidavere perjurio. Tunc etiam Yulsinienses, Etruscorum 
florentissimi, luxuria pene perierunt. Nam ctcm licentia in con- 
suetudinem prorogata, servos suos passim liberos facerent, libertini 
in partem potestatis recepti plenitudinem per scelus usurpare 
meditati sunt. Itaque conspirantes in facinus libertini correptam 
urbem suo tanttim generi vendicant : patrimonia, conjugiaque 
dominorum sibi usurpant, extorres dominos procid abigunt, qui 
Eomam dcferuntur : ubi per Eomanorum severitatem et vindicati 
sunt et restituti. 

Anno ab urbe conJita cccclxxxi pestilentia ingens apud 
Romam covfiagravit. Si depopulatio inqviritur, quam egerit, 
census indictus est, qui non quantum hominum deperisset, sed 
quantum superfuisset, inquireret: si violentia qua adfecerit, Sibyl- 
lini libri testes sunt, qui earn coelesti ira inpositam responderunt. 

Eodem tempore Capparonia, virgo Yestalis, incesti rea, sus- 
pendio periit : corruptor ejus consciique servi, supplicio axlfecti 


164 Alfred's oromi 5. 

gylte hi ahengon, 7 eac pone pe pone gylt mid hiere geworhte, 
iinidhicre 7 ealle ba be bonne gvlt mid him [wiston] ] , 7 mid him hselan. 

geworhte ; ' > ' * L J 

eregeworhte jj u W ene we, nu Romane him self bvllic writon 7 setton for 
a '" 1 heora agnum gielpe 7 heringe, 7 beah gemong bsere heringe 

byllica bismra on hie selfe asaedon, hu wene we hu monegra 5 
wiston!* 1 maran ljismra hie forsugedon, aegber ge for hiora agenre lufan 

7 londleoda, ge eac for hiora senatum ege ! 

. 'he 2 Xu we sculon Tfon], cwaeS Orodus, vmb bast Punica gewin, bset 

■ wa?s of beem folce of Cartaina bsere byrig. Sio waes getimbred 
from Elisan biem wifmen, Lxxntigum wintra aer Romeburg. Swa 1" 
some para burgwarena yfel 7 heora bismeres wearS lytel asa?d 7 
awriten, swa swa Trogus 7 Iustinianus sedon heora stserwriteras, 
for bon be heora wise on naenne s-ael wel ne gefor, naber ne innan 
from him selfum, ne utane from obrum folcum. Swa beah toeacau 
baem yflum, hie gesetton, ponne him micel moncwealm on becom. ]."> 
' f /vm ''. ]xe£ hie sceolden men hiera godum blotan, swa eae Sa diofla (be) 3 
hie on geliefdon gelaerdon hie paet ba Se bser on unhaele wseran, 
baet hie hale for hie cwealdon. 7 wa?ron ba men totSon dysige 
baet hie wendon b*e£ hie mehten poet yfel mid baem gestUlan, 
7 ba diofla to bon lytige ba?t hie hit mid baem gemicledan. go 

7 for bon be hie swa swi^e dysige waeron, him com on Godes 

wracu an gefeohtum toeacan obrum yflum. paet waes oftost on 

p 101.] Sieilium * 7 on Sardinium ba?m iglondum, on ba hie gelomlicost 

'bothieC. wuniion .Efter psem be him swa oftrsedlice mislamp, hie 4 

angunnan hit witan heora latteowum 7 heora ceuipum heora 25 
earfepa, 7 him bebudan pest hie on wreecsibas foran, 7 on ellpiede. 
l!;tbe aefter paem hie baedon ba?t hie mon to hiora earde forlete, 
baet hie mosten gefandian hweSer hie heora medselSa oferswiban 
mehte. pa him mon jjaea forwiernde, ba gesohton hie hie mid 
firde. On baere heriunge gemette se icklesta ladteow Macheus 30 
one sunu mid purpurum 6 g^gieredne on biscephade. 


f ■- b •c.ftrfuii He hiene pa for paem girelan gebealg, 7 hiene oferfon 6 bet, 
7 ahon ; 7 wende bast he for his forsewennesse swelc sceorp 
werede, for pon pe hit na?s peaw mid him pcet aenig oper pur- 
purau werede buton eyuingum. Rape aefter paem hie begeaton 35 


sunt. Nos mala Romanorum scire non possumus, nisi per eos, 
qui laudavere Romanes. Ex quo intelligi datur quanta ilia 
fuerint, quae repressa sunt, cum tanta inveniantur, quae tenuiter 
inter laudes emanare potuerunt. 


Et quoniam ex hoc jam Punica bella succechmt, res ipsa exigit ut 
de Carthagine, quae ante urbem Romam duos et septuaginta annos 
ab Elisa condita invenitur, ejusque cladibus ac domesiicis malts, 
sicut Trogus et Justinus expvimunt, vel pauca referantur. Cartha- 
ginienses intestinum semper inter se malum habuere discordiam : 
qua infeliciter exagitante, nulla unquam tempoi'a vel foris pros- 
pera, vel domi quieta duxerunt. Sed cum inter caetera mala etiam 
pestilentia laborarent, homicidiis pro remediis usi sunt : quippe 
homines ut victimas inmolabant. Si enim hujusmodi ritus aliqui 
daemones praecipere ausi sunt, ut mortibus hominum occisione 
hominum satisfieret, intelligendum fait, se adjutores pestilentia.e 

Itaque Cartluigiaienses propter praesumtionem ipsorum irato 
Deo, cum in Sicilia diu infeliciter dimicassent, translato in Sar- 
diniam bello, ileritm infelicius victi sunt : propter quod ducem 
suum Mazewm et milites exsulare jusserunt. Exsides veniam 
petentes repulsi, patriam bello cinxerunt. Ibi tunc Mazeus, dux 
exsulum, filium suum, sacerdotem Hercidis, quod sibi velut 
insultans purpuratus occurreret, in crucem suspendit. Post 
paucos dies urbem ipsam cepit, qui cum, interfectis plwrimis 
senatorum, entente domina/retwr, occisus est. Haec temporibus 
Cyri regis Persarum gesta sunt. 



» From i : ; 
gewtirden L, 

2 liimelco car 

utt t rasnii . 

*:P.ige 102.] 

/ hi C. ; 
con L. 

4 From l '. 


■ originally 

■ 1>> rig also 

bul tcortd 

Cartaina ba burg, 7 calle ba aeltaewestau ofslogon be baerinne 
waeron, 7 ba obre to hhn genieddon. pa set nihstan he wearb 
self besiered 7 ofslagen. pis waes geworden * on Ciruses daege 
Persa cyninges. 

(IV, Y.) 

JEher baeni Himelco 2 , Cartaina cyning, gefor mid firde an 5 
Sicili§, 7 him baer hecom swa faerlic yfel baet ba men wseron swa 
ratSe deade swa hit him an hecom, baet hie ba set nihstan hie 
bebyrgean ne mehton. 7 he for Seem ege his un\villu?/i f)onan 
wende, 7 ham for mid baem be baer to lafe waeron. Sona swa 
tSaet forme scip land gesohte, ond J?a?t egeslice spell gebodade, 10 
swa waeron ealle ba burgware Cartaginenses mid switSlice heafe 
7 wope anstyred, 7 a?lc acsiende 7 frinende aefter his friend ; 
7 hie untweogendlice nanra treowba him ne wendon, butou baet 
hie mid ealle forweorban sceolde. Mid baem be ba burgware 
swa geomor*lic angin haefdon, ba com 3 se cyning self mid his 15 
Bcipe, 7 land g^sohte mid swibe lyberlicura gegierelan. 7 aegbe(r) 4 
ge he (self) 4 wepende hamweard for, ge baet folc baet him ongean 
com, call bit him wepende hamweard folgade. 7 he se cyning 
his handa waes uppweardes braedende wiS baes heofones, 7 mid 
oferheortnesse him waes waniende aegber ge his agene 5 heard- 20 
saeltSa ge ealles baes folces. 7 lie }>agiet him selfum gedyde baet 
baer wyrrest waes, ba he to his mne com, pa he baet folc baer ute 
betynde, 7 hiene aenne baerinne beleac, 7 hiene selfne ofdog. 

^Efter baeni waes sum welig mon hitman Cartaina, se waes 
haten Hanna, 7 waes mid ungemete girneude baes cynedomes; 25 
ac him gepuhte ra?t he mid para wietena willum him ne mehte 
to cuman, 7 him to raede gciiom ba>t he hie ealle to gereordum 
to him gehete, baet he hie sibban mehte mid attre acwcllan. Ac 
hit wearS burh ba ameldad pe he geboht haefde baet him to baere 
(lade f\ Istan sceolde. pa he anfunde baet baet cub waes, ba gega- 30 
derade he ealle pa peowas 7 pa yfelan menu pe he mehte, 7 polite 
baet he on ba burgware on ungcarwc become ; ac hit him wearS 
aeror cup. pa him set pare byrig nc gesjieow. ba gclcndc he 
mid xj.ua m to anre operre byrig', 7 bohte pa't he pa abraece. 


Post baec vero Imilco, rex Cartbaginiensium, cum in Sicilia 
bellum gereret, repente horribili peste exercitum amisit. Nee 
mora, morbis cito quisque correptus, mox mortuus, jam nee 
sepeliebatur : cujus mali nuncius cum adtonitam repentino luctu 
Carthaginem replevisset, non seats ac si capta esset, turbata 
chitasfuit. Universi egredientes de navibus de suis percontantur. 
Inter haee procedit et ipse de navi sua imperator, sordida ser- 
vilique tunica discinctus : ad cujus conspectum plangentium 
junguntur agmina. Ipse quoque manus ad coelum tendens, 
nunc suam, nunc publicam infelicitatem accusat et deflet : ad 
postremum vociferans per urbem, tandem ingressus domum, 
cunctos dimisit : ac delude obseratis januis, gladio dolorem 
vitamque finivti. 

Post baec Anno, vir quidam Carthaginiensis, firivatis opibus 
reipublicae vires siqierans, invadendae dominationis hausit cupid- 
itatem. Ctci rei consilium utile ratus est, ut simidatis filiae 
nuptiis, omnes senatores quorum dignitatem obstaturam inceptis 
suis arbitrabatur, inter pocula veneno necaret. Quae res per 
ministros prodita, sine ultione vitata est. Hoc cansilio elusus 
Anno, alio macliinamento facinus adgredi parat. Servitia con- 
citat, quibus repente incautam urbem o]>primeret. Sed cum 
proditum se iutellexisset, castellum quoddam cum viginti millibus 
servorum occupat. 

168 Alfred's obosius. 

pa haefdon pa burgleode Mauritanie him to fultome, 7 him. 
on^ean comon baton fa-tenue, 7 Hannan gefengon, 7 pa opre 
gefliemdon. 7 par ?ippan tintregad wearcS : aerest hiene mon 
Bwong, pa sticode hira mon pa eagau ut, 7 sippan him mon slog 
pa handa of, pa pat heafod. 7 eall his cynn mon ofslog, py laes 5 
1 wraece 0. hit monn uferan dogore wracce 1 , oppe aenig oper dorste eft 
*[Page ioi.] * swelc anginuau. pis gewearS on Philippuses dsege pae3 

lifter paeui hierdon Cartainenses pat se maera Alexander 
hsefde abrocen Tinwn pa burg, seo waes on ardagum heora 10 
ieldrena efteP, 7 ondredon bat he eac to him cuman wolde. pa 

the rune in L. ' ' 

sendon hie pider Amilchor, heora pone gleawestan mon, pat he 
sonbeadC, Alexandres wisan besceawade, swa he hit him eft ham behead 3 
on anum brede awriten, 7 sippan hit awriten was, he hit ofer- 
worhte mid weaxe. Eft pa Alexander gefaren waes, 7 he bain L5 
com, pa tugon hie hiene pare burge witan pset he heora 
* so aUoC swicdomes* witS Alexander fremmende waere, 7 hiene for ] are 
tihtlan ofslogon. 

MSter pam Cartaim ases wunnon on Sk-ilie;, peer him Beldon 
teola gespeow, 7 besaeton hiora heafedburg, Siracuses was 20 
hatenu. pa ne anhagode Agathocle heora eyninge pat he \vi5 hie 
mehte buton faestenne gefeohtan, ne eac pcet hie ealle mehten for 
metelieste parbinnan gebidan, ao leton heora fultum parbinnan 
•"•JkC- beon, be pam -dale pset* hie segtSer mehton, ge heora fasten 

gehealdan, ge eac pat pa mete haefdon pa hwile. Ond se cyni 
mitS pam opium da-le on scipuw Cor on Cartainense, 7 hie 1 
pas forl.arnnan hot pe h>' to lande gefor, for pon he nolde }•>•'« 
his find heora eft aenigne anwald haefde. 7 him pe&r ratSe fasten 
geworhte, 7 was |wei folc ponan ut sleande 7 hienende, op paet 
Qanna, pas folces oper cyning, hiene eet paem fastenne gesohte 30 
mid xx m. Ac hiene Agothoclea gefliemde, 7 hie folces ofslog 
11 jr, 7 him sefterfylgende was op v mila to pare byrig Carta- 
r ta.taniense nense 6 . Ond par oper 1. orhte, 7 par ymbutan w 

hergende 7 baernende, parte Cartainense mehton geseon of heora 
*:p 8 ge 101 byrg * pa t fVr 7 pom; teouan, pomie hie on fore waron. 86 

Ymbe Sone timan pe piss was, Andra was haten, Agoth 


Ibi dum Afros regemque Maurorum concitat, captus est : ac 
primo virgis caesus, deinde effussis oculis et manibus critribusque 
f metis, necatus est. Coguati omnes supplicio traditi : ne quis 
eum ejusdem familiae umquara aut imitari, aut ulcisci medi- 
taretur. Haec temporibus Philippi gesta sunt. 

Post baec Cartbaginienses, cum Tyruni urbem, auctorem 
originis suae, ab Alexandre Magno captain eversaruque didi- 
cissent, timentes transitum ejus hi Africam futurum, Amilcareui 
quemdam, virum solertia praecipuum, ad perscrutandos Alexandri 
actus direx&runt : qui omnia civibus suis per tabellas scriptas, 
et post cera superlitas, enunciabat. Huuc mortuo Alexandro 
Carthayinem reversum, quasi urbem regi venditasset, necaverunt. 

Deinde cum adsidua, nee umqua/m scdis prospera adversus 
Siculos bella gererent, et Sp-acusas urbem Siciliae florentissimam 
obsidione cinxissent, pei' Agatboclem Siciliae regem miro cir- 
cumventi ingenio. Namque Agatbocles, cum apvd Syracusas 
a Carthaginiensibus obsideretur, ac se neque bello parem, neque 
obsidioais patientem stipendiorv/m sufficientia videret, in Africam 
cum exercitu transit. Illico naves primum incendunt, ne qua 
S2)es refugiendi font. Leliinc cum omnia in quae direxisset, 
prostemeret, Annonem quemdam cum triginta millibus Poenorum 
obvium liabuit ; qicem cum duobus millibus suorum interfecit. 
Castra deinde ad quintum lapidem a Cartbagine statuit, ut 
damna rerum vastationemque agrorum et incendia villarum de 
muris ipsius urbis specularentur. 

Deletus Afrorum exercitus nimciatur: quern revera incautum 



i From C. 

brotSor, pone he set ham on psere byrig him beseftan let, he 
besierede pset folc pe hie ymbseten hasfden on anre niht un- 
gearwe, 7 hit msest eall ofslog ; 7 pa opre to scipun otSflugon. 
7 ratSe pses pe (hie) 1 ham conian, 7 pset spell cu5 wearS 
I'artainiensiuni, swa wurdon hie swa swipe forpohte, paette 5 
nales past an psette Agothocle monega byrg to gafolgieldum 
wurdon, ac eac hie him heapmaelum selfe on hand eodon. Swa 
eac Fefles se cyng mid Cerene his folce hiene eac gesohte. Ac 
Agothocles gedyde untreowlice wiS hiene, pset he hiene on his 
2 wserum C warum 2 beswac, 7 ofslog, swa him eac selfum sippan sefter lamp. 10 
Gif he pa pa ane untreowpa ne gedyde, from tSsem dsege he 
mehte butan gebroce eallra Cartaina onwald begietan. On psere 
hwile pe he pone unraed purliteah, Amicor, Pena cyning, wses 
mid sibbe wiS his farende mid eallum his folce, ac betux Ago- 
thocle 7 his folce wearS ungersednes, past he self ofslagen wearS. 15 
iEfter his deatSe foran eft Cartainienses an Sicilie mid sci|"»um. 
pa hie Saet geacsedan, pa sendon hie sefter Piruse 3 , Epira 
cyninge, 7 he him sume hwile gefylste. 

3 Pirrusc C 

(IV, VI.) 

JEfter £>aem pe Romeburg getimbred wses feower hunde win- 
4 FromC tram 7 lxx(x)iii 4 , sendon Momertine, Sicilia folc, aefter Romana 20 
fultume, pset hie wiS Pena folce mehte. pa sendon hie him 
Appius Claudius pone consul mid fultume. Eft, pa hie togse- 
« From c. dereweard foron (mid heora folcum) B , pa flugon Pene, swa hie 
eft selfe ssedon, 7 his wundredan, pset hie ser flugon ser hie 
togsedere genealsectcn. For psem fleame Hanna, Pena cyning, 25 
mid eallu?n hio folce wearS Romanum to gafolgieldum. 7 him 
selce geare gesealde twa bund talentana Biolfxes : on selcre anre 
talentan wses lxxx punda. 
• »fter j>am c. ^Efter 6 Romane * besseton pone ieldran Hannibalan, Pena 
age o.j gyjjjjjg^ 0Q Argentine, Sicilia byrig, otS he Corneal) hungre swealt. 30 
pa com him Pena oper cyning to fultume mid sciphere, Hanna 
wses haten, 7 pser gefliemed wearS. 7 Romane sippan pcet 
fsesten abrsecon. 7 Hannibal se cyning on niht ut oSfleah mid 
feawum monnum, 7 hundcahtatig scipa gegaderade, 7 on 


ac pene oiiosum Andro l , Agathoclis frater, oppresserat. Hoc per » Autander. 
totam Africam rumore disperso non tributariae tanturn urbes 
ab his, verumetiam socii reges deficiehant : inter quos rex quoque 
Cyrenarum, Ophelias, pachis est cum Agatlwcle communionem belli. 
Sed postquam in unum exercitus junxerunt, per Agatboclem 
insidiis circumventus, occisus est. Carthaginienses in bellum 
exarsere. Quibus Agathocles congreditur, eosque superat. Hoc 
discrimine tanta desperatio illata Poenis est, ut nisi in exercitu 
Agathoclis orta seditio fuisset, transfugiturus ad eum Ainilcar 2 , -' Bomiicar, 
dux Poenorum, cum exercitu fuerit. Ob quam noxam patibulo 
svffixus, crudele spectaadum suis praebuit. Deinde cum post 
mortem Agathoclis Carthaginienses Siciliam instructa classe 
vastarent, a Pyrrho, rege Epiri, ab Italia accer&ito, saepe su- 
perati, novissime ad Romana bella conversi sunt. 


Anno ab urbe condita cccclxxxiii, Mamertinis auxilia contra 
Poenorum copias et Ap. Claudium consulem cum exercitu misere 
Eomani : qui tarn celeriter Poenos superavit, ut ipse rex ante se 
victum quam congressum fuisse prodiderit : qui exin, cum pacem 
rogaret, ducentis argenti talentis multatus, accepit. 

Consules Agrigentum, Siciliae civitatem, vallo cinxerunt. Cum- 
que inclusus ea obsidione senior Annibal, imperator Poenorum, 
ad summam egestatem redaclus esset, Anno, imperator novus 
Carthaginiensium, expugnaiionem civitatis patdis2)er distulit : 
sed continuo civitas capta est. Annibal senior, facta cum paucis 
eruptione, diffugit. Cum Annibal senior oram Italiae maritimam 



1 Duulius C. 

2 se wses ' '. 

Pvoniana londggmaero hergeade. On Sa wrace fundon Romane 
aerest pset hie scipa worhton. pset gefremede Diulius 1 hiora 
consul, peet pcet angin wearS tidlice purhtogen, swa p;ette eefter 
siextegmn daga pses pe (Sset timber acorfen was, prer wseron 
xxx 7 c gearora ge mid maeste ge mid segle. y oper consul — 5 
waes 2 haten Cornelius Asina — se gefor on Liparis pset iglond 
to Hannibale to sundorspisece mid xvi scipun ; pa ofslog he 
hiene. Swa pset pa se ocSer consul gehierde Diulius, swa gefor 
he to Saem iglonde mid xxx scipun, 7 Hannibales folces in 
Lund ofslog, 7 his xxx scipa genom, 7 xin on sse besencte, 10 
7 hiene selfne gefliemde. 

Miter psem Punici, pset sindon Cartainense, hie gesetton 

Hanuonan ofer hiora scipa, swa Hannibales wses ser, pset he 

" sarSiniam bewerede Sardianiam 3 7 Corsicam pa iglond wi5 Romanum. 

7 he ratSe pses wi§ (hie) 4 gefeaht mid sciphere, 7 ofslageu 15 

* Fromt 


■' From < '. 
(«eg, fyrd) 

pses on paem sefterran geare Calatinus se consul for mid firde 
to Camerinain, Sicilia byrg. Ac him hsefdon Pene pont 
forseten, pser he ofer pone munt fa ran sceolde. pa genom 
Calatinus in bund monna mid him., 7 on anre diegelre sto^ 
ponemunt oferstag, 7 pa men afserde, poet hie ealle ongean hiene 
wseron feohtende, (7 pone weg letan butan ware, pset seo fierd 
siScSan pser pifrhfor) 5 . 7 peer weartS poet in bund monna 
O&Iagen, ealle buton (5sem consule auum : he eom wund a\ 

!fter psem Punice gesetton eft pone ealdan EEannibalan Jwet 25 
he mid scipum on Romane wunne. Ac eft pa he Saer hcrgean 
Bceolde, he wearS racSe gefliemed, 7 on tSsem fleame hiene 
oftyrfdon his agene geferan. 

/Miter psem * Atilius se consul aweste Liparron 7 Melitam, 
Sicilia iglond. -lifter psem foron Romane on Africe mid feower 30 
hunde scipa 7 pritigum. pa sendon (hie) r ' heora twegen cyni 
him ongean, Hannan 7 Amilcor, mid scipum. 7 paer wurdon 
.in* ne. begen gefleincd, 7 Romane 7 genamon on him i.xxxin scipa, 
7 sippan hie abrsecon Alpeam heora burg, 7 wseron hergende <>6 
Cartaina heora heafedbure. 35 

•[Page 106.] 

f From < '. 


instructa septuaginta navium classe vastaret, Eomani et ipsi 
classem fabricari praeceperunt : quod Duilius consul celeriter 
inplevit. Nam infra sexagesimum diem, quam arbores caesae 
erant, centum triginta navium classis deducta in aneoris stetit. 
Cornelius Asina, consul alter, cum sedecim navibus Liparam 
insulam petiit, ubi ah Annibale, quasi ad colloquium pads 
evocatus, necatus est. Quod ubi Duilius, alter consul, audivit, 
cum triginta navibus adversus Annibalem profectus est. Com- 
misso navali praelio, Annibal aufugit, triginta et una naves ejus 
captae, tredecim mersae, tria millia bominum occisa refcruntur. 

Postea Caithaginienses Annonem in locum Annibalis subro- 
gatum, pro Sardis et Corsis defensandis, navali praelio praefe- 
cerant ; qui a Scipione consule victus, interfectus est. 


Anno ab hoc proximo, Calatinus consul, Camerinam Siciliae 
urbem petens, in angustias deduxit exercitum, quas Poenorum 
copiae praestruxerant. Calpurnii virtute liberatus est : qui 
lecta trecentorum viroi'um manu, insessum ab hostibus tumul/wm 
occupavit, et in se Poenos omnes pugnando convertit, donee 
exercitus angustias transiret. Caesi sunt in eo bello omnes 
trecenti, solus Calpurnius, quamvis midtis confossus vulnei'ibus 

Annibal senior, a Carthaginiensibus iterum classi praepositus, 
infeliciter cum Eomanis congressus et victus, ab exercitu suo 
lapidibus coopertus interiit. 

Atilius consul Liparam Melitamque, insulas Siciliae perva- 
gatus evertit. Consules in ASi-iaxm. jussi transferre bellum, cum 
trecentis triginta navibus Siciliam petierunt, quibus Amilcar 
Poenorum imperator et Anno classi p>raefectus occurrit. Con- 
serto navali praelio Carthaginienses, in fugam versi, sexaginta 
et quatuor naves perdiderunt. Consules in Africam transvecti 
sunt, primamque omnium Clupeam urbem in deditiouem rece- 

174 Alfred's orosius. 

^Efter paem Regul»s se consul underfeng Cartaina gewinn. 

pa he sest pider mid firde farende wses, pa gewicade he neah 

anre ie, seo wses haten Bagrada. pa com of 'Sgem wsetre an 

naedre, seo wa?s ungemetlice micel, 7 pa men ealle ofslog pe neh 

1 in c. the tSsem wsetre coman *. pa gegaderade Regulus ealle pa seyttan h 

heading he , 

bxre na?dran be on osem fse relte weeron, baet hie mon mid flanu/n ofercome. 

U added r L J r 

here - Ac bonne hie mon slog oJ?f»e sceat, bonne glad hit on beem 

» Fro»j c. scylluwi, swelc(e) 2 hit wsere smetSe isen. pa het he mid pxm 
palistas, mid beem hie weallas brsecon, bonne hie on fsestenne 
ful.ton, ba?t hiere mon mid baem bwyres ou wurpe. pa wearS 10 
hiere mid anuwi wierpe an ribb forod, bast hio sibban msegen ne 
hsefde hie to gescildanne, ac ratSe J?ses hio wearcS ofslagen ; for 
bon hit is nsedrena gecynd paet heora msegen 7 hiera fepe biS 
on heora ribbuwi, swa oberra creopendra wynna bi5 on heora 
fotum. pa hio gefylled wass, he het hie behyldan, 7 pa hyde to 15 
Rome bringan, 7 hie Sser to msertSe aSenian, for pou heo wses 
bund twelftigcs fota lang. 

JEfter bsem gefeaht Regulus witS in Pens cvningas on anum 
gefeohte, witS twegen Hasterbalas, 7 se bridda wa?s haten 
» on both. Amilcor, se wsbb of 3 Sicilium him to fultume gefctt. On Ssein jo 
gfifeohte waaa Cartainiensa vn M ofslagen, 7 vx m gefangen, 7 xi 
elpendas genumen, 7 lxxxii tuna him eodun on hand. 

pa, refter p&m be Cartainiense gefliemde wgeron, hie wilnedon 
*[Pagei07.] fripes to Regule. Ac eft ba hie angeatan baet he * ungemetlic 

gafol wi<5 psem fribe habban wolde, ba cwsedon hie bget him 25 

* ni«e c. leofre waere J)get hie an swelcan nicde * deaS fornome bonne hie 

mid swelcan niede fri5 bcgeate. pa sendon hie aefter fultume 

segber ge on Gallie, ge on Igpanie, ge on Lrecedemonie aefter 

Exantipuse prem cyninge. Eft, pa hie ealle gesomnad waeron, 

' From < . pa (be)pohtan 5 hie ealle heora wigcrceftas to Exantipuse. 7 he 30 

la "'' sippan pa folc gelsedde pser hie togsederc gccwoden hsefdon, 

7 gesette twa folc diegellice on twa healfa his, 7 pridde beaeftan 


perunt. Inde Carthaginem petentes, trecenta, castella populati 

Regulus, bellum Carthaginiense sortitus, iter cum exercitu 
faciens, baud procul a flumine Bagrada castra constituit, ubi 
cum plurimos militum, aquandi necessitate ad flumen descen- 
dentes, serpens mirae niagnitudinis devoraret, Regulus ad ex- 
pugnandam bestiam cum exercitu profectus est : sed omni telorum 
ictu irrito, quae per horrendam squamarum cratem quasi per 
scutorum testudinem labebantur, balistas deferri imperavit, per 
quas murale saxurn spinae ejus incussum, compagem totius cor- 
2)&ris solvit. Talis siquidem est natura serpentis, ut costis quasi 
cruribus innitatur. Unde etiam hie serpens ad unius saxi ictum 
cessit, ac mox facile oppressus est. Corium autem ejus Romam 
devectum (quod fuisse centum viginti pedum spatio feruni) 
aliquamdiu cunctis miraculo fait. 

Regulus adversus tres imperatores, id est Asdrubales duos 
et accitum ex Sicilia Amilcarem, bellum gessit, in quo caesa 
sunt Cartbaginiensium septemdecim millia, capta autem quinque 
millia, elephanti decern et octo abducti, oppida octoginta duo 
in deditionem cessere Romanis. 


Cartbaginienses, fracti bellis, pacem a Regulo poposcerunt : 
sed cum intolerabiles conditiones pacis audissent, tutius rati sese 
armatos mori quam miseros vivere, pretio non solum Hispanorum 
vel Gallorum auxilia, sed etiam Graecorum comparanda duxerunt. 
Itaque Xantbippum, Lacedaemoniorum regem, cum auxiliis 
accitum, ducem hello praefecerunt. Xantbippus, inspectis Poeno- 
rum copiis atque in camjnim deductis, longe in melius mutato 
adparatu, fjugnam cum Romanis conseruit. Triginta millia 
Romanorum in ilia tunc congressione prostrata sunt. Regulus 
cum quingentis viris captus est, et decimo demum anno belli 

176 alfbjsd's obosius. 

him; 7 bebead psem twatn folcum, p<>m>« lit- self mid pam 
ryrroestan daele wi5 pses seftemestan fluge, past hie poime on 
Reguluses fird on twa healfa pwyres on fore. pser wearS Romana 

» H*sigeC. xxx M ofslagen, 7 Regulus gefangen mid v hunde mouna. piss ' 
earb Punicum on psem teotSan geare hiora gewinnes 7 5 
Romana. RatSe J>ses Exantipus for eft to his agnum rice, 7 him 
Romane andred, for pon hie for his lare set hiora gemettinge 
bei wicene wurdon. 

a So alto a JEfter psem Euilius " Paulus se con[sul] for on African mid 

prim hunde scipa to Clepeam psem iglonde. 7 him comon pser 10 
ongean Punice mid swa fela scipa, 7 pier gefliemde wseron, 

a From c. j hiora folces waes v if ofslagen, 7 hiora (scipa) 3 xxx 4 gefan- 

t»e..tig l. (gen) 5 , 7 mi 7 an hund adruncen. 7 Romana waes an c 7 an 
' H ofslagen, 7 heora scipa ix adruncen. 7 hie on psem iglande 
fsesten worhton. 7 hie (Sser eft Pene gesohton mid heora twam L6 
cyningu/n, pa wseron begen Hannan hateue. pser heora wseron 
ix m ofslagen, 7 pa opre gefliemed. Mid psere herehype Romane 
oferhlsestan heora scipa, pa hi hamweard wseron, bast heora 

• r erased; gedearf' cc " 7 xxx. 7 lxx wearS to lafe, 7 uneaSe genered mid 

cclraf C # 

' 11 ec l., pa-in poet hie msest eall ut awurpon J)set oseron waes. 
twa cc C 

yEfter psem Amilcor Pena cyning for on Xumcdian, 7 on 
Mauritaniam, 7 hie oferhergeade, 7 to gafolgieldum gesette, 
*[Page 108.] * for pon pe hie Regule ser on hand eodon. 

pses ymh in gear Serfilius Cepio 7 Sempronins Blesus pa 
consulas foran mid in hund scipa 7 Lxgum on Africe, 7 on 25 
Cartainiensium monega byrg abrsecon. 7 sippan mid miclum 
bingum hamweard foran, 7 eft hiora Bcipa oferhlseston, pset hiora 
gedurfon L 7 c. 

iEfter psem Cotta se consul for on Sicilie, 7 [hie] ealle oferher- 
geade. pier wseron swa micle mon&lihtaa on segpere healfe but BO 
hie mon set nihstan bebyrgan ne mehte. 

• HeiifoesC. On Luciuses dsege Iliuses s , pses consules, 7 on Metelluses 

Gaiuses, 7 on Foriuses Blaciduscs, com Hasterbal s. oiwa 
cyning of Cartainum on Libeum pset igland mid xxx m 


nobilem triumphum Cartbaginiensibus praebn.it. Xantbippus, 
tarn audacis facti conscius, rerum mutationem timens, illico 
ex Africa migravit in G'raeciam. 

Igitur Aemilius Paulus et Fulvius Nohilior consules transire 
in Africam cum classe trecentarum navium jussi, Clupeara 
petunt. Eo Cartbaginienses cum pai'i classe vcnerunt. Centum 
et quatuor naves Carthaginiensium demersae, triginta captae, 
praeterea triginta quinque niillia militum ex i])sis caesa sunt : 
Romanorum autem novem navibus depressis mille centum 
periere milites. Consules apud Clupeam castra posuerunt. Duo 
Annones, imperatores Poenorum, eo rursum cum magno exercitu 
convenerunt, praelioque commisso, novem millia militum perdide- 
rv.nt. Cum Romana classis ad Italiam praedis onusta remearet, 
infando naufragio eversa est : nam de trecentis navibus ducentae 
et viginti perierunt, octoginta vix abjectis oneribus liberatae 

Amilcar, dux Poenorum, cum exercitv. in Xumidiam Mauri- 
taniamque missus, postquam Jiostiliter in universos egit, quod 
Regulum libenter suscepisse dicerentur, mille argenti talentis, et 
viginti millibus boum reliquos condemnavit, 

Tertio anno Servilius Caepio et Sempronius Blaesus consules, 
cum ducentis sexaginta navibus in Africam transgressi, captis 
eversisque civitatibus plui'imis, ingentem praedam ad classem 
devexerunt. Inde, cum ad Italiam redirent, illisi scopidis, centum 
quinquaginta naves onerarias perdiderunt. 

Praeterea Cotta consul in Siciliam transgressus, per totam 
Siciliam inhurnatas strages reliquit. 

L. Caecilio Metello, C. Furio Placido 1 consulibus, Asdrubal, i p ac iio. 
novus Carthaginiensium imperator, cum elephantis centum tri- 
ginta et eqiutum jyeditumque amplius triginta millibus, Lilybaeum 


178 Alfred's orosius. 

gchorsedra, 7 mid xxx elpenda 7 cgum, 7 ratSe paes gefeaht wi5 
Metellus pone cyning. Ac sippan Metellus pa elpendas ofercom, 
sippan he haefde eac ratSe paet oper folc gefliemed. -<Ef[ter] 
paem fleame Hasterbal wearS ofslagea from his agnum folce. 

pa waeron Cartainiense swa ofercumene 7 swa gedrefde betux 5 
him selfum, paet hie hie to nanura anwalde ne bemseton ; ac 
hie gewearS paet hie wolden to Ronianum fripes wilnian. pa 
sendon hie Regulus pone consul, pone hie haefdon mid him fif 
winter on bendum, 7 he him geswor on his goda noman paet he 
aegper wolde, ge past aerende abeodan, swa swa hi hiene heton, 10 
1 andwyrde c. ge eac him Ipcet anwyrde ' eft gecypau. 7 he hit swa gelaeste, 
7 abead pset aegper para folca opium ageafe ealle pa men pe hie 
gehergead haefden, 7 sippan him betweonum sibbe heolden. 
7 aefter paern pe he hit aboden haefde, he hie healsade paet hie 
nanuht para aerenda ne underfenge, 7 cwaetS paet him to micel 15 
sewisce waere paet he swa emnHce wrixleden, 7 eac paet hiora 
gerisna naere paet hie swa heane hie gepohten paet hi heora 
gelican wurden. pa sefter paem wordum hie budon him paet he 
on cyppe mid liim wunade, 7 to his rice fenge. pa ondwyrde 
*[Page 109.] he him, 7 cwaecS * paet hit na geweorpan sceolde paet se waere 20 
a to also c. leoda cyning se pe aer waes folce 2 peow. pa he eft to 3 Car- 
\ngfn™ nt ~ tainum com, pa asaedon his geferan hu he heora aerenda abead. 
pa forcurfon hie him pa twa aedran on twa hcalfa para cagena, 
paet he aefter paem slapan ne mehte, op he swa searigende his lif 
forlet. 25 

iEfter paem Atilius Regulus 7 Mallius Ulsca pa consulas foron 
on Cartaine, on Libeum paet igland, mid twain hunde scipa, 
7 paer besaeton an {eaten, pa befor hiene paer Hannibal se 
geonga cyning, Amilcorcs sunu, paer hie ungcarwe butan faest- 
enne saetou, 7 paer ealle ofslagene waeron buton feawum. ^Eftcr 30 
paem Claudius se consul for eft an Punice. 7 him Hannibal lit 
on sae ongean com, 7 ealle ofslog buton xxx sciphlaesta : pa 
otSflugon to Libeum paem iglande. paer waes ofslagen ix m. 


venit ex Africa, et continuo cum Metello consule pugnam con- 
seruit. Sed Metellus, vim belluarum tiniens, £>rt«s eas vel in 
fugam, vel in mortem egit, et sic facile quamvis magnam vim 
hostium superavit. Asdrubal Lilyhaeum profugit, atque absens 
a Poenis capitis damnatus est. 


Post haec fessi tot mails Carthaginienses, petendani esse 
a Romanis pacem decreverunt. Ad quam rem Atilium Regulum 
antea ducem Romanum, quem jam per quiaque annos captivum 
detinebant, mittendum putaverunt : quern, non impetrata pace, 
ab Italia reversum, resectis palpebris, illigatum in macMna, 
vigilando necaverunt. 

Alter deinde Atilius Regulus et Manlius Vulso consules cum 
classe ducentarum navium Lilybaeum profecti sunt : quod oppi- 
dum Eomani obsidere conati, superveniente Annibale, qui Amil- 
caris filius fuit, majore exercitus sui parte perdita, i2>si aegre 
evaserunt. Post hos Claudius consul contra hostem profectus, 
ibique mox exceptus classe Poenorum, superatus est. Et 
ipse quidem cum triginta navibus Lilybaeum confugit : octo 
millia militum caesa, viginti millia capta referuntur. Cajus 



180 Alfred's orosius. 

7 xx m gefangen. JEfter paem for Gaius Iunius se consul on 
Affrice, 7 mid eallu??i his faerelte on se for\veai-(5. 

paes on paetn aefterran geare Hannibal sende sciphere on Rome, 
7 paer ungemetlice gehergeadon. ^Efter paem Lutatia se consul 
for on Africe mid in hunde scipa to Sicilium, 7 him Punice paer 5 

1 >aet oger c. wiSgefuhto(n). peer wear(5 Lutatia wund purh oper ! cneow. 

2 on c. pass om 2 mergen com Hanna mid Hannibales firde, 7 him paer 

3 Hannan gefeaht wicS Lutatia, peh he wund waere. 7 Hannan 3 gefliemde, 
7 him sefter for, olp he com to Cinam paei-e byrg. RaSe paes 
coman eft Pene mid firde to him, 7 gefliemde wurdon, 7 ofslagen 10 
11 m. pa wilnedon Cartaine opre sipe fripes to Romamun. 

7 hie hit him on paet gerad geafon, paet hie him Siciliam 
to ne tugen, ne Sardiniam, 7 eac him gesealden paeronufan in H 
talentana selce geare. 

(IV, VII.) 

JEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes V hunde wintrum 15 

♦[Page no.] 7 vii, wearS ungemetlic fyrbryne mid Romanum, * paet nan 

mon nyste hwonan hit com. pa paet fvr hie alet, pa wearS Tiber 

seo ea swa fledu swa heo naefre aer nses ne sippan, paet heo maest 

4 from c.; e all 4 genoni paet binnan psere byrg w-ses paera monna owcHiefene, 

ge eac on heora getimbrum. 20 

On pa?m dagum pe Titus Sempronius 7 Gratias Gaius waeron 
* wanting in consulas on Rome, (hie) 5 gefuhton wiS Faliscis paem folce, 7 


hiora ofslogen xn m. 

On paem geare wurdon pa Gallie Romanum wiSerwearde, 
pe mon nu haet Longbeardas, 7 rape pses heora folc togaedere 25 
gelaeddon. On hiora paem forman gefeohte wa?s Romana in M 
ofslagen, 7 on paem gefterran geare waes Gallia 111 m ofslagen, 
7 11 m gefangen. pa Romane hamweard foran, pa noldan hie 


quoqv.e Junius, collega Claudii, universam classem naufragio 

Anno etiani consequenti classis Punica in Jtaliam transiit, 
ejusque plurimas partes longe lateque vastavit. Interea Lutatius 
cum classe trecentarum navium in Siciliam transvectus . . . 
transfixo femore aegerrime ereptus est. Porro autem Poeni ad 
Siciliam, duce Annone, concurrunt. Victus Anno dux fugae 
fuit. Lutatius deinde ad Erycinam civitatem, quam Poeni 
tenebant, venit ; ibique duo millia Cartbaginiensium, conserta 
pugna, interfecit. 


Tunc Carthaginienses Rornam mittunt, orant pacem : quam 
conditionibus ante jmopositis consequuntur. Conditiones autem 
erant, ut Sicilia Sardiniaque decederent, proque inpensis bellicis 
tria millia talentorum per annos viginti pendei'ent. 

Anno ab Urbe condita dvii, repentina subversio ipsius 
Romae praevenit triumphum Romanorum. Siquidem Q. Lu- 
tatio, A. Mcmtio considibus, diversae ignium aquarumque clades 
pene absttnisere urbem. Nam Tiberis ultra opinionem re- 
dundans, omnia Romae aedificia delevit. Aquarum cladem 
gravior ignis secuta vastatio est : qui ignis, incertum unde 
sm*rexerit, taatum opum consumsit, quantum plurimae vic- 
toriae conferre vix possent. 

Ti. Sempronio Graccho, P. Valerio Faltone consulibus, cum 
Faliscis bellavere Romani, eoque praelio quindecim millia Falis~ 
corum interfecta sunt. 


Eodem anno Galli novi exstitere hostes, adversum quos 
varia forte bellatum est : nam in primo conflictu tria millia 
quingenti cecidere Romani, secundo quatuorcfeci'm millia Gal- 
lorum caesa, duo millia capta sunt, sed ob priorem cladem 
triumplius consuli denegatus est. 



3 end of line 
in L. ; heora 

* From C. ; 
feortJam L. 

don ]?one triumphan beforan hiora consulum, pe hiora gewuna 
waes ponne hie sige haefdon, for pon pe he set <Sasm serran gefeohte 

i geara c. fleah. 7 hie J?ce£ sipjpau fela geare ' an missenlicum mgnm 
dreogende waeron. 

pa pa Titus Mallius, 7 Torcuatus Gaius, 7 Atirius Bubulcus 5 

' From C. waeron consulas on Rome, pa ongun(non) 2 Sardinie, swa hie 
Pene geleerdon, winnan wiS Roinanuni, 7 rape oferswitSde waeron. 
iEfter peem Romane wunnon on Cartaine, for paem pe hie friS 
abrocen haefdon. pa sendon hie tua hiera sereudracan to 
Romanu??i sefter hipe, 7 hit abiddan ne mehton. pa aet paeni 10 
priddan cirre hie sendon x hie(ra) 3 ie[l]dstena wietena, 7 hi hit 
abiddan ne mehton. JEt J^asm feorfan 4 cirre hie sendon Hannan 
heora ]?one unweorcSestan pegn, 7 he hit abaed. 

Wiotodlice, cwce'cS Orosius, nu we sindon cumen to J?aem godan 
tidun pe us Romane o}?witaS, 7 to tSaere genihtsumnisse pe hie 15 
us ealneg foregielpatS pott ure ne sien Saem gelican. Ac frine 
hie mon pon»e sefter hu monegum wintrum sio sibb g^wurde 
paes pe hie sest unsibbe wiS moneguw folcum ha?fdon : ponne is 
J?aet sefter l wintra 7 feower hunduwi. Ahsige ponne eft bu 
longe sio sibb gestode : ponne waes pcet an gear. Sona pass on 20 

*[Page m.] Seem aefterran geare Grallie wunnon wiS Romane, 7 Pene * on 

6 From c. oj^re healfe. Hu pyncS eow (nu) B Pomaniun. hu seo sibb ge- 
faestnad waere, hwaeper bio sie p&xa gelicost pe mon nime aenne 
eles dropan, 7 drype on an micel fyr, 7 J?ence hit mid J?aem 
adwaescan ? ponne is wen, swa micle swi$or swa he penccS pcet 25 
he hit adwaesce, paet he hit swa micle swifter ontydre. Swa 
ponne waes mid Romanum )?set an gear past hie sibbe haefdon, 
]?3et hie under f>a?re sibbe to )?aere maestan sace become. 

• cyrriugC. On hiora Saem aerestan gewinne Amilcor, Cartaina cynig 6 , }?a 

he to Romanu/n. mid firde faran wolde, pa wearS he from 30 
Spenum bepridad 7 ofslagen. 

On Saem geare Ilirice ofslogon Romana aerendracan. ^fter 
pxm Fuluius Postumius se consul for paeiu on hie fird gelaedde, 
7 fela ofslagen wearS on aegtSere healfe, 7 he peh sige haefde. 


T. Manlio Torquato, C. Atilio Bulbo consulibus, Sardinia 
insula rebellavit, auctoribus Poenis, unde mox Sardi subacti et 
oppressi sunt. Carthaginiensibus autem violatoribus pacis 
inferri bellum decretum est. Contra Carthaginienses pacem po- 
poscerunt : et cum bis missis legatis nibil profecissent, post 
etiam decern principibns supplicantibus, nee irnpetrarent, novis- 
sime Annonis, minimi hominis inter legatos, oratione me- 

Hinc demum tempora quibus conferri nostra nidlo modo 
possunt, silentio transmitti expedit ; ne obtrectatores dierum 
vitae suae ad insultandum potius sibi hoc strepitu suscitemus. 
Ecce portae Jani clausae fuerunt, /oris bellum liomanorum non 
fuit. Et hoc post quantum temporis ? post annos quadringen- 
tos et quadraginta. Quandiu 1 anno uno. Et quid altero sub- 
secutum est ? bellum Gallicum, et Annibal cum bello Punico 
secundo. Pax ista, vel magis umbra pact's, an incentivum ma- 
lorum fuit ? stillicidium illud olei, in medium magnae flammae 
cadens exstinxit fomitem tanti ignis, an aluit 1 


Anno ab Urbe condila dxvii, Amilcar, dux Carthaginiensium, 
ab Hispanis in bello, cum bellum adversus Romanos pararet, 
occisus est. 

Sequenti anno legati Romanoi-um ab Illyriis interfecti sunt. 
Post cum ipsis Illyriis atrocissimum bellum gestum est : in quo 
multis 2>opidis deletis, reliqui se Fulvio Posthumioque consulibus 

184 Alfred's orosius. 

Sona paes on paem aefterran gere gelaerdan Rornana biscepas 
swelce niwe raedas swelce hie fol oft aer eakle gedydan, pa him 
mon on preo healfe onwinnende wses, aegper ge Gallie be supan 
muntum, ge Gallie be norpan muntum, ge Pene, pcet bie sceolden 
mid monnum for bie beora godum blotan, 7 paet sceolde beon 5 
an Gallisc waepnedmon, 7 an Gallisc wifmon, 7 bie pa Rornane 
be para biscepa lare bie swa cuce bebyrgdau. Ac bit God wraec 
on bim swa be aer ealneg dyde, swa oft swa bie mid monnuwi 
ofredan, pset hie mid hiera cucum onguldon paet hie ungyltige 
cwealdon. paet waes serest gesiene on J:aem gefeohte pe hie wicS 10 
Gallium haefdon : peh pe heora agnes fultumes waere eabta 
hund M, buton opruwi folcuwi pe hi him haefdon to aspanen, paet 
hie. raSe flugon, paes pe beora consul ofslagen waes 7 hiora opres 
folces in m. pcet bim pa gepuhte swelc paet maeste wad swelc 
hie oft aer for noht haefdon. iEt hiora opran gefeohte waes 15 
Gallia ix m ofslagen. 
1 Maiiiius £., poes on paem priddan geare Mallius ' Tarcuatws * 7 Fuluius 
♦[Page 112.] Flaceus waeron consulas om Rome. Hie gefuhton witS Gallium. 
7 hiora in M ofslogon, 7 vi H gefengon. 

On paem aefterran geare waeron monege wundor gesewene. 20 
An waes host on Piceno paem wuda an wielle weol blode ; 7 on 
Tracio paem londe mon geseab swelce se heofen burne; 7 on 
Ariminio paere byrg waes nibt 0$ midne daeg. 7 weard swa 
micel eorpbeofung paet on Caria 7 on Ropmrc paem iglondu/u 
wurdon micle hryras, ond Colosus gehreas. 25 

py geare Fiamiuius se consul forseah pa saegene pe pa hlvttun 
him saedon, 7 him logan, paet he set paem gefeohte ne come wi$ 
Gallie. Ac be hit purhteab, 7 mid weorpscipe geendade. paer 
waes Gallia vu M ofslagen, 7 xvn M gefangen. iFfter paem 
Claudius se consul gefeaht wift Gaulle, 7 hiora ofslog xxx m, 7 be 30 
self gefeaht wiS pone cyning anwig, 7 bine ofslog, 7 Megohm 
a From r. . pa burg geeode. JEfter pa?m wuunon Isprie on Romane 2 . pa 
' sendon hi beora consulas angean, Cornelius 7 Minutius. paer 
waes micel wael geslagen on aegpere healfe, 7 Isprie wurdon peh 
Etomanuin underpiedde. 35 


Tertio deinceps anno civitatem sacrilegis sacrificiis funestavere 
pontifices, namque decemviri consuetudinem priscae supersti- 
tionis adgressi, Galium viruni et Gallarn foeminam vivos de- 
foderunt. Sed obligamentum hoc magicum in contrarium con- 
tinue- versum est. Namque Mas quas fecerant externorum 
raortes, suorum caedibus expiaverunt . . . Conimisso praelio, 
Atilius consul occisus est : octingenta millia Romanorum, nee 
saltern tanta, quanta eos terrere debuit, caesa sui parte, fuge- 
runt : nam tria millia eorum tunc interfecta historici tradunt, 
quod ideo ignominiosius est, tarn paucis amissis, tanta agmina 
diffugisse, quia se in aliis victoriis non viribus animorum prae- 
valuisse, sed bellorum proventibus, prodiderunt. Post haec secun- 
dum praelium gestum est, in cpio quadraginta millia Gallorum 
trucidata sunt. 

Sequenti anno Manlius Torquatus et Fulvius Flaccus consules, 
primi trans Padum Komanas duxere legiones. Pugnatum est 
ibi cum Gallis, quorum interfecta sunt viginti tria millia, sex l 1 quinque. 
millia capta sunt. 

Eo deinde anno, qui huic proximus fuit, dira miseram Urbem 
terruere prodigia. Namque in Piceno flumen sanguine effluxit 
et apud Tuscos coelum ardere visum est, et Arimini nocte multa 
lucem clararii effulsisse. Tunc quoque magno terraemotu 
Caria et Pthodus insulae adeo concussae sunt, ut labentibus 
vulgo tectis, ingens quoque Me Colossus rueret. 

Eodem anno Flaminius Cos. contemtis aicspiciis quibus pug- 
nare j)rohibebatur, adversum Gallos conflixit, et vicit. In quo 
bello novem millia Galloruin caesa, decern et septem millia capta 
sunt. Post hoc Claudius consul Gaesatorum triginta millia 
delevit, ubi etiam ipse regem, in primam aciem progressus, 
occidit : et Mediolanum, urbem Jlorentissimam, cepit. Deinde 
Istri, novi hostes, excitati sunt, quos Cornelius Minuciusque 
consules, multo quidem Romanorum sanguine, subegerunt. 

186 Alfred's orosius. 

(IV, VIII.) 

yEfter baeni be Romeburg getimbred waes v hunde wintrum 
7 xxxiii, Hannibal, Pena cyning, besaet Saguntuwi Ispania burg, 

"forbonbec for ]?on 1 hie on symbel witS Eornanum sibbe beoldon ; 7 peer 
wses sittende eahta niona(5, 0)3 he hie ealle hungre acwealde, 
7 pa. burg towearp, peh pe Romane heora serendracan him to 5 
sendon, 7 hie firmetton pset hie pcet gewinn forleten ; ac he hie 
swa uuweortSlice forseah, pcet he heora self onseon nolde. On 
pam gewinne, 7 eac on nionegum o'Srum aefter baBin, Hannibal 
gecypde pone nip 7 pone hete pe he beforan his faeder geswor, 

*:Page 113.] pa he nigonwintre cniht waes, * J?aet he uaefre ne wurde Romana 10 

pa pa. Publius Cornelius, 7 Scipa Publius, 7 Sempronius 

2 From c. Longus, ba hie waeron (consulas) 2 , Hannibal abraec mid gefeohte 
ofer ba beorgas be mon haet Perenei, pa sindon betux Galleum 

sispaneumc. 7 Spaneuin 3 , 7 sipj?an he gefor ofer pa, monegan ]?eoda, op he 15 
com to Alpis }?3em muntum, 7 J?ser eac ofer abraec, peh him mon 
oftrsedlice mid gefeohtuwi wiSstode, 7 pone weg geworhte ofer 
munt Iof. Swa bonne he to Sa?m syndrigum stane com, poune 
bet he hiene mid fyre onhaetan, 7 si^an mid mattucun heawan ; 
7 mid paem maestan geswince pa muutas oferfor. His heres 20 

« From c. (waes) * an m feSena 7 xx m gehorsedra. 

pa he haefde on paem emnete gefaren op he com to Ticenan 
paere le, pa com him (Saer ongean Scipio se consul, 7 Saer fre- 
cenlice gewundod weartS, 7 eac ofslagen waere, gif his sunu his 
ne gehulpe, mid paem pcet he hiene foran forstod, o?5 he on fleame 25 
fealh. paer wear's Romana micel wa?l geslagen. Hiora Saet 
aefterre gefeoht waes aet Trefia Ssere Te, 7 eft WflBron Romane 
forslaegen 7 gefliemed. pa poet Sompronius hierde, heora oper 
consul, se W3es on Sicilium mid firde gefaren, he Jjonan afor, 
7 begen pa consulas waeron mid firde angean Hannibal, 7 heora 30 
gemetting wses eft aet Trefia baere ie, 7 eac Romane gefliemod, 
7 swipor forslagen, 7 Hannibal gewundod. 

.V.fter paem for Hannibal ofer Bardan bone bcorg, beh pe ymb 
pone ticman waeren swa micel snawgebland swa baette aegber ge 



Anno ab Urbe condita dxxxiv, Annibal, Poenorum imperator, 
Saguntum, florentissimam Hispaniae civitatem, amicam populi 
Komani, obsidione cinctam, et fame excruciatam, delevit. 
Legatos Roinanoram ad se missos injuriosissime etiam a 
conspectu suo abstinuit. Exinde odio Roniani nominis, quod 
patri Amilcari, cum esset novem annos natus, ante aras 

P. Cornelio Scipione, et Ti. Sempronio Longo consulibus, 
Pyrenaeos montes transgressus, inter Gallorum gentesferro viani 
aperuit, et ad Alpes pervenit, ubi, dum Gallos, repellere ab ad- 
scensu obnitentes, bello superat, atque invias rupes igni ferroque 
rescindit, cum maximo labore ad plana pervenit. Fuisse tunc 
exercitum ejus centum millium peditum et viginti millium 
equitum definiunt. 

Scipio consul Annibali occurrit, commissoque praelio apud 
Ticinum, ipse graviter vulneratus per Scipionem filium ab ipsa 
morte liberatus evasit. Caesus est ibi pene omnis Romanus 
exercitus. Pugnatum deinde ad flumen Trebiam, iterumque 
Romani pari clade superati sunt. Sempronius consul, cognito 
collegae casu, a Sicilia cum exercitu rediit, qui apud eundem 
fluvium congressus, amisso exercitu, pene solas evasit. 

In eo tamen bello etiam Annibal sauciatus est : qui postea, 
cum in Etruriam transiret, in summo Apennino tempestate 

188 Alfred's orosius. 

para horsa fela forwurdon ge pa elpendas ealle buton anum, ge 
pa men selfe uneatSe pone ciele genseson. 

Ac for paem he geneSde swipost ofer pone munt pe he wiste 
paet Flamineus se consul wende pcet he buton sorge mehte on 
paem wintersetle gewunian pe he pa on waes mid paem folce pe 5 
he Sa gegaderad haefde, 7 untweogendlice wende paet nan naere 

•[Page 114.] J^sette paet faerelt ymbe pone timan anginnan dorste * oppe mehte 
for paem ungemetlican cile. Mid paem pe Hannibal to tSaem 
londe becom, swa gewicade he an anre diegelre stowe, neah 
paeni oprvim folce. 7 sum his folc sende gind paet lond to 10 
baernanne 7 to hergenne, paette se consul wges wenende paet eall 
paet folc waere gind paet lond tobraed, 7 piderweard farende waes, 
7 pencende paet he hie on paere hergunge beswice, 7 pcet folc 
buton tinman laedde, swa he wiste paet poe£ oper waes, oppaet 
Hannibal him com pwyres on mid paem fultume pe he etgsedere 15 
haefde, 7 pone consul ofslog, 7 )?aes opres folces xxv m, 7 vi ge- 

loverjnuw* fengon 1 . 7 Hannibales folces wses twa m ofslagen. 

in L. ; gefan- . , 

gen a iEfter paem Scipia se consul, paes opres Scipian bropor, wses 

monega gefeoht donde on Ispanium, 7 Magonem, Pena latteow 
gefeng. 20 

7 monega wundor gewurdon on paere tide. iErest waes paet 
seo sunne waes swelce heo wsere eall ge[lyt]ladu. Oper waes 
tSaet mon geseah swelce seo sunne 7 se 111011a fuhte : pas wundor 
gewurdon on Arpis paem londe. 7 on Sardinian! mon geseah 
twegen sceldas blode swaetan. 7 Falisci piH folc hie ge.^awon 25 
swelce se hefon waere tohliden. 7 Athium pat folc him gepuhte, 
pa hie heora corn ripon, 7 heora cawelas afylled lnefdon. past 
ealle pa ear waeron blodege. 

(IV, IX.) 
iEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes V hundc wiatrum 
7 feowertegum, pa pa Lucius Amilius 7 Paulus Publius 7 Ter- 30 
rentius Uarra, pa hie waeron consulas, hie geforan mid firde 
angean Hannibal. Ac he hie mid p3em ilcau wrcnce beswac pe 
he aet heora aerran [ge]metinggc dyde, 7 eac mid p?em uiwan pe 


correptus, nivibus conclusus, obriguit : ubi magnus hominum 

numerus, jumenta complurirna, elephanti pene omnes frigoris 

acerbitate perierunt. 


Igitur Annibal, sciens Flaminium consulem solum in castris 
esse, quo celerius inparatum obrueret, primo vere 2>^ogressus, 
arripuit propiorem, sed jmhistrem viam. Ubi vero proximus 
castris Flaminii consults fuit, vastatione circumjacentium locorum 
Flaminium in bellum excitavit. Haec pugna ad Trasimenum 
lacum facta est : ubi exercitus Eomanus, arte circumventus 
Annibalis, funditus trucidatus est : ipse quoque consul occisus, 
viginti qninque millia Romanorum in eo praelio caesa, sex 
millia capta referuntur. De exercitu vero Annibalis duo millia 

At vero alter tunc Scipio, frater consulis Scipionis, in His- 
pania plurima bella gessit, Magonem quoque, Poenorum ducem, 

Tunc etiam Romani prodigiis territi sunt. Nam et solis orbis 
minui visus est, et apud Ai-pos sol pugnasse cum luna, in 
Sardinia sanguine duo scuta sudasse, Fabscis coelum scindi velut 
magno liiatu visum, apud Antium metentibus cruentas spicas in 
corbem decidisse. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dxl, L. Aeniilius Paullus, et C. 
Terentius Varro consules, contra Annibalem missi, pene omnes 
Romanae spei vires perdiderunt. Nam in ea pugna quadraginta 
quatuor millia Eomanorum interfecta sunt : nullo bello E-omani 
adeo ad extrema internecionis adducti sunt. Periit in eo consul 

190 Alfred's orosius. 

1 organ c. hie ser ne cocSon l , bset wses, tSset be on fsestre stowe let sum his 
folc, 7 mid sumum for angean ba consulas; 7 raSe bses be hie 
tosomne comon, he fleah wi§ bara be bser beseftan wseron, 7 him 

*[Page 115.] ba consulas wseron sefterfylgende, * 7 J?aet folc sleande, 7 wendon 
J>aet hie on tSa?m dsege sceoldon habban bone insestan sige. Ac 5 
racSe bses be Hannibal to his fultume com, he gefliemde ealle ba 
consulas, 7 on Romanuw swa micel wsel geslog swa heora naefre 
nses ne ser ne sibban set anum gefeohte, bset was Feower 
7 feowertig M, 7 bara consula twegen ofslog, 7 bone briddan 
gefeng ; 7 J)a on dseg he mehte cuman to ealra Romana an- 10 
wealde, bser he for}? gefore to Siere byrg. iEfter bsern Hannibal 

3 made into sende ham to Cartaina brio mydd 2 gyldenra hringa his sige to 

M ydd in L.; 

\>TfM midd c. tacne. Be bsein hringum mon mehte witan hwset Romana 
dugu'Se gefeallen wses, for bon be hit wses beaw mid him on 
tSsem dagum bset nan ober ne moste gyldenne hring werian, 15 
buton he sebeles cynues wsere. 

^Efter bsem gefeohte wseron Romane swa switSe forbohte, 
bsette Celius Metellus, be ba heora consul wses, ge ealle heora 
senatus, hsefdon geboht bset hie sceoldon Romeburg forlsetan, ge 
furbmn ealle Italiam. 7 hie bset swa gelsesten. gif him Scipia 20 

3 >e c. ne gestirde, se wses bara cempena ieldest, mid bsem pcet 3 he his 

sweorde gebrsed, 7 swor $a:t him leofre wsere bset he hiene selfne 
acwealde bonne he forlete his fseder oebel ; 7 ssede eac bset he 

* From c. bara selces ehtend wolde bcon, swa (swa) 4 his feondes, be bses 

wordes wsere bset from Romebyrg bohte. 7 he hie ealle mid 25 
bsem geniedde bset hie abas sworan bset hie ealle setgsedere wulden, 
obbe on heora earde licggean, obbe on heora eardc libban. 

J3fter tSsem hie gesetton tictator, bset he sceolde bion hierra ofer 
ba consulas, se wses haten Decius Iunius. He nses buton seofon- 
tienewintre. 7 Scipian hie gesetton to consule. 7 ealle ba men 30 
be hie on tSeowdome hsefdon hie gefreodon, on bset gerad bset 
he him at5as sworan bset hie hint set bsem gewinnum gelsesten. 

1 wanUng in Ond sume, ba be heora (hlafordas) 5 freogean noldon, obbe hie ne 


♦[Page 116.] * anhagade ba?t hie nichtcn, ponxc guidon hie ba consulas mid 

hiera gemsenan feo, 7 sibban freodon. 7 ealle ba be fordemede 35 
waruii BBr bum obbe hie selfe forworht hsefdon, hie hit call 


Aemilius Paullus. Varro consul Venusiam fucjit. Nee dubium 
est, ultimum ilium diem Romani status futurum fuisse, si 
Annibal mox post victoriam ad pervadendam Urbem contendisset. 
Annibal in testimonium victoriae suae tres modios annulorum 
aureorum Cartliaginem misit, quos ex manibus interfectorum 
equitum Romanorum senatorumque detraxerat. 

Usque adeo autem ultima desperatio Reipublicae apud 
Romanos fuit ut senatores de relinquenda Italia consilium 
ineundum putarint. Quod auctore Caecilio Metello conjirmatum 
fuisset, nisi Cornelius Scipio tribunus tunc militum districto 
gladio deterruisset, ac 2>otius pro patriae defensione in sua verba 
jurare coegisset. 

Romani dictatorem Decimum Junium creant : qui, delectu 
habito ah annis decern et septem, inmctturae militiae quatuor 
legiones undecunque contraxit. Tunc etiam servos, vel oblatos, 
vel, si ita ojms fuit, publico pretio emtos sub titulo libertatis, 
Sacramento militiae adegit. Junius quoque dictator homines 
quicunque sceleribus obnoxii essent, inpunitate^;row?S6Y«, militiae 
mancipavit, quorum numerus ad sex millia virorum fuit. 

192 Alfred's orosius. 

forgeafon wi(5 paern pe hie him get paem gewinnuwi fuleoden. 
para mon[n]a waes siex m, pa hie gegaderacl waeron. 

7 ealle Italiam geswicon Romanum, 7 to Hannibale gecirdon, 
for pon pe hie waeron orwene hwaeSer aefre Romane to heora 
anwealde becomen. pa gefor Hannibal on Benefente, 7 hie him 5 
ongean coman, 7 him to gecirdon. 

^Efter paem Romane haefdon gegaderad feower legian heora 

folces, 7 sendon Lucius Postuniius pone consul on pa Gallie pe 

1 Langbear- mon nu Longbeardan ' h3Bt, 7 paer ofslagen wearS, 7 paes folces 

fela mid him. ^Efter paein Romane gesetton Claudius Marcellus 10 
to consule, se wees ser Scipian gefera. He for dearnenga mid 
gewealdene fultume on pone ende Hannibales folces pe he self 
on Avaes, 7 fela paes folces ofslog, 7 hiene selfne gefliemde. pa 
haefde Marcellus Romanum cu<S gedon pact mon Hannibal 
gefiieman mehte, (5eh pe hie aer tweode hwaeSer hiene mon mid 15 
senige monfultume geflieman mehte. 

GemoDg tSgem gewinnum pa twegen Scipian, pe pa wseron 
consulas 7 eac gebrot5or, hie waeron on Ispanium mid firde, 
7 gefuhton wi(5 Hasterbale, Hannibales faedran, 7 hiene ofslogon, 
7 his folces xxx m sume ofslogon sume gefengon. Se wa?s eac 20 
Pena oper cyning. 

jEfter paem Centenus Penula se consul baed paette senatus him 
fultnwi sealdon, paet he mehte Han[n]ibal mid gefcohtc gescean. 
7 pa-r ofslagen wearS, 7 eahta pusend his folces. yEfter paem 
Sempronius Craccus se consul for eft mid fierde angean Han- 25 
nibal, 7 gefliemed weartS, 7 his heres wseB micel wael geslagcn. 

Hu magon nu Romane, cwaetS Orosius, to sope gesecge[a]n 
*[Pageii7.] paet hie pa haefden beteran tida * ponne hie nu haebben, J?a hie 
swa m onega gewin haefdon emdenes underfongen 1 1 waes on 
»no)*>r. Ispania ; oper 2 on Macedonia ; in on Capadotia; nu aet ha?n 30 
wi(5 Hannibal : 7 hie eac oftost gefliemde wurdon 7 gebismrade. 
Ac paet wses switSe sweotol paet hie pa wseron beteran pegnas 
pomie hie nu sien, paet hie peh paes gewinnes geswican noldon ; 
ac hie oft gebidon on lytlum stapolc 7 on unwenlicmn, paet hie 
pa aet nihstan haefdon ealra para anwaldpe aer neh heora haefdon. 35 


Omnis Italia ad Annibalem, desperata Romani status repara- 
tion?,, defecit. 

Post hoc Lucius Postumius praetor adversum Gallos pugnare 
missus, cum exercitu caesus est. Deinde Claudius Marcellus 
ex praetore _proconsule designatus, Annibalis exercitum praelio 
fudit, primusque spem fecit, Annibalem posse superari. 

Scipiones autem in Hispania Asdrubalem, Poenonim im- 
peratorem hello oppresserunt. Nam triginta quinque millia 
militum de exercitu ejus vel caede vel captione minuerunt. 

Centenius Penula, centurio, decerni sibi ultro helium adversum 
Annibalem petiit : a quo cum octo millibus militum caesus est. 
Sempronius Gracchus ^oconsule, in insidias inductus, occisus 

Quis credat eo tempore, quo tria bella fuisse suscepta 1 unum 
in Macedonia, alteram in Hispania, tertium in Sardinia ; extra 
hoc quartum Annibalis, quo in Italia premehantur ; et tamen 
fortis in alterutrum desperatio in meliora profecit, nam in his 
omnibus desperando pugnarunt, pugnando vicerunt. 




(IV, X.) 

^Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes v hunde wint nan 
7 xliii, paette Marcellus Claudius se consul for mid sciphere on 
Sicilie, 7 begeat Siracuses, heora pa welegestan burg, peh be hie 
set paem aerran faerelte begietan ne mebte, pa he hie beseten 
haefde, for Archiinec5es craefte, sumes Sicilia (Segnes. 5 

On paem teopan geare paes pe Hannibal won on Italie, he for 
of Campaina paem londe op prio mila to Romebyrg, 7 aet paere 
ie gewicade pe mon Annianes haett, eallum Rornanmu to tSaem 
maestan ege, swa hit mon on para waepnedmonna gebaerum 011- 
gitan mehte, hu hie afyrhtede waeron 7 agaelwede, pa pa wifmen 10 
urnon mid stanum wiS para wealla, 7 cwaedon poet hie pa burg 
werian wolden, gif pa waepnedmen ne dorsten. paes on mergen 
Hannibal gefor to paere byrig, 7 beforan $aem geate his folc 
getrymede, pe mon haett Collina. Ac pa cousulas noldon hie 
selfe swa earge gepencan swa hie pa wifmen aer forcwaedon, paet 15 
hi hie binnan paere byrg werian ne dorsten, ac hie hie ' butan 
paem geate angean Hannibal trymedon. Ac pa hie togaedere 
woldon, pa com swa ungemetlic ren, paet heora nan ne mehte 
nanes waepnes gewealdan, 7 for paem toforan. pa se ren ablon, 

♦ [Page 118.] hie foran * eft toga?dere, 7 eft wearS oper swelc reu, paet hie eft 20 

toforan. pa angeat Hannibal, 7 him self saede, Sell Se he 
wilniende waere 7 wenende Romana anwealdes, paet hit God ne 

GesecgaS me nu Romane, cwoetS Orosius, hwonne paet gewurde 

* wanting in oppe hwara, aer tSaem cristendome, (paet) 2 oppe ge, oppe otSere 25 

aet aenegu?>i goduwi mehten ren abiddan, swa mon sippan mehte, 
sippan se cristendom waes, 7 nugiet magon monege gode set 
uruwi Habendum Criste, ponne him pearf biS. Hit waes peh 
swipe sweotol paet se ilea Crist se pe hie eft to cristendome 
onwende, paet se him pone ren to gescildnisse onsende, peh hie 3 «*° 
paes wyrpe naeron, to pon paet hie selfe, 7 eac monege opere purh 
(h)ie, to Sann cristendome 7 to [Saem] sopan geleafan become. 

• e erased. 

> e erased. 

On pa?m dagu??? pe pis gewearS, waeron twegen consulas 



Anno ab Urbe condita dxliii, Claudius Marcellus Syracusas, 
opulentissimam urbem Siciliae, secunda oppugnatione vix cepit, 
quani, cum jam pridem obsedisset, Archimedis Syracusani civis, 
admirdbUi ingenio praediti, machinis repulsus, expugnare non 

Decimo anno postquam Annibal in Italiam venerat, de 
Campania niovit exercitum : et ad Anienem fluvium tribus 
miUibus ab Urbe consedit, incredibili totius Civitatis metu, cum 
senatu populoque diversis curis trepido, matronae quoque 
amentes pavore per propugnacula currerent, et convehere in 
muros saxa, primaeque pro muris pugnare gestirent. Ipse 
autem usque ad portarn Collinam accessit, deinde omnes copias in 
aciem direxit. Sed et consules non detrectavere pugnam. At 
ubi expositae utrimque acies constiterunt, tantus se imber e 
nubibus effudit, ut vix armis retentis, in sua se castra colligerent. 
Deinde cum serenitate reddita in aciem redissent, rursum 
violentior fusa tempestas, exercitus refugere in tentoria coegit. 
Tunc Annibal dixisse fertur, potiundae sibi Romae modo volun- 
tatem non dari> modo potestatem. 

Respondeant nunc mihi obtrectatores veri Dei, Annibali utrum 
Romana obstitit fortitudo, an divina miseratio ? At si istam 
divinam tutelam per pluviam de coelo venisse manifestum est, 
ipsam autem pluviam non nisi per Christum ministrari, etiam 
ab hujusmodi satis certo sciri existimo, maxime nunc, quando 
cum pluviam poscere adsidue contingit, nee unquam factum est, 
ut oplali imbres superveniant nisi in die, quo rogari Christum 
et Christianis rogare permittitur : proculdubio constat, urbem 
Romam per hunc eumdem verum Deum, qui est Christus Jesus, 
tunc ad Jutarae fidei credulitatem servatam fuisse. 

At vero in Hispania ambo Scipiones a fratre Asdrubale 




ofslagen on Ispania, pa wseron gebrotfor, 7 waeron begen Scipian 

1 wurdon c. hatene ; hie waeron 1 beswicene from Hasterbale, Pena cyninge. 

On paere tide Cuintus Fuluius se consul geegsade ealle pa 

2 e hie erased, ieldestan men pe on Campaina waeron, pcet bie hie 2 selfe mid 

atre acwealdon. 7 ealle pa ieldestan men pe waeron on Capu 5 
paere byrg he ofslog, for pon pe he wende paet hie wolden Han- 
nibale on fultume beon, peh pa senatus him haefden pa daed 
faeste forboden. 

pa Rornane geacsedan pcet pa consulas on Ispanium ofslagen 

3 wurdon c. waeron 3 , pa ne mehton pa senatus naenne consul under him 10 

findan pe dorste on Ispanie mid firde gefaran, buton para con- 
sula oJ?res sunu, Scipia waes haten, se wees cniht. Se waes 
georne biddende pcet him mon fultu»i sealde, pat he moste on 
Ispanie firde gelaedan, 7 he pcet fserelt swipost for J?aem purteah, 
pe he pohte pcet he his faeder 7 his faederan gewraece, peh pe he 15 
*[Pageii9.] hit faeste * witS pa senatus haele. Ac Romane waeron paes faereltes 
« e erased, swa geornfulle, peh pe hie * swicSe gebrocode waeren on biora 
licgendan feo pe hie 4 gernaene haefdon, for psem gewinnum pe 
hie 4 pa haefdon on feower healfa, paet hie 4 eall him gesealdon 
J?set hie pa haefdon on paem faerelte to fultume, buton pcet aelc 20 
wifmon heefde ane yndsan goldes, 7 an pund seolfres, 7 aelc waep- 
nedmon aenne hring, 7 ane hoppan. 

5 From 0. i 
Leuius /.. 

• From'C. 

pa Scipia haefde gefaren to Saere niwan byrig Cartaina, pe 
mon nu Cordofa haett, he besaett Magonem, Hannibales brotSor ; 
7 for pon pe he on pa burgleode on ungearwe becom, he hie 25 
on lytlan fir<te mid hungre on his geweald genic[d]de, pcet him 
se cyning self on hand eode ; 7 he ealle pa otSre sume ofslog, 
sume geband, 7 J?one cyning gebundenue to Rome sende, 7 
monege mid him para ieldestena witena. Binnan Saere byrig 
wtee micel li[c]ggende feoh funden. Sum hit Scipia to Rome 30 
sende, sum he hit bet Saem folce daelan. 

On (5aere tide for Lcuinus 5 se consul of Macedonia on Sicilic 
mid sciphere, 7 paer geeode Agrigentum pa burg, 7 gefeng 
Hannonam heora latteow. (7) 8 si))pan him eodon on hand 


interfecti sunt. In Campania Capua capta est a Q. Fulvio 
jproconsule : principes Campanorum veneno mortem sibi con- 
sciverunt. Senatum omnem Capuae, etiam prohibente senatu 
Romano, Fidvius suppliciis necavit. 

Interfectis in Hispania Scipionibus, cum, omnibus cunctantibus, 
Scipio se, admodum adolescens, ultro obtulisset, et pudenda 
penuria esset aerarii, aurum argentumque signatum palam 
omnes senator es in publicum contulerunt, ita ut nihil praeter 
annulos singulos, bullasque sibi ac filiis, et deinde per Jilias 
uxoresque suas singulas tantum auri uncias, et argenti non 
amplius quam singulas libras relinquerent. 


Scipio primo impetu Cartbaginem novam cepit, ubi stipendia 
maxima, copiae auri argentique magnae Poenorum habebantur. 
Ibi etiam Magonem, fratrem Annibalis, captum cum caeteris 
Romam misit. 

Laevinus consul ex Macedonia rediens, Agrigentum, urbena 
Siciliae, expugnavit : ibique Annonem, Afrorum ducem, cepit, 
quadraginta civitates in deditionem accepit, viginti et sex 

198 Alfred's okosils. 

feowertig burga, 7 xxvi he geeode mid gefeohte. On tSan-e 
tide Hannibal ofslog Gneus Fuluius pone consul on Italium, 
7 eahta M mid him. iEfter pseni Hannibal feaht wi(5 Marcellus 
pone consul prie dagas. py forman dsege pa folc feollon on 
segtSere healfe gelice. py sefterran dsege Hannibal hsefde sige. 5 
Py priddan daege hsefde se consul. /Efter paein Fauius Maximus 
se consul for mid sciphere to Tarentan psere byrg, swa Han- 
nibal nyste, 7 pa burg on niht abrsec, swa pa nyston pe pseriune 
waeron, 7 Hannibales latteow ofslog Cartalon, 7 xxx M mid 
him. 10 

•[Page 120.] pass on paem sefterran geare * Hannibal bestsel on Marcellus 
Claudius pone consul, Sser he on firde ssett, 7 hiene ofslog, 7 his 
folc mid him. On psem dagum Scipia geflemde Hasterbal on 
Ispanium, Hannibales operne brotSor. 7 ]pses folces him eode 
on hand eahtatig burga. Swa lacS wses Pena folc Scipian pa 15 
he hie gefliemed hsefde, swa, peh pe he hie sume witS feo 
gesealde, Saet he pset weortS nolde agan J?aet him mon wi5 
sealde, ac he hit oprum monnum sealde. On Ssem ilcan geare 
beswac eft Hannibal twegen consulas, Marcellus 7 Cirspinus, 7 
hie ofslog. 20 

pa Claudius Nerone 7 Marcolia Salinatore wseron consulas, 
Hasterbal, Hannibales brotSor, for mid firde of Ispanium on 
Italie Hannibale to fultume. pa geacsedon pa consulas pset aer, 

• swa he swa ger Hannibal, 7 him ongean comon, swa he 1 pa muntas ofer- 

faren hsefde, 7 pser hsefdon longsum gefeoht, aer para folca aper 25 
fluge. pset wses swipost on tSaem gelong paet Hasterbal swa 
late fleah for pon pe he elpendas mid him hsefde. 7 Romane 

« wear5 c. hsefdon sige. pser waes 2 Hasterbal ofslagen, 7 liii m his heres, 
7 v 11 gefangen. pa heton pa consulas Hasterbale pcet hcafod 
of aceorfan, 7 aweorpan hit beforan Hannibales wicstowe. pa 30 
Hannibale cu?S waes \>cet his broftor ofslagen waes 7 pses folces 
swa fela mid him, pa wearc> him aerest ege from Romanum, 
7 gefor on Bruti paet lond. pa haefde Hannibal 7 Roniane 
an gear stilnesse him betweonum, for Son pe pa folc butu on 
feferadle mid ungemete swulton. On Saere stilnesse Scipia 35 
geeode ealle Ispanie, 7 sippan com to Rome, 7 Romanum to 


expugnavit. Aimibal in Italia Cn. Fulvium y>roconsulem, 
decern et septem millia militum interfecit. Marcellus consul 
cum Annibale ti'iduum continuum dimicavit. Primo die pari 
pugna discessum est, sequenti victus consul, tertio victor octo 
millia hostium interfecit. Fabius Maximus consul Tarentum 
iterum expugnavit et cepit : ibiqae ingentes cojnas Annibalis 
cum ipso duce ejus Cartbalone delevit, trigiuta millia hominum 
captivorum vendidit. 

Sequenti anno Claudius Marcellus consul ab Annibale cum 
exercitu occisus est. Scipio in Hispania Aedrubalem vicit. 
Praeterea octoginta civitates in potestatem redegit. Afris sub 
corona venditis, sine pretio dimisit Hispanos. Annibal utrum- 
que consulem, Marcellum et Crispin urn, insidiis circumventos, 

Claudio Nerone et M. Livio Salinatore consulibus, cum 
Asdrubal, Annibalis frater, ab Hispaniis ad Italiam veniret, 
jussusque a Carthaginiensibus, ut fratri cum copiis jungeretur, 
cum descendisse jam ex Alpibus consulibus proditus fuisset, ab 
exercitu Romano, ignorante Annibale, praeventus, cum omni 
exercitu suo interfectus est. Din quidem incertus belli eventus 
fuit, elephantis maxime Romanam infestantibus aciem. Quin- 
quaginta et octo millia de exercitu Asdrubalis ibi occisa sunt, 
capta sunt quinque millia quadringenti. Annibali caput Asdru- 
balis ante castra projectum est. Quo viso et simul clade Poe- 
norvm cognita, refugit in Bruttios. Post haec anno continuo 
inter Annibalem et Eomanos quies a tumultu bellorum inter- 
cessisse visa est, quia inquietudo morborum in castris erat, et 
gravissima pestilentia uterque exercitus angebatur. Interea 
Scipio, universa Hispania in provinciam redacta, Roinam venit, 
consul creatus in Africam transiit, Annonem, ducem Poenorum, 

200 Alfred's orosius. 

raede gelaerde pcet hie mid scipum foren on Hannibales land, 
pa sendon Romane hiene paet he pees faereltes consul waere, 
7 rat5e paes pe he on Pene com, him com ongen Hanno se 
•[Page 121.] cyni[n]g *unwaerlice, 7 peer ofslagen weartS. On paere tide Han- 
nibal gefeaht witS Sempronius J?one consul on Italiam, 7 hiene 5 
bedraf into Roinebyrig. 

iEfter paem Pene foran ongean Scipian mid eallum hiera 
fultume, 7 wicstowa namon on twam stowum, neah Jjsere byrg 
pe mon TJtica hset. On o]?erre waeron Pene, on operre NumetSe, 
pe him on fultume waeron, 7 gepoht haefdon pcet hie ?Saer 10 
sceoldon wintersetl habban. Ac sippan Scipia geascade pcet 
pa foreweardas waeron feor Ssem faestenne gesette, 7 eac pcet 
paer nane otSre near naeran, he pa diegellice gelaedde his fird 
betuh paem weardum, 7 feawe men to oprum para faestenna 
onsende, to pon paet hie his aenne ende onbaerndon, paet sippan 15 
maest ealle pepaerbinnan waeron waeron witS paes fyres weard, to pon 
paet hie hit acwencean pohton. He pa Scipia gemong paeni hie 
maest ealle ofslog. pa paet pa opre onfundon pe on Saem oprum 
faestenne waeron, hie waeron flocmaelum piderweard paem opruw 
to fultume, 7 hie Scipia waes ealle pa, niht sleande, swa hie ponne 20 
comon, otS daeg, 7 sippan he hie slog ofer ealne pone daeg fleonde. 
7 hiera twegen cyniugas, Hasterbal 7 Sifax, opflugon to Cartaina 
paere byrg, 7 gegaderodon pone fultum pe hie pa haefdon, 7 
ongean Scipian comon, 7 eft wurdon gefliemde into Cartaina. 
Some opflugon to Cretan paem iglande. 7 him Scipia seude 25 
sciphere aefter, pa^t mon sume ofslog, sume gefeng. 7 Sifax wearS 
gefangen, hiera oper cyning, 7 sippan waes to Rome on racentan 

On paem gefeohtuw waeron Pene swa forhiende paet hie na 
sippan hie wip Romane to nohte ne bemsetau ; 7 sendon on 30 
Italic aefter Hannibale, 7 baedon paet he him to fultume come. 7 
> From c. he him wepende (paere bene) ' getygtfade, for pon pe (he) 2 sceolde 
Italiam forlaetan, on ]?aem preoteo'Son geare pass pe he aer on com. 
7 he ealle ofslog pe of paem landum his men waeron, 7 mid him 

hannibal's return. 201 

interfecit. Serupronius consul cum Annibale eongressus et 
victus, Eomam refugit. 

Scipio in Africa adgressus hiberna Poenorum, atque alia 
Nuniidarum, quae utraque baud procul ab Utica erant, node 
concubia fecit incendi. Poeni inermes ad extinguendum ignem 
eoncurrerunt : quare facile ab armatis ojywessi sunt. Duces ipsi 
aegre effugerunt. Asdrubal iuiperator Carthaginem profugus 
venit. Itaque Sypbax et Asdrubal mox plurimum reparavere 
exercitura, atque iterum cum Scipione congressi sunt, victique 
fugerunt. Sypbacem fugientem Laelius et Massanissa ceperunt, 
caetera multitude- Cirtam confugit, quam Massanissa oppug- 
natam in dediticmem reeepit, Syphacem ad Scipionem catenis 
vinctum deduxit, quern Scijno Romam perducendum Laelio 


Annibal redire in Africam jussus, ut fessis Cartbaginiensibus 
subveniret, flens reliquit Italiam, omnibus Italici generis militibus 
qui sequi nollent, interfectis, cui ad Africanum litus pro- 
pinquanti, jussus quidem e nauticis adscendere in arborem 
navis, atque inde speculari, quam regionem teneret, sepulcbrum 
dirutum se prospexisse respondit. Abominatus dictum Annibal, 

202 Alfred's obosius. 

•[Page 122.] ofer sae nolden. pa he hamweard * seglde, pa het he aenne mon 
stigan on jx>ne maest, 7 locian hwaeper he paet land gecneowe paet 
hie toweard waeron. pa saede he him pcet he gesawe ane 
tobrocene b) r rgenne, swelce hiera peaw wees paet mon ricu?«. 
monnum bufan eorSan of stanum worhte. pa waes Hannibale 5 

1 From C; gefter hiera haeSeniscum gewunan 1 pcet andwyvde swipe latS, 7 

gewunnan L. 

him unpanc saede paes aniwyrdes. 7 ealne pone here he het mid 
paem scipmn. ponan wendan pe he aer to gepoht hsefde, 7 up 
comon aet Leptan paern tune, 7 hraedlice for to Cartaina, 7 
biddende waes paet he moste wiS Scipian sprecan, 7 wilniende 10 

2 hy C waes pcet he fricS betwux paem folcum findan sceolde. Ac he 2 

hiera suudorsprsece, be hie betux paem foleu»i togaedereweard 
gespraecau, to unsibbe brohton, 7 hie to gefeohte geredon. 7 
rape paes pe hie togaedere comon, Hannibales folc wearS 
gefliemed, 7 xx m ofslagen 7 D, 7 lxxx elpenda, 7 Hannibal IS 
opfleah feowera sum to Aprametum paem faestenne. pa sendon 
pa burgleode of Cartaina efter Hannibale, 7 cwaedon pvet him 
soelest waere pait hie fripes to Romanum wilnaden. pa pa (utius 
Cornelius 7 Lentulus Publius waeron consulas, wearS Cat tainum 
fritS aliefetl from Scipian mid para scnata willan, on pcet gerad 20 
paet pa igland Sicilia 7 Sarpinia bierden to Romanum, 7 paet hie 
him selce geare gesealden swa tela talentena seolfres swa hie him 
ponne aliefden. 7 Scipia het d hira scipa upateon 7 forbaernan ; 
7 sippan to Rome hamweard for. pa him mon pone triumphal! 
ongean brohte, pa eode paer mid Terrentius, se niajra Cartaina 25 
scop, 7 bser haet on his heafde, for pon Romane haefdon pa, 
uiwlice gesett pcet pa pa haet beran moston, ponne hie hwelc 
folc oferwunnen haefdon, pcet pa moston segper habban ge feorh 
ge freodom. 

(IV, XL) 

iEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes d wintrura 7 L, waes 30 
geendad Punica pcet aefterre gewin 7 Romana, pcet hie dreogende 
waeron xin winter. Ac Romane [ra$e] paes oper angunnon witS 
Maecedonie. pa hluton pa consulas hwelc hiera a- rest paet 
gewiuu underfengc. pa gehleat hit Quintius Flaminius, 7 on 


detiexo cursu ad Leptim oppkluin copias exposuit. Qui con- 
tinuo Carthagineni venit, deinde colloquium Scipiouis petiit. 
Ubi, infecto ])acis negotio, praelium consertum est : quod 
Romania victoriam contidit. Octoginta ibi elephanti vel capti 
vel occisi sunt, Carthaginiensium interfecta sunt viginti millia 
quingenti, Amribal cum quatuor equitibus Adrumetum confugit. 
Postea Carthaginem venit : considtantique senatui, nullam esse 
residuam spem, nisi in petenda pace, 2 )ersuas ^- Cn. Cornelio 
Lentulo, P. Aelio Paeto consulibus, Carthaginiensibus pax per 
Scipionem voluntate senatus concessa est. Naves tamen quin- 
gentae in altum productae incensae sunt. Scipio triumphans 
Urbem ingressus est, quern Terentius, qui postea comicus, ex 
nobilibus Carthaginiensium captivis pileatus, quod indultae sibi 
libertatis insigne fuit, secutus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dxlvi, bellum Punicum secundum 
finitum est, quod gestum est annis septemdecim : cut Mace- 
donicum continuo successit, quod Quinctius Flamininus Cos. 
sortitus, post multa praelia, quibus Macedones victi sunt, 
pacem Philippo dedit. Deinde cum Lacedaemoniis pugnavit, 

204 Alfred's orosius. 

paern gewinne monega gefeobt burhteah, 7 oftost sige haefde, otS 
Philippus liira cyning fritSes bsed, 7 hit him Rornane aliefdon. 7 
sippan he for on Laecedemonie, 7 Quintius Flaminius geniedde 
begen pa cyningas paet hie sealdon hiera suna to gislum. 
Philippus, Macedonia cyning, sealde Demetrias his sunu, 7 5 
NauiSa sealde, Laecedemonia cyning, Armenan his sunu. 7 ealle 
pa Rornaniscan men pe Hannibal on Crece geseald haefde, him 
behead se consul pcet hie eal hiera heafod bescearen, to tacne 

1 adyde c. paet he hie of 'Seowdome dyde 1 . 

2 tide written On ba?re tide 2 Subres 7 Euoi 7 CeFnolmanni ba folc hie 10 

tuHce.the first ' . 

erased. togaedere gesomnedon for Amilcores lare, Hannibales brocSor, 

pone he aer on Italiam him beaeftan forlet, 7 sippan for on 
Placenti§ 7 on Cremone pa land, 7 hie mid ealle aweston. pa 
sendon Romane (5ider Claudius Fuluius pone consul, 7 he hiene 
unea(5e oferwan. vEfter piem Flamineus se consul gefeaht witS 15 
Philippus, Msecedonia cyning, 7 wi(5 Thraci, 7 wit5 Ilirice, 7 wit5 
monega opera peoda on anum gefeohte, 7 hie ealle gefliemde. 
paerwaesMaec(e)doni§eahta 11 ofislagen, 7 vi M gefangen. JEfter 
baem Sempronius se consul wearS ofslagen on Ispania mid ealre 

3 From c. his firde. On bajre tide Marcellus se consul (weartS gefliemed') 3 20 

(geflymed). * . 

on Etruria baem lande. pa com Furius, ober consul, him to 
fultumc, 7 sige haefde, 7 hie sippan baet land eall aweston. 

pa ba Lucius Ualerius 7 Flaccus Marcus waeron consulas, ba 
ongon Antiochus, Sira cyning, winnan witS Romanum, 7 of 
♦Asia c. Assia 4 on Europe mid firde gefor. On baere tide bebudan 25 
*[Page 124.] Romane * beet mon Hannibal Cartaina cyning (gefenge) 6 , 7 
a blank ujt hiene sibpan to Rome brohte. pa he baet hierde, ba fleah he 
to Antiochuse. Sir(i)a 6 cyninge, paer he on tweogendlican 
onbide waes hwaetSer he wi$ Romanu//* winnan dorste, swa he 
ongunnen haefde. Ac hiene Hannibal aspon paet he paet gewin 30 
leng ne ongan. pa sendon Romane Scipian Affricanus hiera 
serendracan to Antiochuse. pa het he Hannibal paet he wio* pa 
aerendracan spraece, 7 him geandwyrde. pa hie nanre sibbe ne 
gewearS, pa com aefter paem Scipia se consul mid Clafrione, 
oprum consule, 7 Antiochuses folces ofslog XL M. 35 

paes on Seem aefterran gere gefeaht Scipia wiS Hannibal ute 

in L. 

6 From C. 


obsides Demetrium, Philippi filium, et Armenem, Nabidis filium, 
ante cur rum duxit. Roinani captivi, qui sub Annibale per 
Graeciam venditi fuerant, capitibus rasis ob detersam servitutem 
currum triumphantis secuti sunt. 

Eodem tempore Insubres, Boii atque Caenomani, contractis in 
unum viribus, Amilcai'e Poeno duce, qui in Itaia remanserat, 
Cremonam Placentiamque vastantes, difficillirao hello a L. Furio 
praetore superati sunt. PosteaFlamininusproconsule Philippum 
regem, et cum eo Thracas, Illyrios, multasque praeterea gentes 
bello subegit. Octo millia hostium eo die caesa, quinque millia 
capta Polybius scribit. Sempronius Tuditanus in Hispania cum 
omni exercitu Romano interfectus est : Consul Marcellus in 
Etruria a Boiis ojipressus, cui postea Furius alter consul auxilio 
accessit : atque ita universam Boiorum gentem vastantes prope- 
modum usque ad nihilum deleverunt. 

L. Valerio Flacco, M. Porcio C'atone consulibus, Antiochus, 
rex Syriae, bellum contra populum Romanum struens, in Euro- 
pam transiit ex Asia. Tunc etiam Annibal exbiberi Romam a 
senatu jussus, ad Antiochum migravit : quem cum invenisset 
cunctantem, mox in bellum inpulit. Scipio Africanus, inter 
caeteros legatos ad Antiochum missus, etiam cum Annibale 
colloquium habuit. Sed infecto pacis negotio, ab Antiocho 
discessit, Antiochus a consule Glabrione superatus, . . Is habuisse 
fertur armatorum sexaginta millia, ex quibus quadraginta millia 
caesa fuisse referuntur. 

Sequenti anno Scipio Africanus adversus Annibalem bellum 

.^206 Alfred's orosius. 

on sae, 7 sige haefde. pa Antiochus paet gehierde. pa baed he 
Scipian fripes, 7 him his sunu ham onsende, se waes on his 

• From c. gewealde, swa he nyste hu he him to com, butan, swa sume (me)n ' 

ssedon, paet he sceolde beon gefangen on hergiunge oppe set 
wearde. 5 

On paere firran Ispanie forwearS Emilius se consul mid 

eallura his folce from Lusitaniam paere peode. On paem dagum 

forwearS Lucius Beuius se consul mid eallum his folce from 

' C Etusci 2 paem leodurn, past Saer nan to lafe ne wearcS paet hit to 

Rome gebodode. 10 

iEfter (5aem Fuluius se consul for mid firde on Crece to paem 
beorgum pe mon Olimphus haet. pa waes paes folces fela on an 
faesten opflogen. pa on tSaem gefeohte pe hie paet faesten brecan 
woldon, waes Romana fela mid flanum ofscotod, 7 mid stanum 
oftorfod. pa se consul ongeat pcet hie ftaet faesten abrecan ne 15 
mehton, pa behead he sumum paem folce paet hie from paem 
faestenne aforen, 7 pa op re he het pcet hie witS para operra flugen, 
poime pcet gefeoht maest waere, paet hie miS paem aloccoden ut pa 
i;mc. (pe) 3 paerbinnan waerou. On paem fleam(e) pe pa burgware eft 

wi(5 paes feestennes flugon, hiera weartS ofslagen XL M, 7 pa pe paer 20 
to lafe wurdon him on hand eodon. On psem dagum for Marcus 
•[Page 125.] se consul * on Ligor paet land, 7 gefliemed wearS, 7 his folces 
ofslagen fe[o]wer m. 

pa pa Marcus Claudius 7 Marcellus Quintus wa^ron consular, 
Pliilippus Maecedonia eyning ofslog Romana eerendracan, 7 sende 25 
Demetrias his sunu to paem senatum paet he paet irre gesette wiS 
hie. 7 peh pe he swa gedyde, pa he ham com, Philippus het his 
operne sunu pcet he hiene mid atre acwealde, for pon pe he teah 
hiene paet he his ungerisno spraece wicS pa senatos. On tSaere 
ilcan tide Hannibal his agnum willum bine selfne mid atre 30 
acwealde. On paere tide otSewde Fulcania paet iglond on Sieilium, 

• Quintus c. paet uses gesewen aer pa. On paere tide Quintius 4 Fuluius se 

consul gefeaht wi?S pa firran Ispanie, 7 sige haefde. 

pa pa Lapidus Mutius waes consul, wolde seo strengeste peod 
5 nungerie C. winnan on Romane, pe mon pa het Basterne, 7 nu hie mon ha>t 35 
cumon*". Hungerre\ Hie woldon 6 Ferseuse to fultume Macedonia 


navale gessit, Antiochus, victo Annibale, pacem rogavit : filium- 
que Africani, quern utrum explorantem, an in praelio cepisset, 
incertum est, ultro remisit. 

In Hispania ulteriore L. Aemilius ^oconsule a Lusitanis 
cum universo exercitu caesus interiit. L. Baebius a Liguribus 
circumventus, cum universo exercitu occisus est : unde ne 
nuncium quidem superfuisse constat. 

Fulvius Consul in <9a?7ograeciam transvectus, ad Olympum 
montem pervenit, ad quern universi Gallograeci confugerant, 
ibique acerbissimum bellum gessit, namque sagittis, saxis, 
Romani cuutriti, tandem usque ad conyressum hostiv.ni p> eT ' 
ruperunt, quadraginta millia Gallograecorum eo praelio inter- 
fecta referuntur. Marcius consul adversus Ligures profectus, 
superatusque, quatuor millia militum amisit. 

M. Claudio Marcello, Q. Fabio Labeone consulibu*, Philippus 
rex, qui legatos populi Romani interfecerat, propter Demetiii 
filii sui, quern legatum miserat, preces veniam meruit : eumdem- 
que continuo velut sui proditorem, fratre quoque ipsius ad 
parricidium patris ministro, veneno necavit. Iisdem etiam 
diebus Annibal veneno sese necavit. In Sicilia tunc Vulcani 
insula, quae ante non fuerat, repente mari edita cum miraculo 
omnium, usque ad nunc manet. Q. Fulvius Flaccus praetor in 
citeriore Hispania maximo praelio viginti tria millia hominum 

Lepido et ATucio consulibus, Basternarum gens ferociss-ima, 
auctore Perseo, sine ulla pugna deleta est. Nam tunc Danubius 
crassa glacie stiperstratus, pedestrem facile transitum patiebatur. 

208 Alfred's orosius. 

» From c. cyninge. pa waes Donua seo ea (swa) ' swipe oferfroren, pget hie 
getruwedon paet hie ofer paern ise faran mehten ; ac hie (niaest 

2 From c. ealle) 2 peer forwurclon. 

pa pa Plicinius Crassus 7 Gaius Casius waeron oonsulas, pa 
geweartS pce< Maecedonisce gewin, pcet mon eac5e maeg to paem 5 
maestum gewinnum getellan ; for paem pe on paem dagum waeron 
calle Italie Romanum on fultume, 7 eac Ptholomeus Egypta 
cyning, 7 Argeatas Capadocia cyning, 7 Eumenis Asia cyning, 
7 Masinissa NumeSia cyning, 7 Perseuse Maecedonia cyning him 
waeron on fultume ealle Thraci 7 Ilirice. 7 ratSe paes pe hie 10 
tosomne comon Romane wurdon gefliemde, 7 ratSe paes set oprum 
gefeohte hie wurdon eac gefliemede, 7 aefter paem gefeohtum 
Perseus waes ealne pone gear Romane swipe swencende. 7 
sippan he for on Ilirice, 7 abraec Sulcanum hira burg, seo waes 

*[Page 126.] Romanu?H underpeow, 7 micel paes moncynnes * sum acwealde, 15 
sum on Maecedonie laedde. Mher paem gefeaht Lucius Emilius 
se consul wiS Pe?-seus, 7 hiene oferwon, 7 his folces ofslog XX m. 
7 he self aet paem cirre opfieah, 7 rape aefter paem gefangen 
weartS, 7 to Rome broht, 7 paer ofslagen. 7 monega gefeoht 
gewurdon on paem dagum on monegum landum, paet hit nu is to 20 
longsum eall to gesecgenne. 

(IV, XII.) 

^Efter paem pe Romehurg gctimhred waes DC wintrum, pa pa 
Lucius Lucinius 7 Lucullus Aula wasron consulas, wearp 
Romanum se msesta ege from Sceltiuerin, Ispania folcc, 7 
naenne mon naefdon pe pider mid firde dorste gefaran, butan 25 
Scipian paem consule, se waes aefter paem faerelte Affricanus haten, 
for pon pe he pa opre siSe pider for pa nan oper ne do[r]ste, 
peh pe Romane haefde geworden hwene aer paet he on Asiam 
3 0m c, faran sceolde. Ac he monega gefeoht on Ispanium 7 3 on misle- 
« misseniicum cum * sigu?n purhteah. On paem dagum Serius Galua, Scipian 30 
gefeoht c g efera > feaht 6 wi$ Lusitaniam, Ispania folce, 7 gefliemed wearS. 
On paem dagum bebudon Romana godas paem senatum pcet 
mon theatrum worbte him to plegan. Ac hit Scipia oftraedlice 
linm onbead paet hie hit ne angunnen, 7 eac self saede, pa he ham 



Itaque cum inaestimabilis multitudo transiret, glacials crusta 
dissiluit, universumque agmen mediis gurgitibiis destituit. Pauei 
ex omni p>opulo evaserunt. 

P. Licinio Crasso et C. Cassio Longino consulibus Macedoni- 
cum bellum gestum est, merito inter maxima bella referendum. 
Nam in auxilio Eomanorum tota primum Italia, deinde Ptole- 
maeus rex Aegvpti, et Ariarathes Cappadociae, Eumenes Asiae, 
et Massanissa Numidiae fuerunt. Perseum et Macedonas secuti 
sunt Thraces, et universi Illyrii. Itaque odvenienti Crasso 
considi Perseus occurrit : commissoque pvaelio, victi fugere 
Romani. Sequenti pugna pene pari clade partis utriusqve in 
hiberna discessum est. Deinde Perseus profligate* midtis praeliis 
exercitu Piomano in Illyricum transgressus, Sulcanum oppidum 
defensnm a 2)raesidiis Pomanis pugnando cepit : xibi magnam 
Romanorum praesidiorum multitudinem partim occidit, partim 
secum in Macedoniam duxit. Postea cum eo L. Aemilius Paullus 
consul dimicavit, et vicit. Nam viginti millia peditum in eo bello 
interfecit. Rex subterfugit, sed continuo eaptus, atque mi triumpho 
ante currum actus est : et post apud Albam in custodia defecit. 
Plurima praeterea bella multarum ubique gentium gesta sunt, 
quae brevilatis causa praetermisi. 


Anno ab Urbe condita DC, L. Licinio Lucullo et A. Postumio 
Albino consulibus, cum Romanos ingens Celtiberorum metus 
invasisset, et ex omnibus non esset, qui ire in Hispaniam vel 
miles vel legatus auderet, P. Scipio, qui postea Africanus est 
dictus, ultro sese militaturum in Hispaniam obtulit, cum tamen 
in Macedoniam forte jam deputatus esset. Itaque profectus in 
Hispaniam magnas strages gentium dedit. Ser. autem Galba 
praetor, a Lusitanis magno praelio victus est. 

Eodem tempore cmsores tbeatrum in Urbe construi censuerunt : 
quod ne tunc Jieret, Scipio Nasica gravissima oratione obstitit, 
dicens, inimicissimum Jioc fore bellatori populo ad nutriendarti 





of Ispanium com, j?aet hit waere se nisesta unrsed 7 se maesta 
gedwola. Hie ba Roniane for his cidinge 7 burh his lare ofer- 
hierdon baem godum, 7 eall baet feoh poet hie J>aerto gesomnad 
haefdon, be hie w\p baam sylum 7 wi$ psem weorce sellan woldon, 
hie hit wiS obrum )?inguni sealdon. Nu mseg ba cristenan 5 
gescomian be swelc deofolgild lufiaS 7 bigongatS, ba se se be 

1 From c. cristen naes hit (swa swifte) 1 forseah, se be hit fyrbran sceolde 
sefter hiera agnum gewunan. 

Miter baem Serins Galua for eft on Lusitanie, 7 friS genam 
witS hie, 7 hi under bsem frij?e beswac. Seo deed wearS forneah 10 

♦[Page 127.] Romanum to tSaem msestan hearme, * baet him nan folc ne 
getruwade be him underbeow waes. 

(IV, XIII.) 

lifter bsem pe Romeburg getimbred wses DC wintrum 7 11, ba 
ba Censorinus Marcus 7 Mallius Lucius wseron consulas, pa 
gewearS pxt ]?ridde gewinn Romana 7 Cartaina, 7 gewearcS J^a 15 
senatos him betweonum, gif hie mon briddan sibe oferwunne, 
3 From c. bast mon ealle (Cartaina) 2 towurpe. 7 eft sendon Scipian J>ider, 
7 he hie set heora forman gefeohte gefliemde, 7 bedraf into 
Cartaina. iEfter pxm hie bsedon fritSes Romane. Ac hit 
Scipia nolde him aliefan witS nanum obrum binge butan hie him 20 
ealle hiera waepeno ageafen, 7 J>a burg forleten, 7 pset nan ne 
saete hi ere x milum neah. JEfrer baeni be tSaet gedou waes, hie 
cwaedon J?aet him leofre waere beat hie mid baere byrig aetgaedere 
* From c. forwurdon ponne hie mon butan him towurpe, 7 him (eft) 3 

waepeno worhton, pa be isen hasfdon, 7 ba be naefdon, hie 25 
worhton sume of seolfre, sume of treowum, 7 gesetton him to 
cyningum twegen Hasterbalas. 

Nu ic wille, cwaeS Orosius, secgean hulucu heo waes. Hiere 
ymbegong waes xxx mila ; 7 call hco waes mid sse utan befaugen, 
butan brim milum ; 7 se wcall waes xx fota Sicce, 7 XL elna 30 
heah ; 7 baer waes binnan ober laesse faesten on Saem saes clife, 
baet waes twegea mila heah. Hie ba Cartainenses aet baem cirre 
pa, burg aweredon, beh be Scipia ser fela pass wealles tobrocen 
haefde, 7 sibf>an hamweard for. 


desidiam, lasciviaeque commentum : adeoque movit senatum, ut 
non solum vendi omnia theatro comparator jusserit, sed etiam 
subsellia ludis poni proliibuerit. 

Igitur in Hispania Ser. Galba Lusitanos cum in deditionem 
recejrisset, per scelus interfecit : quae res postea universae His- 
paniae propter Romanorum perfidiam causa maximi tumultus 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcii, L. Censorino, et M. Manilio 
consulibus, tertium Punicum bellum exortum est. Igitur cum 
senatus delendam Carthaginem censuisset, pro/ecti in Africam 
consules et Scipio prope Uticam castra tenuerunt. Ibi Cartha- 
giniensibus evocatis, jussisque ut arma traderent, tanta vis 
armorum tradita est, ut facile totaexhis Africa potuisset armari. 
Sed Carthaginienses postquam arma tradiderunt, et relicta urbe 
recedere procul a mart decern niillibus passuum jussi sunt, 
dolorem ad desperationem contulerunt, aut defensuri civitatem, 
aut cum ipsa per ipsam sepeliendi : ducesque sibi duos Asdru- 
bales creaverunt. Anna primum facere adgressi, ferri inopiam 
auri oxgQvAique metallis suppleverunt. 

Consules oppugnare Carthaginem statuunt, cujus situs fuisse 
bujusmodi dicitur : Viginti millia passuum muro amplexa, tota 
p>ene mari cingebatur, absque faucibus, quae tribus millibus 
passuum aperiebantur. Is locus murum triginta pedes latum 
habuit, in altitudinein cubitorum quadraginta. Arx paxdo 
amplius quam duo millia passuum tenebal. Ex una parte 
murus communis erat urbis et Byrsae inminens mari. Consides 




i Luciiius c. pa }?a Gneo Cornelius 7 Lentulus Lucinius ! wseron consulas, 
Sa for Scipia priddan sipe on Affrice, to pon pset he }?ohte 
Cartainan toweorpan. 7 }?a he psei-to com, he wees vi dagas on 
pa hurg feohtende, 0]? pa burgware baedon paet hie rnosten beon 
hiera underpeowas, pa hi hie bewerian ne mehton. pa het 5 
Scipia ealle pa, wifmen aerest utgan, }?ara wees xxvi m, 7 pa pa 
*[Page 128.] weepnedmen, J?ara waes xxx m. 7 se cyning * Hasterbal hiene 
2 an erasure selfne acwealde 2 , 7 his wif mid liiere twaern sunu??i hie selfe 

of half a line. ' 

forbaernde for }?33s cyninges deat5e. 7 Scipia het ealle pa burg 
toweorpan, 7 gelcne hiewestan tobeatan, poet hie to nanuni wealle 10 
si}?}?an ne mehton. 7 seo burg inneweard barn xvi dagas, ymb 
dcc wintra }?aes pe heo aer getimbred wse&, 

pa wees paet }?ridde gewin geendad Punica 7 Romana on 
}?aem feorpan geare pees pe hit ser ongunnen waes ; peh pe 
ftomane haefden ser longsum gemot ymb }?aet, hwae}?er him 15 
raedlecre waere, pe hie }?a burg mid ealle fordyden, pcet hie 
a si}?pan on }?a healfe fricS haefden, pe hi hie stondan forleten, to 
J?on pcet him gewin eft punan onwoce, for }?on pe hie ondredon, 
gif hie hwilum ne wunnen, pcet hie to rape aslawoden 7 
aeargoden. 20 

Swa pcet eow Romanuw 1111 eft cup wear}?, sip}?an se cristendom 
waes, cwaetS Orosius, pcet ge eowerra ieldrena hwetstan forluran 
eowerra gewinna 7 eowres hwaetscipes, for pon ge sindon nu utan 
faette 7 inuan hlaene, 7 eowre ieldran waeron utan hlaene 7 innan 
» From c. faette, stronges modes 7 faestes. Ic nat (eac) 3 , cwcecS he, hu nyt 25 
ic }?a hwile beo pe ic }?as word sprece, butan paet ic min geswinc 
amirre. Hit bi}? eac geornlic paet mon heardlice gnide }?one 
hnescestan mealmstan aefter J?aem pcet he }?ence pone soelestan 
hwetstan on to geraeceanne. Swa ponne is me nu swipe earfeSe 
hiera mod to ahwcttanue, nu hit naw}?er nyle beon, ne scearp ne 30 


igitur quamvis aliquantam niuri partem quassatam machinis 
diraissent, tamen a Cartlmginiensibus victi ac repulsi sunt. 
Censorinus in Urbem rediit. Manilius omissa Carthagine ad 
Asdnibalem arma convertit. 


Cn. Cornelio Lentulo, L. Mummio Coss., P. Scipio delere 
Carthaginem suprema sorte molitus, Cothonem ingreditur : ubi 
dum sex continuis diebus noctibusque pugnatur, ultima Cartha- 
ginienses desperatio ad deditionem traxit, petentes, ut quos belli 
eludes reliquos fecit, saltern servire liceat. Primum agmen 
mulieruin satis miserabile, virorum post magis deforme descendit. 
Xam fuisse nmlierum vigintiquinque millia, virorum trigiuta 
millia, memoriae traditum est. Eex Asdrubal se ultro ded.it. 
Uxor Asdrubalis se duosque filios secum in medium jecit incen- 
dium. Ipsa autem civitas decern et septem continuis diebus 
arsit. Diruta est autem Carthago, omni murali lapide in p«Z- 
verem comminuto, septingentes-imo post anno quam condita erat. 

Ita quarto quam inceptum fuit anno, bellum Punicum tertium 
terminatum est. At vero cum alii Komanorum propter per- 
petuam Romae securitatem delendam esse decernerent, alii vero 
propter perpetuam Romanae virtutis curam, ne vigor Romanus, 
bellis semper exercitus, in languidam segnitiem solveretur, incol- 
v.raem Carthaginem permittendam esse censerent. 

Quod cum ita sit, cur Christianis temporibus inputant hebeta- 
tionem ac rubiginem suam, qua foris crassi, intus exesi sunt 1 
qui porro ante sexcentos fere annos cotem illam splendoris et 
acuminis sui Carthaginem perdiderunt. Itaque finem volumini 
faciam, ne forsitan collidendo vebementius, discussa ad tempus 
rubigine, ubi necessarium acumen elicere -non 2 ) ossum, super- 
vacuam asperitatem inveniam. 


(V, I.) 

Ic wat, cwazS Orosius, hwaet se Rornana gelp swipost is, for pon 
pe hie monega folc oferwunnan, 7 monege cyningas beforan hiera 
triumphan oftraedlice drifon. paet sindon pa godan tida pe hie 
ealneg foregielpaS, gelicost paem pe hie nu cwepen pcet pa tida 
him anum gesealde waeron, 7 naeren eallum folcum. Ac pser hie 5 
*[Pagei29.] hit georne ongitan cupen, ponne wisten hie * pcet hie waeron 
eallum folcum gemaene. Gif hie ponne cweSaS pcet pa tida goda 
waeron, for pon pe hie pa ane burg welge gedydan, ponne magon 
hie ryhtor cwepan pcet paet waeren pa ungesaelgestan, for pon pe 
purh paere anre burge wlenco wurdon ealle opra to waedlan 10 
gedone. Gif hie ponne paes ne geliefen, ascian ponne Italie hiera 
agne londleode, hu him pa tida gelicoden, pa hie mon slog 
7 hiende, 7 on opru land sealde xx wintra 7 c. Gif hie ponne 
him ne geliefen, ascien pon(ne) ' Ispanie, pe paet ilce waeron 
dreogende cc wintra, 7 monege opre peoda ; 7 eac pa monegan 15 
cyningas, hu him licade, ponne hie mon 2 on geocum 7 on racen- 
tum beforan hiera triumphan drifon, him to gelpe, wi5 Rome 
weard, 7 sippan on carcernum laegon, op 3 hie deatSe swulton. 7 

» From C. 

2 corrected 
from non. 

3 ofi Se C. 

« eaiie, trith hie monege cyningas geswencton, to pon pcet hie eall * gesealdon 

.final e erased. t 

past hie ponne haefdon wip hiera earman life. Ac for pon hit is 20 

5 From C. 

us uncutS 7 ungeliefedlic for pon pe we sint on paem fripe 
geborene pe hie pa uneatSe hiera feorh (mid) 5 geceapedon. paet 
waes sippan Crist geboren waes paet we waeron of aeleum peow- 
dome aliesde 7 of aelcmn ege, gif we him fulgongan willap. 

(V, II.) 

iEfter paem pe Romeburg getimbred wa?s dc wintrum 7 vr, 25 
paet waes py ilcan geare pe Cartaiua toworpen waes, aeftcr hiere 
hrvre Gneo Cornelius 7 Lentulus Lucio towurpon Corinthnm, 


V. I. 

Scio aliquantos 2)Ost haec deiuceps permoveri 2<osse, quod vic- 
toriae Roruanae multarum gentium strage crebrescunt ; unde 
arbitror esse dicturos : Ecquid his temporibus beatius, quibus 
continui triumphi, celebres victoriae, magni ante currum reges, 
et victae gentes agebantur ! Quibus breviter respondebitur, et 
ipsos de temporibus solere causari, et nos pro iisdem temporibus 
instituisse sermonem : quae tempora non uni tantum urbi 
adtributa, sed orbi universo constat esse communia. Aut si 
ideo felicia putantur, quia unius civitatis opes auctae sunt, cur 
non potius infelicissima judicentur, quibus potentissima regna 
ceciderunt ? Edat Hispania sententiam suam, cum per annos 
du centos hostem nee repellere poterat, nee sustinere. Quid tunc 
de suis temporibus sentiebat, ipsa dicat Italia. Non requiro 
de innumeris populis, bello victis, pretio vinditis, quid de tem- 
poribus judicarint. Omitto de regibus catenatis, sub jugum 
missis, ante currum actis, in carcere trucidatis. Inquietudo 
mim bellorum, qua UK adtriti sunt, nobis ignota est. In 
otio autem, quod Mi ])OSt imperium Caesaris, nativitatemque 
Christi tenuiter gustaverunt, nos nascimur et senescimus : quod 
Roma in usum luxuriae suae ferro extorquebat a nostris, nunc in 
usum communis reipublicae conferat ipsa nobiscum. 


Anno ab Urbe condita sexcentesimosexto, hoc est, eodem anno, 
quo et Carthago deleta est, Cn. Cornelio Lentulo, L. Mummio 
Coss. ruinam Carthaginis eversio Corinthi subsecuta est. Sane 


Alfred's orosius. 

ealra Creca heafedburg. On hiere bryne gemulton ealle [pa] 
onlicnessa togsedere pe paerbinnan waeron, ge gyldene, ge sylfrene, 
ifrst t over ge serene, ge cyprene, 7 on pyttas ' besuncan. Giet to daege 
mon haet Corrinthisce fatu ealle pe paerof gewarhte waeron, for 
pon pe hie sint fsegran 7 dierran ponne aenegu opru. 5 

2 in C. the 
heading be 
bam yrde 
uariato is 
added here. 

•[Page 130.] 

3 From C. 
* From C. 
■'■ gebetan C. 

* geflymede 
wurdon 0, 

?m v. the 
heading be 
bam 111:11:11- 
c weal me t« 
added here. 
8 wscs (.'. 

2 On paem dagum waes an hirde on Ispanium, se waes Ueriatus 
haten, 7 waes micel peofmon, 7 on paere stalunge he weartS 
reafere. 7 on tSaem reaflace he him geteah to micelne monfultum, 
7 monege * tunas oferhergeade. iEfter paem his weorod weox 
to pon swipe pset he monega land forhergeade. 7 Romanum 10 
wearS micel ege from him, 7 Uecilius pone consul ongean hiene 
mid firde sendon, 7 he paer gefliemed wearS, 7 his folces se 
maesta dael ofslagen. iEt opru»7 cirre pider for Gaius (Folu- 
cius) 3 se consul, 7 eac gefliemed weartS. JEt priddan cirre pider 
for Claudius se con(sul) 4 , 7 polite paet he Romana bismer 16 
gewrecan 5 sceolde, ac he hit on paem faerelte geiecte swfpor, 7 
uneape self com aweg. 

/Efter paem Ueriatus gemette mid prim hunde monna Romana 
an m on anuwj wuda. pa?r waes Ueriatuses folces ofslagen lxx, 
7 Romana ccc, 7 pa opre gefliemde 6 . On paem fleame wearS 20 
an Ueriatuses pegn paem opru??i to longe aefterfylgende, op mon 
his hors under him ofsceat. pa woldon pa opre ealle hiene aenne 
ofslean, oppe gebindan. pa slog he anes monnes hors mid his 
sweorde pcet him wand paet heafod of. Sippan waes eallum paem 
oprum swa micel ege from him paet hi hiene leng gretan ne 25 

^fter paem Apius Claudius se consul gefeaht wiS Gaelle, 
7 paer gefliemed wearS ; 7 rape pa>s eft fird gelaedde wip hie, 7 
sige haefde, 7 hiera ofslog vi m. pa he hamweard woes, pa baed 
he pcet mon dyde beforan him pone triumphan. Ac him Roniane 30 
untreowlice his forwierndon, 7 hit under pcet ladedon for pon pe 
he ser aet paem opru»i cirre sige naefde. 

7 ^Efter paem wcarp s swa micel moncwealm on Rome paet pa?r 


cum propter miUtitudinem statuarum simulacrorumque in Mo 
incendio 2 )ei ' m i^ta in unum auri argenti atque aeris omniaque 
simul met all a fluxissent, novum genus metalli factum est, uncle 
usque in hodiernura diem Corinthia vasa dicuntur. 


Iisdem consulibus, Viriathus in Hispania, homo pastoralis et 
latro, primum infestando vias, deincle vastando provincias, 
2>ostremo exercitus vincendo, maximo terrori Eomanis fuit : 
siquidem Iberum et Tagum transgredienti C. Vetilius praetor 
occur r it : qui continuo, caeso pene omni exercitu suo, vix ipse 
evasit. Deinde C. Plautium j:>raetorem fugavit. Post etiam 
Claudius Unimanus contra Viriathum missus, quasi pro abolenda 
superiore macula turpiorem ipse auxit infamiam. 

Eodem tempore treceuti Lusitani cum mille Eomanis in 
quodam saltu contraxere pugnam, in qua septuaginta Lusi- 
tanos, Romanos autem trecentos viginti cecidisse Claudius 
refert ; et cum victores abirent, unus ex Us, cum, circumfusis 
equ itibus, pedes ipse deprehensus, unius eorum equo lancea 
perfosso, ipsius equitis ad unum gladii ictum caput desecuisset, 
ita omnes metu percxdit, ut, prospectantibus cunctis, ipse 

Appius Claudius adversus Gallos congressus, et victus, quin- 
que millia militum perdidit. Separata pugna, quinque millia 
hoslium occidit. Sed cum triumphum expetisset, propter 
superiora vero damna non inpetravisset, pnvatis sumtibus 
triumphavit . . . 

Tanta pestilentia exorta est, ut ministri quoque faciendorum 



nan utancymen mon cuman ne dorste, 7 monega land binnan 
1 yrfewearde psere byrig waaron butan selcum ierfwearde \ Hie wit on peah 
poet past ilce yfel ofereode butan geblote, swa pa monegan ser 
dydan pe hie wendon pcet hie mid hiera deofolgilduwi gestiered 
' tweon c. hsefden. Butan tweo 2 , gif hie pa blotan mehten, hie woldon 5 
3 From c. secgean pset him hiera (godas) 3 gehulpan. Ac hit wges Godes 
*[Page 131.] gifu past ealle pa laegon pe hit don sceoldon, * of) hit self ofereode. 

« From C. 

6 on l>am C. 

JEfter psem Fauius se consul for mid firde ongean Ueriatus, 
7 gefliemed wearS. Se ilea consul gedyde eallum Eomanum pa 
bismerlecestan deed, pa he aspon of Scippium DC monna to him 
his gepoftena, 7 pa hie him to coman, he het him eallum pa 
honda of aceorfan. ^Efter paem Pompeius se consul for on 
Numentinas, Ispania peode, 7 gefliemed wearp. Ymb xiiii gear 
pses pe Ueriatus wiS Romane winnan ongan, he weaiS from his 
a "mi in monnum ofslagen ; 7 swa oft swa hiene Romane mid 
gefeohte gesohton, he hie simle gefliemde. pser dydon (peah) 4 
Romane lytla triewpa past him pa wseron la$e 7 unweorpe 
pe hiera hlaford beswican, peh pe hie him leana to psere dsede 

Ic sceal eac niede para monegena gewinna geswigian pe on 5 

eastlondum gewurdon. His me sceal apreotan for Romana 

gewinnum. On psere tide Mitridatis, Partha cyning, geeode 

Babyloniam, 7 ealle pa land pe betwux psem twaem eaum waeron, 

'a-r warron Induse 7 Ibasfe, b[a] wseron aer 6 on Romana unwaldc. 7 sippan 

er L. . . , 

he gebraedde his rice east op India gemaero. 7 Demetnas, Asia 
cyning, hiene t[u]wa mid firde gesohte. Mt oprum cirre he 
wearS gefliemed, %t oprum gefangen. He waes on Romana 
omvalde, for pon pe hie hiene paer gesetton. 

iEfter psem Mantius se consul for on Numentine, Ispania folc, 
7 pser wses winnende op he genom frip wip paet folc, 7 hiene 
sippan aweg bestael. pa he ham com, pa heton hiene Romane 
gebindan, 7 gebringean beforan Xumentia fa-stennes geate. pa 
nawper ne hine pa eft ham laedan ne dorston pe hiene pider 
leeddon, ne his pa onfon noldon pe hiene mon tobrohte, ac swipe 



■2' 1 




funernm pnmum non sufficerent, deindenonessent. Largissimae 
introrsum hereditates, et nulli penitus heredes. 

Expiatio ilia crudelis, et viam mortibus homimim morte 
hominis instruens, tandem Romanis quam vana esset, innotuit. 
Ante enim in suffragium praeveniendae cladis est habita, et sic 
pestilentia consecuta est : quae tamen sine ullis sacrificiorum 
satisfactionibus sedata est. Quam si arusjnces, sub ipsa declina- 
tione morborum forte celebrassent, proculdubio sibi, diis et ritibus 
suis reductae sanitatis gloriam vindicassent. 

Igitur Fabius consul contra Viriathum dimicans, Bacciam 
oppidum in deditionem recepit. Fecit facinus etiam barbaris 
Scythiae, non dicam Romanae Jidei et moderationi exsecrabile. 
Quingentis enim principibus eorum, quos societate invitatos, 
deditionis jure susceperat, manus praecidit. Pompejus, sequentis 
anni consul, fines Numantinorum ingressus, accepta maxima 
elade discessit, Viriathus autem, cum per quatuordecim annos 
Romanos duces atque exercitus protrivisset, insidiis suorum in- 
terfectus est: in hoc solo Romanis circa eumfortiter agentibus, 
quod percussores ejus indignos praemio judicarunt. 

A t ego intertexere Orientis ilia inextricabilia bella poteram : 
sed Romanorum tanta sunt, ut jure fastidiantur aliena. 

Mithridates tunc siquidem, rex Partborum, victo Demetrio 
praefecto, Babyloniam urbem victor invasit. Oinnes praeterea 
gentes, quae inter Hydaspem fluvium et Indum jacent, subegit. 
Ad Indiara quoque extendit imperium, Demetrium ipsum 
secundo sibi bello occurrentem, vicit et cepit. 

Mancinus consul, postquam apud Numantiam suscepit ex- 
ercitum, adeo infeliciter praelia gessit, ut foedus cum Numantinis 
facere cogeretur. Senatus dissolvi foedus, et Mancinum dedi 
Numantinis praecepit, qui ante portas Numantinorum expositus, 
a suis desertus, ab hostibus autem non susceptus, lacrymabile 
utrisque spectaculvm praebuit. 


220 alfked's orosius. 

hreowlice swa gebend he on a[n]re stowe beforan j?aem geate 
waes wuniende, op he his lif forlet. 

On j?sem dagum Brutus se consul ofslog Ispania folces lx m, 
pa waeron Lusitaniam on fultume. 7 rape paes he for eft on 
♦[Page 132.] Lusitanie, 7 hiera ofslog * l m, 7 vi M gefeng. On psem dagum for 5 
Lapitlus se consul on pa nearran Ispanie, 7 gefiienied wearS, 7 
his folces waes ofslagen vi M. 7 pa pe paer aweg comon, 
hie opflugon mid psem msestan bismi'e. Hwaeper Romane 
hit witen nu aenegum men to secganne, hwaet hiera folces 
on Ispanium on feawum gearum forwurde ? ponne hie from 10 
gesaelgum tidum gilpac5, bonne waeron pa him selfum ba 

Da pa Seruius Fuluius 7 Flaccus Quintus waeron consulas, 
wearp on Rome an cild geboren, pcet haefde mi fet 7 mi handa, 
7 mi eagan, 7 mi earan. On psem geare asprong up Epna fyr 15 
1 From c. (on Siciliutn) 1 , 7 mare pxs landes forbaernde ponne hit sefre ser 

(v, m.) 

^Efter paem pe Eomeburg getinibrcd waes DC wintrum 7 xx, 

• Numaan- ba ba Mantius eedvde bone vfolan frib on Xumantium a swa hit 

tium L., Nu- r r & j r . r 

mantiani c. Romane selfe saedou baet under hiera anwalde nan bismerlecre 20 

deed ne gewurde, buton on bgem gefeohte aet Caudenes Furculus 

— ba sendon Romane Scipian on Numantie mid firde. Hie 

sindon on baem norSwestende Ispania ; 7 heo hie selfe aer psem 

mid feower m aweredon xim winter wiS Romana xl m, 7 oftost 

sige haefdon. pa besaet Scipia hie healf gear on hiera faestenne, 7 25 

hie to pon gebrocode pcet him leofre waes paet hie hie seolfe 



Interea Brutus in idteriore Hispania sexaginta millia Gallae- 
corum, qui Lusitanis auxilio venerant, asperrimo hello oppressit. 
Quorum in eo praelio quinquaginta ruillia occisa, sex millia 
capta referuntur. In citeriore Hispania Lepidus proconsule 
Vaccaeos innoxiam gentem expugnare tentavit. Sed mox 
accepta clade gravissima inprobae pertinaciae poenas luit. 
Sex millia quippe Romanorum in hoc injusto hello caesa 
sunt : reliqui, exuti castris, armis etlam perditis, evase- 
runt. Ita nunc sibi Tiaec tempora loco felicitatis adscri- 
hant, ut non dixerim Hispani, tot pidsati hellis, sed vel ipsi 
saltern Eomani, toties superati : id non exprobrem, quot 
legiones consumti sint. Patet, apud utrosque misera ilia 
tempora judicata. 


Sex. Fulvio Flacco, Q. Calpurnio Pisone consulibus, Romae 
puer natus est quadrimanus, oculis quatuor, auribus totidem. 
Mons Aetna ignes eructavit, ac fudit : qui proxima quaeque 
corripientibus exussere Jlammis. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcxx, cum major pent infamia de 
foedere apud Numantiam pacto quam apud Caudinas furculas 
pudorem Romanae frontis oneraret, Scipio Africanus ad oppug- 
nandam Numantiam cum exercitu missus est. Numantia autem 
citerioris Hispaniae in capite Gallaeciae sita, ultima Celtiberorum 
fuit. Haec per annos quatuordecim cum quatuor millibus 
suorum quadraginta millia Romanorum non solum sustinuit, 
sed etiam vicit. Scipio urbem obsidione conclusit. Igitur 
conclusi diu Numantini, et fame trucidati, deditionem sui 

222 Alfred's orosiu?. 

• se Scipio c. forneSdon ponne hie J?a iermJ?o leng prowoden. pa Scipia ' 
onget ]>cet hie swelces modes wseron, pa het he sura his folc 
feohtan on bset faesten paet hie mid J?sem bset folc ut aloccoden. 
pa wseron J?a burgware to bon fsegene 7 to bon bliSe p»aet hie 
feohtan moston, 7 gemong tSseni gefean hie hie selfe mid ealotS 5 
oferdrencton, 7 ut irnende wseron ait twaem geatum. On 
psere byrig wses serest ealogeweorc ongunnen, for pon pe hie 
sdugud. w in nsefdon. On baein swicdome wear}? Numantia dugutS 2 
•[Page 133.] gefeallen. 7 * se dsel pe J?ser to lafe wearS forbserdon ealle 

]?a burg, for Son pe hie ne u)?on pcet hiera fiend to hiera 10 
ealdgestreonum fengon ; 7 aefter baem hie hie selfe on bsem 
fyre forspildon. 

»se Scipio c. pa Scipia " hiene hamweard wende of )?sern lande, pa. com him 
to an eald mon, se wres Numentisc. pa fra?gn Scipia hiene an 
hwy hit gelang wsere pcet Nurnentie. swa raSe ahnescaden, swa 15 
hcarde swa hie longe wseron. Da ssede he him p<?t hie waeren 

♦ From c. (hearde) 4 , pa hwile pe hie hira anrsednesse geheoldon him 

betweonum, 7 anfealdnesse ; 7 sona swa hie him betweomwu 
ungersednesse upahofon, swa forwurdon hie ealle. Da wearS 
£ pam Scipian Scipian 5 pfet ondwyrde swtye andrysne, 7 ealle Romana weotan 20 
« 7 eaiium for Ssem andwyrde mid wordura swipe geegsade 6 , pa he 


witnm for ] )am com, for bon be hie ba hsefdon ungersednesse liim 

pam and- * * ' ° 

wvnie 7 for betweonuwi. 

p:mi wordum 

in wurdon Q n pge re tide Craccus wses heteu 7 , an bara consula, 

swioe mid i ' T 

geegesode c. ., ^^ 8 wmnan ongon wiS ealle ba obre, ob hie hiene 25 

* From c. ofslogon. 

7 eac on bsere tide on Sicilium ba beowas wunnan wiS ba 
hlafordas, 7 unease oferwunnene wurdon, 7 vi M ofslagen, 
ser hie mon gebiggiean mehte, 7 set f>aere anre byrg Min- 
turnan hiera mon ahenjr fifte healf hund. 30 


obtulerunt, sae]>e etiam orantes justae pugnae facultatem. Ul- 
timo omnes duabus portis eruperunt, larga prius potione usi, 
non vini, cujus ferax is locus non est, sed succo tritici per artem 
confecto. Atrox diu certamen. Numantini, interfectis suorum 
fortissiniis, hello cedunt. Novissime urbem succenderunt, cunc- 
tique igne consumti sunt. 


Scipio autem, Tiresum quemdam, Celticum principem, con- 
sul uit, qua ope res Numantina aut prius invicta durasset, aut 
post fuisset eversa : Tiresus respondit : Concordia invicta, dis- 
cordia exitio fuit : quod Hoinani tamquam sibi ac de se dictum 
exempli loco acceperunt, quippe quibus jam de seditiouibus 
discordantis totius Urbis nunciabatur. 

Ea tenipestate apud Romam Graccliorum seditiones agita- 
bantur. Gracchus cum eniteretur ut ij)se tribunus plebis per- 
maneret, cumque seditiones populi accenderet, . . ictu clavae 
exanimatus est. 


Orta praeterea in Sicilia belli servilis contagio multas infecit 
provincias. Nam et Minturnis quadringenti et quinquaginta 
servi in crucem acta, et Sinuessae ad quatuor millia servorum 
oppressa sunt. 



1 From C. ; 
Luciuius L. 
i From C. 

a aflymed C. 
* beali be C. 

•[Page 134.] 

5 From C. 

6 ealle ba C. 

7 From C. 

' From C. ; 
Actiochu9 L. 

9 se besta 7 
se sel&ta 
witena 7 
begena C. 

10 for hwy C. 

" oftsi^um C. 

a .From C. 

(V, IV.) 

yEfter paem J?e Romeburg getimbred waes DC wintrwm 7 xxi, 
Luciuius ' Crassws se consul — (he) 2 waes eac Romaua ieldesta 
biscep — he gefor mid firde ongean Aristonocuse paem cyninge, se 
wolde geagnian him pa laessan Asiam, peh pe hie aer Attalis his 
agen brocSor haefde Romanum to boclande geseald. Craccuse 5 
waeron monege cyningas of monegumlandum to fultume cumeue. 
An waes of Nicomedia, oper of Bippinia, pridda of Punto, feorpa 
of Armenia, fifta of Argeate, sixta of Cappadocia, seofoSa of 
Filimine, eahtepa of Paflogoniam. 7 pehhwaepre, ra(5e paes Se 
hie togaedere comon, se con[sul] wearcS gefliemed 3 , peh 4 he 10. 
micelne fultum haefde. pa paet Pe?-pena gehierde, se oper consul, 
he pa hrsedlice * fird gegaderade, 7 on pone cyning ungearone 
becom, pa his fird (eall) 5 tofaren waes, 7 hiene bedraf into anum 
faestenne, 7 hiene besaet, op hiene pa 6 burgleode ageafan paem 
consule, 7 (he) 7 hiene het sippan to Rome bringan, 7 on careen) 15 
bescufan, 7 he paer l§g op he his lif forlet. 

On paere tide Antiochuse, Asia cyninge, gepuhte (Saet he rice 
genoh naefde, 7 wilnade pcet he Parthe begeate, 7 pider for mid 
monegum pusenduwi, 7 hiene paer Parthe iepelice oferwuunan, 7 
pone cyning ofslogau, 7 hi»i \>cet rice geagnedan ; for pon 20 
Antiochus 8 giemde hwaet he haefde monna gerimes, 7 ne nom 
mine ware hulice hie waeron, for pon hiera waes ma forcupra 
ponne aeltaewra. 

On paere tide Scipia, se betsta Romana pegn 9 , maende his 
earfotSa to Romana witum, paer hie aet hiera gemote waeron 10 , 25 
hwy hie hiene swa unweorSne on his ylde dyden ; 7 ascade hie 
for hwy hie nolden gepencan ealle pa brocu 7 pa geswinc pe he 
for hira willan, 7 eac for hiera niedpearfe fela wintra dreogende 
waes, unarimedblce oft " ; 7 hu he hie adyde of Hannibales peow- 
dome, 7 of monegre operre peode ; 7 hu he him to peowdomo 30 
gewylde ealle Tspanie, 7 ealle Africe. On pan'e ilean niht (pe 
he on daeg pas word sprnec) Romane him gepancodon ealles his 
geswinces (mid wyrsan leane ponne he to him geearnod haefde)" 
pa hie hiene on his bedde asmorodon (7 aprysemodon ; paet he 
his lif alet) 12 . 35 



Anno ab Urbe condita dcxxii, P. Licinius Crassus, consul et 
pontifex niaximus, ad versus Aristonicum, Attali fratrem, qui 
traditam per testamentum Romanis Asiara pervaserat, cum 
instructissimo missus exercitu : praeterea a magnis regibus, hoc 
est, Nicomede Bithyniae, Mithridate Ponti et Armeniae, Ariara- 
the Cappadociae, Pylemene Paphlagoniae, eorumque maxiruis 
copiis adjutus, conserto tanien bello victus est : et cum pene 
capitis esset, virgam in oculum Thracis impegit, barbarus autem 
latus Crassi gladio transverberavit. Perperna consul, audita 
morte Crassi, raptim in Asiam pervolamt, Aristonicum inproviso 
bello adortus, nudatumque omnibus copiis in fugam vertit ; 
c?wique Stratonicen urbem, ad quam ille confugerat, obsidione 
cinxisset, trucidatum fame ad deditionem coegit. Aristonicus 
Eomae jussu senatits in carcere strangulatus est. 

Iisdtm temporibus Antiochus, non contentus Babylonia atque 
Ecbatana, totoque Mediae iniperio, adversus Phrahatem Par- 
thorum regem congressus et victus est. Qui cum in exercitu 
suo centum millia armatorum habere videretur, ducenta millia 
amplius calonum atque lixarum inmixta scortis et Jiistrionibus 
trahebat. Itaque facile, Parthorum viribus oppressus, interiit. 

P. Scipionem Africanum, pridie pro concione de periculo 
salutis suae contestalum, quod sibi pro patria laboranti ab 
inprobis et ingratis denunciari cognovisset, alio die mane 
exanimem in cubicido suo repertum, non temere inter maxima 
Romanorum mala recensuerim. 



226 Alfred's orosius. 

i Orestestes £)a ba Erailius Orestes 1 waes consul, Ebna fyr afleow up swa 

L. ; aerest 0. l * 

'om.inc. brad 7 swa micel, bsette feawe men 2 bara monna mehten beon 
eardfseste, be on Lipare waeron bsem iglande, J?e baer nihst waes, 
for baere haete 7 for baem stence ; ge ealle fta clifu be neah 

: \>ane c. bsem 3 sse wseron forburnan to ascan ; 7 ealle ba scipu formulton 5 
be neah bsem se, fserende wseron, ge ealle ba nscas be on bsem sae 
wseron acwelan for baere hsete. 

♦[Page 135.] Da ba Marcus Flaccus wses consul, * comon gaerstapan on 
Affrice, 7 selc wubt forscurfon bses be on bsem lande waes 
weaxendes 7 growendes. /Efter bsem com an wind, 7 forbleow 10 

« seo c. hie ut on sse. ./Efter bsem be hie adruncne waeron, hie wearp se * 
sai up, 7 sibban nicest eall forwearft bset on bsem lande wses, ge 
mo[n]na, ge nietena, ge wildeora for bsem stence. 

(V, V.) 
^Efter bsem be Romeburg getimbred waes dc wintrum 7 xxvn, 
)?a ba Lucius Mella 7 Quintus Flamineus waeron consulas, ba 15 
geweartS ba senatos bset mon eft sceolde getimbran Cartainam. 
Ac bsere ilcan niht be mon on daeg hsefde ba burg mid stacu/» 
gemearcod, swa swa hie hie ba wyrcean woldon, wulfas atugan 
'- long c. ba stacan up, 7 ba men forleton bset weorc for baem, 7 longe 6 

gemot ymb baet haefdon hwaeSer hit tacnade, be sibbe be un- 20 
sibbe, 7 hie hie swa beah eft getimbredon. 

On baere tide Metellus se consul for on Belearis baet land, 
">eahi>e c. 7 oferwan ba wicingas be on baet land hergedon, beh 6 bara lond- 
leoda eac fela forwurde. 


M. Aemilio, L. Oreste consulibus, Aetna exundavit igneis 
globis ; rursusque Lipara insula, et vicinum circa earn mare in 
tantum efferbuit, ut adustas quoque rupes dissolverit, tabulata 
navium liquefactis ceris extorruerit : exanimatos pisces ex- 
coxerit : homines quoque svffocarit. 


Plautio Hypsaeo, et M. Fulvio Flacco consulibus, cum per 
totam Africam inmensae locustarum multitudines coaluissent, 
et cunctam spem frugum abrasissent, herbasque omnes, et folia 
arborum consumsissent, repentino abreptae vento, pelago in- 
rnersae sunt. Harum cum inmensos acervos fluctus per litora 
propulissent, tetrum odorem putrefacta congeries exhalavit, unde 
omnium pariter animantium tarda pestilentia consecuta est, ut 
pecudum ac bestiarum dissolutarum cadavera vitium corruptionis 
augerent. At vero quanta fuerit hominum lues, ego ip>se dum 
refero, toto corpore perhorresco. 


Anno ab Uz'be condita dcxxvii, Lucio ] Caecilio Metello, et T. l Q. 
Quinctio Flaminino Coss. Carthago in Africa restitui jussa, 
restituta et repleta est, magno ante prodigio praecedente. Nam 
cum mensores ad limitandum Carthagiensem agrum missi, 
stipites, terminorum indices fixos, nocte a lupis revulsos re- 
perissent, aliquamdiu haesitatum est, utrum Eomanae paci 
expediret, Carthaginem reformari. 


lisdem temporibus Metellus Baleares insulas bello pervagatus 
edomuit, et piraticam infestationem plurima incolarum caede 




i From C. 

(V, VI.) 

iEfter paeni pe Roraeburg getimbred waes dc wintrtwn 7 
xxvii, Fauius se consul gemette Betui(tu)san \ Gallia cyning, 
7 liiene mid IjQxun fultume ofercom. 

(v, vn.) 

iEfter paem pe Rorneburg getimbred waes dc wintra 7 xxxv, 

2 From c. pa pa Scipia Nasica 7 Lucius (Cal)furnius 2 waeron cousulas on 5 

3 the r erased. Rome, Romane wunnon wiS Geoweorpan 3 , XumeSia cyuinge. 

Se ilea GeoweorcSa waes Mecipsuses maeg, NumeSia cyninges. 7 
« lxran c. he biene on bis geogotSe undei-feng, 7 biene fedan bet, 7 tybtan 4 
mid bis twam sunm/i. 7 pa se cyning gefor, be bebead bis 
twaem sunum paet bie paes rices priddan dael Geoweorpan 10 
sealden. Ac sippan se pridda dael on bis gewealde waes, be 
beswac begen pa suua : operne be ofslog, operne adrwfde. 7 
♦ [Page 130.] lie sippan gesobte Romane *him to fripe. 7 bie sendon Cal- 
furnan pone consul mid him mid firde. Ac GeoweorSa gecea- 
pade mid his feo aet paem consule paet he paes gewiunes lytel 15 
purhteah. -<Efter paem Geoweorpa com to Rome, 7 diegellice 
geceapade to paem senatum, [to] anum 7 to anuwi, \cet hie ealle 
3 From c. (waeron) 6 ymb biene twywyrdige. pa be biene bamweard of 
paere byrig wende, pa taelde he Romane. 7 hie swipe bismrade 
mid bis wordum, 7 saede paet mon nane burg ne ruehte ie5 mid 20 
feo geceapiau, gif hiere aenig mon ceapode. 

paes on paem aefterran geare Romane sendon Anilius Hos- 
"mostumusC. tumius 6 pone consul mid lx m angean Geoweorpan. Heora 
7 gemittincg gemetig 7 waes set Colima paere byrig, 7 pasr waei on Romane 

oferwunnen. 7 sippan lytle hwile hie genamon flip him be- 25 
tweonuw, 7 sippan maest ealle Africe gecirdon to Geoweorpan. 
JEfter paem Romane sendon eft Metellus mid firde angean 
Geoweorpan, 7 he sige haefde aet twam cierrun, 7 set (paem) 8 
priddan cierrc he bedraf Geoweorpan on Numecuam his agen 
lond, 7 biene geniedde \>ctt he sealde Romanu»i preo hund gisla. 30 
7 he peh sippan na py laes ne hergeade on Romane. pa sendon 
bie eft Marios pone consul angean Geoweorpan, a Bwa lytigne 7 

b«<h M8& 



Anno ab Urbe condita dcxxviii, Fabius consul Bituito, regi 
Arvernorum, Galliae civitatis, cum parvo exercitu occurrit . . . 
victi Galli. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcxxxix, P. Seipione Nasica, et 
L. Calpurnio Bestia consulibus, Jugurthae, Numidarutn regi, 
bellura consensu populi Romani senatus indixit. Jugurtha, 
Micipsae, Numidarum regis, adoptivus, heresque inter naturales 
ejus filios /actus, colieredes suos, id est, Hiempsalem occidit, 
Adherbalem A/rica expulit. Calpurniura deinde consulem 
adversum se miseum pecunia corrupit, atque ad turpissimas 
conditiones 2)cicis adduxit. Praeterea cum Romani ipse venisset, 
omnibus pecunia corruptis seditiones dissensionesg^e permiscuit : 
quam cum egrederetur, infami satis notavit elogio, dicens : '0 
urbem venalem, et mature periturain, si emtorem invenerit!' 

Insequenti anno A. Postumium, Postumii consulis fratrem, 
quern is quadraginta millium armatorum exercitui praefecerat, 
apud Calamam urbem bello oppressit : cuique victo ignominio- 
sissimum foedus exegit, universam pene Africam regno suo 
junxit. Postea tamen Metelli integrilate et disciplina coercitus, 
duobus etiam praeliis victus, vidit et vastari Numidiam suam 
et non posse de/endi : a quo ad deditionem coactus, trecentos 
obsides dedit. Exin cum inprohos non cohiberet excursus, C. 
Marii consulis, qui 1 non minore pene quam ipse praeditus erat 1 not in He. 
astutia, Eomanisque virions /ractus est : maxime postquam 
Marius urbem Capsam, regiis tunc thesauris con/ertissimam, 

230 Alfred's orosius. 

a swa braegdenne swa he waes ; 7 for to anre byrg gelicost baem 
J?e be bie abrecan bohte. Ac sona swa Geoweorba haefde bis 
fultum to bsere byrg gelaedd angean Marius, ba forlet he Marius 
pcet faesten, 7 for to obrum, ba?r he geascade baet Geoweorban 

1 genydde c. goldhord waes, 7 gemedde ' ba burgleode pcet hie him eodon 5 

on hond, 7 him ageafon eall pcet licge(n)de feoh pcet paerbinnan 
wses. pa ne getruwade Geoweorba his aguum folce ofer paet, 
ac gepoftade him wib Bohan, Ma[u]ritania cyning. 7 he hint 
com to mid micle monfultume, 7 oftraedlice on Eomane stalade, 
ob hie gecwaedon folcgefeoht him betweonum. To baem gefeohte 10 
*[Pagei37.] haefde Boho Geoweorban b oht to fultume lx m gehor*sedra 
butan fepan. Naes na mid Romanum aer ne sippan swa heard 
gefeoht swa paer waes, for bon be hie wurdon on aelce healfe 
atan befangen, 7 beora eac maest for pon forwearp be hiora ge- 
mitting waes on sondihtre dune, paet bie for duste ne mehton 15 
geseon hu hi hi behealdan sceolden. Toeacan paem hie derede 
aegper ge burst ge haete, 7 ealne tSone daeg waeron pcet bafiende ob 
nilit. pa on mergen hie wgeron pcet ilce donde, 7 eft waeron on 
aelce healfe utan befangen, swa hie «r waeron. 7 pa hie switSost 
tweode hwaetSer hie aweg comen, pa gecwaedon bie bset bie sume 20 

2 From c, hie beaeftan weretlen, 7 sume bu(r)h 2 ealle ba truman ut afuhten, 

gif hie mehten. pa hie swa gedon haefdon, ba com a(n) 2 ren ; 

» swi^e J>ast 0. 7 swij^e 3 Mauritania? waeron mid paem gewergade, for pon be 
hiera sceldas waeron betogen mid elpcnda hydum, pcet hie heora 

« From c. feawa (for bam wee tan) 4 ahebban mehton, 7 for baem gefliemde 25 
wurdon, for bon be elpendes hyd wile dnncao waetan, gelice 
7 spynge deS. paer wearS Mauritania ofslagen lx m 7 an bund 

» From c. (manna) 5 . iEfter baem Bubo genom frip wiS Romanum, 7 him 
Geoweorban gebundenne ageaf, 7 hiene mon dyde sippan on 
carcern 7 his twegen suna, ob hie paer ealle acwaelon. 30 

(V, VIII.) 

/Efter paern be Romeburg getimbred waes vi hunde wintra 7 
xlii, J>a ba Mallius 7 Cuintinus waeron c<msulas, Romane 
gefuhton wib* Cimbros 7 wiS Teutonas 7 wiS Ambronos — pas 
peoda weeron on Gallium — 7 paer ealle ofslagene wurdon buton 


cepit. Diffidens deiude propriis rebus et viribus Jugurtha, 
societatem cum Boccho Mauroruni rege fecit, cujus equitatu in 
inmensum auctus, Marianum exercitum creberrimis incursionibus 
fatigavit. Postremo apud Cirtam adversus Romanos sexaginta 
millibus equitum instructus occurrit. Numquam ulla Romano 
militi tumtdtuosior pugna et terribilior fuit, adeo ut discursu 
equitum suscitatus pulvis coelum subtexuerit. Eadem postera 
die et belli et periculi fades. Undique enim equ.es incluserat. 
Jam tertia dies, et nullum undecumque suffragium, tandem 
Marius consul universe- simid agmine prorupit e vallo. Re- 
pentina pluvia sitientibus Romanis potum praebuit. Porro 
autem Numidis hastilia telorum lubrica reddidit : Scuta etiam, 
quae elephanti corio extento habilia gestabant, cujus ea natura 
est, tit imbrein tanquarn spongia ebibat, quia circumferri non 
poterant, defendere nequiverunt. Ita ex insperato conturbatis 
Mauris et Numidis, Bocchus et Jugurtha fugerunt. Post hoc 
nonaginta millia armatorum novissimo bello ab iisdem regibus 
objecta ; haec quoque usque ad internecionem caesa referuntur. 
Ex eo Bocchus pacem petivit : atque Jugurtbarn, catenis 
obrutum, misit ad Marium : qui cum duobus filiis suis in 
carcere strangidatus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcxlii, C. Manlius consul et Q. Caepio 
^roconsule adversus Cimbros et Teutonas et Ambronas, Gallorum 
geutes, missi, victi sunt : siquidem in ea pugna M. Aurelius con- 
sularis interfectus est, Duo filii consulis caesi, octoginta millia 

23:2 Alfred's orosius. 

i Fromc. x mon(uum) ' — pcet waes XL M. 7 pser waes Romaue 2 ofslagen 
= ?mi^h. C eahtatig 3 pusenda, 7 heora consul 7 his twegen suna. Mfter 
tatigc. Jjgem pa ilcan Seoda besaetan Marius pone consul on anum 

faestenne, 7 hit long first wses aer he ut wolde faran to gefeohte, 
ser him mon saede poet hie wolden faran on Italiam, Romana 5 
*[Page 138.] lond. * Ac sippan he him for to ut of paem faestenne, pa hi hi 
on anre dune gemetton, pa maende paes consules folc to him 
heora purst, pe him getenge waes. pa andwjrde he him, 7 
cwceS : ' eape we magon geseon on opre healfe urra feonda 
hweer se drinca is gelang pe us nihst is ; ac for paem pe hie 10 
us near sint, we him ne magon buton gefeohte to cuman.' paer • 
haefdon Roniane sige, 7 peer waes Gallia ofslagen twa hund M, 
7 hiora latteow, 7 eahtatig m gefangen. 

(V, IX.) 

JEher paem pe Romeburg getimhred waes vi hunde wintrum 
7 xiiV, on paem fiftan geare pe Marius wses consul, 7 cac psx mid 15 
Romanum waes sibb of oprum folcm/i, pa ongunnon Romane pa 
maestan sace him betweonum up araeran, peh ic hit nu scortlice 
secgan scyle, cwceft Orosius, hwa paes ordfruman waeron. past 
waes aerest Marius se consul, 7 Lucius, 7Apulcius, 7 Saturninus, 
pcet hie adnefdon Metellus pone consul on elpeode, se waes 20 
< of i>mcende consul aer Marius. Hit waes pa swipe oppjTicende * pam opru??i 
consulum, Pompeiuse 7 Caton ; peh pe hie mid paere wrace paem 
adraefdan on nauu??i stale beon ne mehton, hie peh purhtugon 
paet hie ofslogon Lucius 7 Saturninus, 7 eft waeron biddende 
piet Metellus to Rome moste. Ac him paaiet Marius 7 Furius 25 
forwierndon, 7 him p& sippan se feondscipe waes betweonum 
wcaxende, peh pe hie hit openlice cypan ue dorsten for para 
senatum ege. 

(V, X.) 

.Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes vi c wintra 7 lxi, 
- From c. on paem siextan geare pe Iulius se ca(se)re 5 waes consul 7 Lucius 30 
• From c. Martius, wearp ofer ealle (Italia) fi ungeferlic unsibb 7 openlice 
cuo" betuh Iuliuse 7 Pompeiusc, peh hie hit aer swipe him 


Romanorum ea tempestate trucidata, quadraginta millia calonuui 
atque lixarum interfecta, Antias scribit. Ita decern tantummodo 
homines superfuisse referuntur. Igitur Marius consul, cum 
juxta Isarae Rhodanique flumina castra posuisset, Teutones, 
Cimbri, et Amhrones, postquam continuo triduo circa Romanorum 
castra pugnarunt, Italiam petere destinarunt. Marius castra 
movit, et collem occupavit. Cumque exercitui ejus aqua ad 
potandum deesset, querelisque omnium coargueretur, aquam 
quidem in conspectu esse respondit, sed earn ferro vindicandam. 
Mox justo certamine bellum gestum, et vicere Eomani. Ducenta 
millia armatorum in eo bello interfecta sunt, octoginta millia 
capta referuntur. Dux quoque eorum occisus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcxi/v, post quintum Marii consu- 
latum, quo status imperii Romani jure conservatus judicatur, 
sexto considatu ejusdem Marii ita labefactatus est, ut pene usque 
ad extremum intestina clade conciderit. Evolvere discordiarum 
ambages longum videtur : sane breviter strinxisse sufficiat quod 
primus L. Appuleius Saturninus excitati tumultus auctor 
exstiterit, Q. Metello Numidico inimicus, qui eum censorem 
creatum armata multitudine obsedit. Subsequente anno Marius, 
sextum consul, et Saturninus conspiravertint Metellum in ex- 
ihum agere. Metellus damnatus, in exilium cum totius Urbis 
dolore discessit. Saturninus et Saufeius et Labienus occisi sunt. 
Tunc Cato atque Pompeius rogationem de reditu Metelli totius 
Urbis gaudio pronndgarunt : quae ne perferretur, Marii et Furii 
factionibus intercessum est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dclix, Sex. Julio Caesare, et L. 
Marcio PMlippo consulibus, intestinis causis sociale bellum tota 
commovit Italia. Eo accessit, ut maestam Urbem prodigia dira 
terrerent. Nam globus ignis a regione septemtrionis cum 


234 Alfred's orosius. 

betweonum diernden. 7 eac on bseni geare gewurdon nionega 
*[Page 139.] wundor on monegum londum. *An wses bset mon geseah 
swelce an fyren bring norcSan cumen mid micle swege. Ober 
wearb on Tarentan bsere byrig set anre feorme : bonne mon ba 
hlafas wrat to biegeanne, bonne orn bser blod ut. ])<xt bridde 5 
wses poet hit hagolade seofon niht, dseges 7 nihtes, ofer ealle 
Romane. 7 on Somnia baem londe seo eorbe tobserst, 7 bonan 
up wses biernende fyr wiS bses hefoncs. 7 mon geseah swelce 
hit wsere an gyldeu bring on heofonum brsedre bonne sunne ; 
7 wses from bseni heofone bradiende niber ob ba eorban, 7 wses 10 
eft farende wiS bses heofones. 

On bsere tide Pincente bset folc, 7 Uestine, 7 Marse, 7 Peligni, 7 

Marrucine, 7 Somnite, 7 Lucani hie ealle gewearS him betweonum 

bset hie wolden Romanmn geswican, 7 ofslogon Gaius Seruius, Ro- 

mana ealdormon, se wees mid serendum to him onsended. On tSsem 15 

dagum aweddon ba nietenu 7 ba hundas be wseron on Somnitum. 

iEfter bsem gefeaht Pompeius se consul wiS eal pa folc, 7 

' casere c. gefliemed wearb. 7 Iulius se cesar x gefeaht witS Marse bsem folce, 

2 7 ra<5e c. 7 gefliemed wearS. Rabe 2 bses Iulius gefeaht wiS Somnitum, 7 

wiS Lucanum, 7 hie gefliemde. ^Efter bsem hiene mon bet casere. 20 
pa heed he bset mon bone triumphan him ongean brohte. pa 
sende him mon ane blace hacelan angean, him on bismer, for 
triumphan. 7 eft hie him sendon ane tunecan ongean, ba be hie 
to geheton, pott he ealles buton arunge to Rome ne com. 

^fter bsem Silla se consul, Pompeiuses gefera, gefeaht wiS 25 

Esernium bsem folce, 7 hie gefliemde. .Efter bsem gefeaht 

Pompeiws witS Pincentes psem folce, 7 hie gefliemde. pa 

brohton Romane bone triumphan angean Po»?peii<s mid micelre 

weorpfulnesse for psem lytlan sige be he ba hsefde, 7 noldon 

*[Page 140.] Iuliuse nsenne weorbscipe don, beh he maran *da?d gedon hsefde, 30 

3<m. inc. buton ane tunecan, 7 hi 3 heora gewin mid J?sera swipe geiecton. 

vEfter bsem Iulius 7 Pompeius abrsecan Asculum ba burg on 

*Frn m c.; Msersum 4 , 7 bser ofslogon eahtatiene M. /Eftcr bsem gefeaht 

na-r.-iiin L. 

Silla se consul wiS Somnitmn, 7 heora ofslog eahtatiene m. 


maxirno coeli fragore emicuit. Apud Arretinos cum panes per 
convivia frangerentur, cruor e mediis 2><*nibas fluxit. Praeterea 
per septem dies grando lapidum terrain verberavit. In Sam- 
nitibns hiatu terrae flamma prorupit, et usque in coelum extendi 
visa est. Complures pi'aeterea videre Romani globuni colons 
aurei coelo ad terrain devolvi, rursus in sublime ferri, ac magni- 
tudine sua ipsum solem obtexisse. 

Igitur Picentis, Vestini, Marsi, Peligni, Marrucini, Samnites, 
Lucani, cum adhuc defectionem meditarentur, C. Servilium 
praetorem, legatum ad se missum, occiderunt. Omnium generum 
animalia, quae inter homines vivere solita erant, relictis stabulis 
ad silvas montesque fugerunt. Canes quoque vagi oberrarunt. 

Igitur Cn. Pompeius praetor cum Picentibus bellum gessit, et 
victus est. Julius Caesar, Samnitium pugna vietus, caeso fugit 
exercitu. L. Julius Caesar adversus Samuites et Lucanos 
dimicans, midta hostium millia interfecit. Cumque ah exercitu 
Imperator adpellatus esset, Romamque nuncios de victoria mi- 
sisset, sernatus sagum, hoc est, vestem moeroris deposuit, atque 
antiquum togae decorein recuperavit. 

Sulla, Aeserniam missus, maximo bello et plurima caede 
hostium urbem servavit. Cn. Pompeius Piceutes gravi praelio 
fudit, qua victoria senatus laticlavia recepit, cum togas tantum- 
modo victoria Caesaris sumsisset. Pompejus diu obsedit As- 
culum civitatem : nee tamen expugnavisset, nisi populum in 
campum prorumpentem gravissima oppressime vicisset. Decern 
et octo millia Marsorum in ea pugna caesa sunt. Postumius 
Albinus lapidibus occisus est. Sulla consul civilem cruorem 
non nisi hostili sanguine expiari posse testatus est : cujus 
rei conscientia permotus exercitus, ita pugnam adortus est, ut 
sibi unusquisque pereundum videret, nisi vicisset. Decern et 
octo millia Samnitium co praelio caesa sunt. 

236 Alfred's orositjs. 

(V, XI.) 

^Efter paern pe Rorneburg getimbred waes vi hunde wintra 7 
lxii, paette Romane sendon Sillan pone consul cngean Metre- 
patis Partha cyning. pa ofpuhte paet Mariuse paem consule, 
Iuliuses eame, paet mon Saet gewin noldc him betaecan. 7 baed 
paet him mon sealde pone seofopan consulatuw, 7 eac paet gewin, 5 
for pon pe hit waes peaw mid him bast mon ymbe xn monaS 
dyde aelces consules setl ane pyle hierre ponne hit aer waes. 
pa Silla geacsade on hwelc gerad Marius com to Rome, he 
pa hraedlice mid ealre his firde wi(5 Rome weard farende wees, 

1 Romebyrig 7 Marius bedraf into Rorneburg ! mid eallum his folce, 7 hiene 10 

sippan ba burgleode gefengon 7 gebundon, 7 hiene sippan 
pohton Sillan agifan. Ac he fealh paei - e ilean niht of paem 
bendum be hiene mon on daeg gebende, 7 sippan fleah sup ofer 

2 From c. sae (on Affricam, paer his fultum rnaest wses) 2 ; 7 rape eft wses 

cirrende witS Rome weard. Him waeron twegen consulas on fill- 15 
tume, Cinna 7 Sertorius, ba waeron simle aelces yfles ordfruman. 

3 From C. 

gefeolit 0, 

*[ Page 141.] 
■' From C, ; 
isspania L. (is 
end of line). 

7 rafte paes be ba senatus gehierdon paet Marius (to) 3 Rome 
nealaecte, hie calle ut aflugon on Creca lond aefter Sillan 7 aefter 
Pompeiuse, pider hi pa mid firde gefarcn waeron. pa wses 
Silla mid micelre geornfulnisse farende of Crecum wip Rome 20 
weard, 7 wiS Marius heardlice gefeaht 4 purhteah, 7 hiene 
gefliemde, 7 ealle ofslog binnan Romebyrg pe Mariuse on ful- 
tume waeron. RaSe paes ealle ba consulas waeron deade buton 
twaem. Marius 7 Silla geforan him self, 7 Cinna waes o&lageo 
*on Smyrna, Asia byrg, 7 Sertorius W838 ofslagcn on Ispania B . 25 

f> u'tfre C. 

pa underfeng Pompeius Partha gewin, for pon Metropatis 
heora cyning teah him to ba laessan Asiam 7 eall Creca lond. 
Ac hiene Pompeius of eallum paem londe afliemde, 7 hiene 
bedraf on Armenie, 7 him aeftcrfylgende waes, op liienc opprc 6 



Anno ab Urbe contlita sexcentesimo sexagesimo secundo, 
Mithridaticum helium coeptum est. Marius, Sulla consule, et 
contra Mithridatem profecturo, adfectavit septimum consulatum, 
et belluni suscipere Mithridaticum, quo Sulla cognito, cum 
quatuor legionibus primum ante Urbem consedit, mox Urbem 
cum exercitu irrupAt. Marius fugiens, in Minturnensium palu- 
dibus sese abdidit, e quibus protractus, Minturnas deductus, 
contrususque in carcerem, percussorem ad se missum solo vidtu 
exterruit. Deinde lapsus e viuculis, in Africam transfugit, 
contiuuo Romam regressus, Cinnae consuli societale sederunt 
conjunctus est. Partem copiarum Sertorius accepit : ille 
scilicet Sertorius jam Mac civilis belli incentor et particeps, 
qui etiam hoc Jinito, aliud post in Hispania helium excitavit. 


Interea residui senatorum, qui Marii cntdelitalem fuga eva- 
serant, transvecti in Graeciam, coegere 2)recibus Sullam, ut opem 
ferret. Sullae et Marii adolescentis maximum tunc praelium 
apud Sacriportum fuit . . . Sulla deinde ante ijisam Urbem 
signa contulit, gravissiinoque praelio tandem vicit ; octoginta 
millia hominum ibi fusa dicuntur. 

Sulla mox atque Urbem victor intravit, tria millia hominum 
contra Jidem datam inermes interfecit. Tunc Sulla 2 )r i mus 
infamem Mam tabidam proscriptionis induxii . . . Marius 
morte praereptus est . . . China ab exercitu smo interfeJus est . . . 
Sertorius suorum dolis interfectus. 

VI. II, IV, V. 

Mitliridates, rex Ponti atque Armeniae, Cappadociam invasit, 
atque vastavit. Bithyniam, . . . Paphlagoniam simili exitu 
adfiixit. Archelaus, dux Mithridatis, cunctam Graeciam obti- 
nuit. Sulla Archclaum obsedit. Marcum Murium . . . rex 



• Archaiaus c. men ofslogan, 7 geuiedde Arhalaus 1 pone latteow pcet he waes 

2 From c. his underpeow. Hit is (mi) 2 ungeliefedlic to secganne, cwgeS 

Orosius, hwaet on paeni gewinne forwearp past hie waeron dreo- 

gende xl wintra, ser hit geendad 3 mehte beon, aegper ge on 

3 a altered 
from o ('!). 

peoda forhergiunge, ge on cyninga slihtum, ge on hungre. 

* anleg L., 
onlaeg C. 

5 the n above 
an erased 
Utler (w ':) ; 
niouffas 0. 

pa Pompeius hamweard waes, pa noldan him pa londleode 
paet faesten aliefan set Hierusalem. Him wseron on fultume 
xxii cyninga. pa het Pompeius past mon pcet faesten braece, 
7 on fuhte daeges 7 nihtes, simle an leg(ie) 4 aefter operre un- 
werig; 7 pa±t folc mid paem aprytton paet hie him on hond 10 
eodon, ymbe preo monatS 5 pass pe hie mon ser ongon. paer \va?s 
Iudea ofslagen xin H. 7 mon towearp pone weal niper op pone 
grund. 7 mon laedde Aristobolus to Rome gebundenne; se 
woes aegper ge heora cyning ge heora biscop. 

e legion C. 

(V, XII.) 

iEfter paeni pe Romeburg getimbred waes vi hunde wintra 7 15 
lxvii, Romane gesealdon Gaiuse Iuliuse seofon legan 6 , to pon 
bait he sceolde fif winter winnan on Gallic 

yEfter paeni pe he hie oferwunnen haefde, he for on Bretanie 

pcet iglond, 7 wi8 pa Brettas gefeaht, 7 gefliemed wearS on 

' From c. paem londe pe mon haet Centlond. Rape pass he gefeaht (eft) 7 20 

1 diivmede c. wip pa Brettas on Centlonde, 7 hie wurdon gefliemede 8 . 

Heora pridde gefeoht waes neah paere ie pe mon haet Temes, neh 

*[Pagei42.] paeni forda *pe mon haet Welengaford. iEfter paem gefeohte 

hi in eode on hond se cyning 7 pa burgware pe waeron on 

Cirenceastre, 7 sippan ealle pe on paem iglonde waeron. 25 


ducem fecit in locum Archelai, qui se ad Sullam contulerat, 
Pompeius, successor Luculli, in minori Armenia castra regis 
obsidione conclusit. Rex fuga elapsus. Pompeius, regem inse- 
cuturus, urbem Nicopolim condidit, Mithridates . . . militem 
invitavit, eique jugulum pvaebv.it. Hunc exitum vitae Mithri- 
dates habuit. Verumtamen breviter consulo, qxudia tunc toto 
Orienti tempora videbantur, cum per quadraginta annos miserae 
nationes alternis tantorum ducum vastationibus terebantur. 


Pompeius Judaeos, atque ad Hierosolymam, urbem eorum, 
Gabinium cum exercitu mittit. Ipse continuo subsecutus, et 
oppugnationem ejus intendit. Id, cum alias aliis legiones dies 
noctesque succedere sine requie cogeret, vix tertio mense ex- 
pugnavit. Tredecim ibi millia Judaeorum caesa narrantur. 
Pompeius muros civitatis everti, aequarigwe solo imperavit : et 
cum aliquantos principes Judaeorum securi iwrcussisset, Hyr- 
canum sacerdotio restituit, Aristobulum captivum Roniam duxit. 
Hoc bellum Orientis cum viginti et duobus regibus sese gessisse 
ipse Pompeius pro condone narravit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcxciii, C. Caesare et L. Bibulo con- 
sulibus, Caesari tres provinciae cum legionibus septem in quin- 
quennium datae, Gallia Transalpina et Cisalpina, et Illyricus. 


In Britanniam transvehitur. Caesaris equitatus 2>rim,o con- 
gressu a Britannis victus est. Secundo praelio victos Britannos 
in fugam vertit. hide ad flumen Tamesim profectus est, quern 
uno tantum loco vadis transmeabilem ferunt. Trinobantum 
firmissima civitas cum duce Caesari sese dedidit. Quod exem- 
plum secutae urbes aliae complures, in foedus Romanorum 

<J40 Alfred's orosius. 

Miter J?gem Iulius for to Rome, 7 baed J?aet him mon brohte 
» bebudon c. bone triu?/<phan ongean. pa onbudon ' hie him paet he come 
mid feawmra monnum to Rome, 7 ealne his fultum beaeftau him 
lete. Ac ba he hamweard for, him coman angean pa, in ealdor- 
men be him on fultume wseron, 7 him ssedon pcet hie for his 5 
}?ingun adrsefde wseron, 7 eac J^set ealle ba legean wseron 
Pompeiuse to fultume gesealde be on Romana anwalde wseron, 
beet he by fsestlecre gewinn mehte habban witS hiene. pa wende 
eft Julius to his agnuwi folce, 7 wepende msende J?a unai'e pe 
him mon buton gewyrhton dyde, 7 swipost para monna pe for 10 
his pingun forwurdon. 7 he him sipSan aspon to pa seofon 
legian pe wseron on Silomone paem londe. 

pa Pompeius 7 Cato 7 ealle pa senatus paet hierdon, J?a foran 

hi on Crecas, 7 micelne fultum gegaderedon on Thraci paere 

dune, pa for Iulius to Rome, 7 abraec hiera matSmhus, 7 call 15 

«ungeiiefed- gedaelde his firde paet pserinne wses. paet is ungeliefcdlic 2 to 

ly'ediic c. geseeganne, cwaeS Orosius, hwset pses ealles wses. iEffeer paem 

3 to Samariam he for on Marisiam 3 pset lond, 7 peer let preo legian beseftan 

him, to J5011 jxet hie )?aet folc to him geuieddon. 7 he self mid 

bsem oprum daele for on Ispanie, paer Pompeiuses legian wseron 20 

* From c. ; mid his prim 4 ladteowum, 7 he hie ealle to him geniedde. 

twacm L. , , , 

7 sefter psern he for on Creca lond, pser his Pompeius on anre 

* erasure after dune onbad mid xxxgum cyningum, buton his agnum fultume 6 . 
about itco pa for Pompeius par Marcellus wses, Iuliuscs ladtcow, 7 hiene 

lines Of MS. . 1 • 1. 1 -i-> <■• t 1 • m 

ofelog nnd eallum his folce. yLfter £>aem Iulius besaet Tar- 25 
6 Pompeiuses quatus, Pompeius 6 ladteow, on anum 7 faestenne. 7 him 
1 From c • Pompeius sefter fur. pser wcar3 (Iulius) 8 gefliemed, 7 his 
annum l. f i ceg f e ] a forslagen, for bon be him mon feaht on on twa 

8 From C. 

'■Mieaifac. healfe 9 , on obre ,0 Pompeus n , on obre 1 - se ladtcow. Sibban 
" «)>re henife f5 r I u ]i us n Thesaliam, 7 bser eft his fultum gegaderade. 30 

upompeituC. pa Pompeius petit hierde, pa for he him a-fter mid ungc- 
c. metlican fultume. He hsefde eahta 7 eahtatig coortana, ba-t 

we nu truman hatatS, bset wa?s on paem dagum v hund monna 
7 an m. pis call he liaefde buton his agnum fultume 7 buton 



Rediens Caesar decerni sibi absenti alterum consulatum po- 
poscit. Decretuui est a Senatu, ut iu Urbem Caesar non nisi 
dimisso exercitu veniret, et ad legiones, quae apud Luceriam 
erant, Pompeius cum imperio missus est. Caesar Ravennam 
sese contidit. M. Antonius et Q. Cassius tribuni j)lebis pro 
Caesare intercedentes, curia foroque prohibiti ad Caesarem pro- 
fecti sunt. Caesar quinque coJwrtes, quas tunc solas habebat, 
quid facto opus esset, edocuit. Deplorans injurias suas, causam 
belli civilis pro restituendis in patriam tribunis esse testatus 
est. Inde septem cohortes, quae apud Sulmonem morabautur, a 
Lucretio recepit, tres legiones, quae apud Corfinium morabaniur, 
ad partes suas traduxit. 

Pompeius atque omnis senatus, in G-raeciam transvecti, 
Dyrrachium gerendi belli sedem delegerunt, Caesar Koraam 
venit, negatamque sibi ex aerario pecuniam fractis foribus 
iavadit, protulitque ex eo auri pondo quatuor mille centum 
trigiata quinque, argenti pondo prope nongenta millia. Mas- 
siliam venit, ad quam oppugnandam Tribonium cum tribus 
legionibus relinquens, ad Hispanias contendit, quas Pompeiani 
duces cum legionibus obtinebant. Ibi Petreium Afraniumque 
superatos composita paclione dimisit. Interea apud Dyrra- 
chium multi Orientis reges ad Pompeiuni cum auxiliis con- 
venerunt. Pompeius castellum quoddam, quod Marcellinus 
tuebatur, evertit, praesidiaque occidit. Caesar Torquatum, ut 
expugnaret, adgressus est. Pompeius omnes eo copias contraxit : 
in quern se ilico Caesar convertit. Torquatus autem e vestigia 
prorumpens, aversum insecutus est. Ita Caesaris milites, 
ancipiti periculo territi, fugerunt. Caesar inde citato agmine 
in Tbessaliam perrexit. 

Pompeius cum maximis copiis secutus. Pompeius octoginta 
et octo cohortes triplici ordino locavit. Caesar similiter octo- 
ginta cohortes triplici online disposuit. Prima congressione 
equitatus Pompeii pulsus sinistra latera nudavit. Deinde cum 




i Catone C. 
'* to alto C. 
3 coortana C. 

* two lettert 
(eo ''.) erated 
after ed. 

gelaestan C. 

6 From C. 

1 See alto C. 
*: Page 144.] 

8 Pholomeus 

Caton \ his geferan, j buton bara senatuses 2 . y Iulius haefde 
eahtatig coortena 3 . Heora aegber haefde bis folc on brim 
heapum, j hie selfe waeron on baem midmestan, j ba obre on 
twa healfa hiera. pa Iulius haefde aenue bara daela gefliemed, 
ba cleopode Pompeius him to ymbe Romana ealde gecwedrae- 5 
denne 4 , beh be he hie self laestan 5 ne bohte : ' gefera, gefera, 
gemyne pcet Su ure gecwedraedenne 7 geferraedenne to longe ne 
oferbrec.' pa andwyrde he him 7 cwaetS : ' on sumre tide bu 
waere min gefera; 7 for baem be bu nu (ne) 6 eart, me is eal leo- 
fast baet be labost is.' paet (waes) sio gecwedraeden be Romane 10 
geset haefdon, pat hiora nan oSerne on bone aueZwlitan ne sloge, 
baer baer hie aet gefeohtuwi gemette. JGfter psem wordum 
Pompeius wearS gefliemed mid eallum his folce. 

7 he self sibban obfleah on Asiam mid his wife 7 mid his 
bearnum. 7 sibban he for on jEgyptuw, 7 him fultumes 15 
baed aet Pholomeuse 7 baem cyninge. 7 ratSe baes be he to him 
com, he him het baet heafod of aceorfan, * 7 hit sibban het Iuliuse 
onsendan, 7 his bring mid. Ac pa hit mon to him brohte, he 
waes maenende ba died mid micle wope, for bon he waes eallra 
monna mildheortast on baem dagum. 20 

iEfter baem Photolomews 8 gelaedde fird wicS Iuliuse. 7 eall 
his folc wearS gefliemed, 7 he self gefangen. 

* From C. ; 
Alexander L, 
» From C. 

» Catooe C. 

7 ealle b>a men Iulius 9 het ofslean be aet baere lare waeron baet 
mon (Pom)peius 10 ofslog. 7 he swabeah eft forlet Phtolomeus to 
his rice. ^Efter baem Iulius gefeaht wi(5 Phtolomeus briwa, 7 aet 25 
aelcum cirre sige haefde. JEfter baem gefeohte ealle Egypti 
wurdon Iuliuse underpeowas. 7 he him sippan hwearf to 
Rome, 7 eft sette senatus, 7 hiene seolfne mon gesette paet he 
waes hierra bonne consul : baet hi heton tictator. JEfter baem 
he for on Affrice aefter Caton u baem consule. pa he baet 30 
geascade, ba laerde he his sunu baet he him ongean fore, 7 hiene 
him to friSe gesohte ; ' for bon,' civ<*<S he, ' be ic wat ba?t nan 
swa god (man) 12 ne leofatS swa he is on beosan life, beh be he 


Pompeius diceret, Farce, civibus, nee tamen faceret, ex alia vero 
Caesar hoc faceret, quod urgeret, dicens, Miles, faciem feri : 
tandem universus Pompeii fugit exercifcus. 

Pontyems fugiens in Asiam transiit. Inde in Aegyptum 
ven it : ibique jussu Ptolemaei occisus est. Pompeii uxor filiique 
fugerunt. Caesar Alexandriam venit, perlatoque ad se ac viso 
Pompeii capite annuloque, flevit. 

Ingens pugna commissa est, magna ibi Caesarianorum militum 
multitudo cecidit : omnes etiam interfectoi'es Pompeii interfecti 


Alexandrinis petentibus regem reddidit. Qui tamen helium 
intvdit, sed continuo, cum toto exercitu suo et ipse deletus est. 
Caesar Alexandrinos omnes ad deditionem compulit. Postea 
vero quam Eomam venit, dictator creatus, in Africam transiit. 
Cato sese apud Uticam occidit. 




me sie se lapesta, 7 for pon eac ic ne inaeg fiadan xt me seolfu//t 
pcet ic bine aefre geseo.' jEfrer paem wordum he eode to )?aere 
burge wealle l , 7 fleah ut ofer, pat be eall 2 tobaerst Ac pa 
Iulius to paere byrig com, be him waes swi]?e waniende pcet 
he to him cucan ne com, 7 pcet be swelce deatSe swealt. iEfter 5 
Jjsem Iulius gefeaht wiS Pompeiuses nefan s 7 wiS monige his 
maegas, 7 4 hie ealle ofslog. 7 sippan to Rome for, 7 paer waes 
5 andrysne 0. swa a»cZdrysnc 5 paet him mon dyde feower sipan pone triumpban 
pa he ham com. Sippan he for on Ispanie, 7 gefeaht wi<5 Po7>i- 
peiuses twaern sunum ; 7 j^aer waes his folc swa switSe forslagen 10 
pcet be sume hwile wende j^aet bine mon gefon sceolde, 7 he foi 
paere ondraedinge paes pe swij^or on pcet weorod prong, for pon pe 
him waes leofre pcet hiene mon ofsloge pon/*e hiene mon gebunde. 

1 weallum (.'. 

2 ealle £., 
with final e 

3 genefon C. 
* 7 he C. 

*[Page 145.] 

•'■ from C. ; 
gydyde i. 

' ortn. xxvu 
//*« v m«i/f 
into 1 £/j/ 
erasure ; 
xxvn ' . 

< wel cynelice 

gefeaht 7 
burhtcali ( '. 
'■• /•'-•„/» 0.i 
an /.. 

1 ' From 1 .: 
ober L. 

11 »„//, C. ; 

bridde £. 
'-' FVOM C, ; 
luliuse I. 

* iEfter paem he com to Rome, 7 ealle pa gesetnessa pe paer 
t'i stronge waerou 7 to hearde he hie ealle gedyde 6 leohtran 15 
7 liprau. Hit pa eallu?>i pann senatum ofpyncendum 7 }?aem 
consulum pcet be heora ealdan gesetnessa tobrecan wolde, ableo- 
pon pa ealle 7 biene mid heora metseacsu/u ofsticedon inne on 
heora gemotaerne. para wunda was xxiii 7 . 

(V, XIII.) 

^Efter paem pe Roineburg getimbred waes vn hunde wintra 2o 
7 x, feng Octauian^s to Romana onwealde, hiora unponces, aefter 
Iuliuses siege his niaeges, for }>on pe hiene haefde Iulius him aer 
mid gewritu??i gefaestnod )?aet be aefter him to eallu//t his gestre- 
onum fenge, for pon pe he hiene for maegraedenne gelaerde 7 getyde. 
7 be sippan v gefeoht ungeferlice purbteah 8 swa Iulius dyde aer: 25 
an wip Po?/jpeius ; oSer 9 waes wi5 Antouius £>one consul ; bridde u 
witS Cassus 7 wiS Brutus ; feorSe u wiS Lcpidus, peb pe he rajje 
pa_>s bis freond wurde ; 7 be eac gedyde paet Antouius bis freond 
wearS, 7 paet he bis dobtor Bealde (Octauiane) 12 to wife, 7 eac 
paet Octauianus sealde bis swostor Autoniuse. 30 

Sippan him geteah Antouius to gewealdon ealle Asiam. 
yEfter paem be forlet Octauianuses swostor, 7 bim selfu//; onbead 


Caesar Pompeii nepotes, filiamque Pompeiam jussit occidi. 
Inde quatuor triumphis Urbem ingressus, continue in Hispanias 
contra Pompeii filios profectus, statim adversus Pompeios duos 
multa bella gessit. Ultimum helium apud Mundam urbem gestum 
est, ubi tantis est viribus dimicatum, ut Caesar quoque, cum caedi 
cogique aciem suam cerneret, praevenire morte futurum victi 
dedecus cogitarit, cum subito Pompeiorum cessit exercitus. 


Caesar Romam rediit : ubi dum Reipublicae statum contra 
exempla majorum clementer instaurat, auctoribus Bndo et Cas- 
sio, conscio etiam plurimo senatu, in curia viginti et tribus vul- 
neribus confossus interiit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccx, interfecto Julio Caesare, Octa- 
vianus, qui testamento Julii Caesaris avunculi et haereditatem 
et nomen adsumserat, idemque . . . indolem suam bellis civilibus 
vovit. Nam bella civilia quinque gessit : e quibus duo, hoc est, 
primum et novissimum adversus Marcum Antonium, secundum 
adversus Brutum et Cassium, tertium adversus L. Antonium, 
quartum adversus Sex. Pompeium, confecit. Lepido satisagente, 
Caesar Antonium recepit in gratiam : atque filiam ejus matri- 
monio sortitus est. 


Antonius . . denuntiari bellum Caesari, atque Octaviae, sorori 
Caesaris, uxori suae, repudium indici jussit, et Cleopatmm sibi oc- 

246 Alfred's orosiu-. 

gewin 7 opeune feondscipe. 7 he him het to wife gefeccan 

1 cieopatran Cleopatron 1 pa cwene, pa haefde Iulius aer, 7 hiere for paem 
haefde geseald ealle Egypti. RaSe paes Octauianws gelaedde 
fird wip Antonius, 7 hiene ratSe gefliemde paes pe liie togaedere 

1 From c. conion. paes ymb in nilit Lie gefuhton (ut) 2 on sae. Octaui- 5 
anus haefde xxx scipa 7 cc para miclena prieretSrena, on paem 
waeron farende eahta legian. 7 Antonius haefde eahtatig scipa, 
on paem waeron farende x legian, for pon swa micle swa he laes 
haefde, swa micle hie waeron beteran 7 mai'an, for pon hie 
wseron swa geworht paet hie mon ne mehte mid monnu?n 10 

*[Pagei46.] oferhlaestan, paet hie naeren x * fota hea bufan waetere. paet 
gefeoht wearS swipe maere, peh pe Octauianws sige haefde. 

3 &> alt0 c - paer waes Octauianwses 3 folces ofslagen xn u; 7 Cleopatra his 
cwen weartS gefliemed, swa hie togaedere coman, mid hiere here. 
iEfter paem Octauianws gefcaht wiS Antonius, 7 wi$ Cleopatron, 15 

*Fromc, 7 hie gefliemde. paet (waes) 4 on paere tide calendas Agustus, 7 
on paem daege J?e we hataS ' hlafmaesse.' Sippan waes Octauiaii".v 
Agustus haten, for pon pe he on paere tide sige haefde. 

YEfter paem Antonius 7 Cleopatro haefdon gegaderod sciphere 
on paem Readan Sae. Ac pa him mon saede paet Octauianua 80 
piderweard waes, pa gecierde eall paet folc to Octauianuse, 7 hie 
selfe opflugon to anmn tune lytle werode. Hio pa Cleopatra 
het adelfan hiere byrgenne, 7 paeroninnan eode. pa heo paeron 
gelegen waes, pa het hio niman ipnalis pa naedran, 7 don to hiere 
earme, paet hio hie abite ; for pon pe hiere puhte paet hit on 25 
paem lime unsarast waere, for pon pe pa^re naedran gecynd is 
paet aelc uht paes pe hio abitt sc§l his lif on slaepe geendian. 
7 hio paet for paem dyde pe hio nolde paet hie mon drife beforan 
paem triumphan wip Rome weard. pa Antonius geseah ]>cet 
hio hie to deajje gerede, pa ofsticade he hienc selfne, 7 behead 30 
paet hiene mon on pa ilcan byrgenne to hiere swa somcucre 
alegde. pa Octauiamis pider com, pa het [he] niman opres 
cynnes naedran, uissillus is haten, sio maeg ateon aelces cynncs 
ator ut of men, gif hio mon tidlice to bringo\ Ac hio 
gefaren aer he pider come. Sippan Octauiantu begeat Alex- :r> 
andriam, Egypta heafedburg, 7 mid hiere geetreone he gewel- 


currere imperavit. Antonius ad Caesaris castrap'ocessit, et victus 
est. Tertio post pugnam die, Antonius castra ad Actium transtulit, 
navali praelio decernere pxirattis. Ducentae et triginta rostratae 
fuere Caesaris naves, et triginta sine rostris, triremes velocitate 
liburnicis pares, et octo legiones classi superpositae. Classis 
Antouii centum septuaginta navium fuit, quantum numero 
cedens, tantum magnitudine praecellens. Nam decern pedum 
altitudine a niari aberant. Famosum et magnum hoc bellum 
fuit. Prior regina Cleopatra cum sexaginta navibus fugit ; 
Antonius quoque fugientem secutus est uxorem. Illucescente 
jam die victoriam Caesar consummavit. Ex victis duodecim 
millia cecidisse referuntur. Antonius et Cleopatra communes 
liberos ad Rubrum Mare praemittendos censuerunt. 

I2>si classem et copiias instaurando bello paraverunt. Caesar 
sextum imperator appellatus, Brundusium venit. Kalendis 
Sextilibus Antonius cum ad instruendam classem in portum 
descenderet, subito universae naves ad Caesarem transierunt. 
Cumque unico protsidio spoliatus esset, trepidus se cum paucis 
recepit in regiam. Deinde inminente Caesare, idem Antonius 
sese ferro transverberavit, ac semianimis ad Cleopatram in 
monumentum, in quod se ilia condiderat, perlatus est. Cleo- 
patra, postquam se ad triumpbum servari intellexit, serpentis 
morsu in sinistro tacta bracbio, exanimis invcnta est, frustra 
Caesare etiam Psyllos admovente, qui venena serpentum e 
vulneribus hominum baustu revocare atque exsugere sclent. 
Caesar Alexandria, urbe omnium Jonge opulentissima et maxima, 
potitus est. Nam et Roma in tantum opibus ejus aucta est, ut 
duplicia, quam usque ad id fuerant 2>ossessionum aliarv.mque 
rerum veualium pretia statuerentur. 



gade Romeburg swa srvipe pset nion felcne ccap mehte be 
twiefealdan bet geceapian ponne mon ser raelite. 

(V, XIIII.) 

lifter pseui pe Romeburg getimbred wa?s vn hunde wintra 
7 xxxv, geweartS pcette Octauianws Cesar on his fiftan co^sulato 
*:Pa ; eur.] * betynde lanes duru, 7 gewearS ba?t he ha?fde onwcald ealles 5 
middangeardes. J)set ' waes sweotole getacnad, pa he cniht \va?s, 
7 hiene mon wit5 Eome weard la?dde a?fter Iuliuses siege, by 
ilcan da?ge be hiene mon to consule dyde, past mon geseah 
ymbe pa sunuan swelce an gylden bring, 7 binnan Eome weoU an 
wille ele ealne da?g. On p?em hringe wes getacnad p?et on his 10 
dagum sceolde weorban geboren se se pe leohtra is 7 scinendra 
ponne sio sunne pa wsere. 7 se ele getaenade miltsunge ealhwn 
moncynne. Swa he eac monig tacen self gedyde pe eft ge- 
wurdon, peh be hie nnwitende dyde on Godes bisene. 

' \>a. both 

4 crated. 

Sura waea serest pcet be bebead ofer ealne middangeard pel l" 
selc maegp ymbe geares ryne togjedere come, past a?lc (man) - py 
gearor wiste hwger he gesibbc heefde. pa?t tacnade past on his 
dagum sceolde beon geboren se se pe us ealle to anum maeg- 
gemote gelapap ; past bic5 on paem toweardan life. 

0)?er is 3 pat he bebead pott call moncynn ane sibbe haefde, 7 20 
an gafol guidon. \)cet tacnade post we calle sculon aennegeleafan 
habban, 7a'nnc willan godra weorca. 

pridde waes pset he bebead poet aelc para pe on elSeodignesse 
wfere, come to his agnum earde, 7 to his faeder oeple 4 , ge peowe 
ge frige. 7 se pe poet nolde, he bebead pa?t mon pa ealle slog> - 
bant Wffiron vi m, pa hie gegaderad wsaron. paet tacnade p.i?t 
us eallum is beboden past we sculon cuman of pisse worolde to 
ures feeder oeSle, pcet is to heofonrice ; 7 se pe poet nele, he 
wvrp aworpen 7 ofslagen. 

(V, XV.) 

JEiter psem pe Romeburg getimbred (wsee) 8 vn hunde wintra 30 
7 xxxvi, wurdon rame Espania leode Agustuse wiperwearde. 



Anno ab Urbe condita dccxxv, ipso Imperatore Caesare 
Augusto quinquies, et L. Apuhio consulibus, Caesar urbem 
ingressus est; ac turn primum ipse Iani portas clausit. Summa 
rerum ac potestatum penes unum esse coepit et mansit, quod 
G-raeci monarcbiam vocant. Hoc autem fideliter commemorasse 
ideo par fuit, ut per omnia venturi Christi gratia praeparatum 
Caesaris imperium comprobetur. Nam cum primum, Caio 
Capsare interfecto, Urbem ingrederetur, circulus ad speciem 
coelestis arcus orbem solis ambiit, quasi eum solum clarissimum 
in orbe monstraret, cujus tempore venturus esset, qui ipsv/m 
solem fecisset. Deinde, cum triginta millia servorum dominis re- 
stituisset, . . . fons olei per totum diem fluxit : quo signo quid 
evidentius, quamfutura Christi nativitas declarata est ? Christus 
enim unctus interpretatur. 

Restituendos omnes servos, qui tamen cognoscerent Dominum 
sunm, ceterosqxie, qui sine domino invenirentur, morti sup- 
plicioqne dedendos, evidentissima Ms, qui Proplietarum voces non 
audiebant, signa prodiderunt. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccxxvi, Caesar parwm in Hispania 
per dv centos annos actum intelligens, si Cantabros atque Astures 


alfked's obosius. 

pa ondyde he eft lanes duru, 7 wit) hie fird gelaedde, 7 hie 
gefliemde, 7 hie si)?)?an on anum faestenne besaet ; pctt liie si)?}?an 
hie selfe surne ofslogon, sume mid atre acwealdon, sume hungre 

*[Page 148.] Miter J?aern monege beoda wunnon wiS Agustus, * aeg)?er ge 5 
Ilirice, ge Pannonii, ge Sermende, ge monege o)?ra beoda. 7 
Agustuses ladteowas monega micla gefeoht wij? him J?urhtugon, 
buton Agustuse selfu/n, aer hie hie ofercuman mehten. 

Miter )?aern Agustus sende Quintillus pone consul on Ger- 
manie mid )?rim legian. Ac hiora wear)? selc ofslagen, buton 10 
baem consule anmu. For bsere daede 1 wearb Agwstus ewa 
Earig )?aet he oft unwitende slog mid his heafde on )?one wag, 
ponne he on his setle sset ; 7 bone consul he het ofslean. Miter 
)?aeni Germanie gesohton Agustus ungeniedde him to fribe, 7 he 
hiwi forgeaf )?onc ni<5 be he to him wiste. 15 

1 From C. ; 
dyde L. 

2 senegu L. 
agenum V. 

• From C. 

* From C. 

> From 0. 
it |';i(> L. 
<■ v 1 '. 
7 VI I . 

MitQY )?aem eall beos worold geceas Agustuses fri<5 7 big 
sibbe ; 7 ealluwi monnum nanuht swa god ne )?uhte swa liie 
to his hyldo become, 7 poet hie his underbeowas wurden : ne fer 
ban postte aenigum folce his aegenu 2 ae gelicade to healdenne, 
buton on pa wisan J?e him Agustus behead, pa wurdon lanes 20 
dura faeste betyncd, 7 bis loca rustcga, swa hie naefre aer naeron. 
On baem ilean gere be bis eall gewearS — baet waes on J?a?m 
twain 7 feowerteoban wintra Agustuses rices — pa wearft (se) 3 
geboren se be pa sibbe brohte eallre worolde, bast is ure Dryhten 
Haelende Cri^t. 25 

Nu ic haebbe gesaed, civceft Orosius, from frymbe )?isses mid- 
dangeardes hu eall moncyn angeald bees serestan monnes syuna 
mid miclum teonu»i 7 witum, nu ic wille eac iorp gesecgan 
hwelc mildsung 7 hwelc gc)?\vcernes sibban wa?s si)?J?an (se) * 
cristendom waes, gelicost )?a?m be monna heortan awende wur- 30 
den, for )?on J?e ba aerran )?ing agoldene waeron. Her endab 5 
sio sixte" hoc, 7 onginf seo siofotSe 7 . 


suis uli legibus sineret, aperuit Jani portas, atque in Ilispanias 
ipse cum exercitu profectus est. Cantabri victi, in Vinnium 
monlem natura tutisshnum confugemnt, ubi obsidionis fame ad 
extremum pene consumti sunt. Medtdlium montern obsidione 
cinxerunt. Se pene omnes certatim ferro ac veneno necaverunt. 
Illyrii, Pannonii, Sarmatae, plurimique et maximi Germaniae 
populi, per diversos duces superati. 

Stib eodem tempore Quinctilius Varus cum tribus legionibus a 
Germanis funditus deletus est, quam reipublicae cladem Caesar 
Augustus adeo gravitcr tulit, ut saepe per vim dolor is caput 
parieti collidens, clamaret : Quinctili Vare, redde legiones. 


Caesar Augustus cunctis gentibus una pace compositis, Jani 
portas tertio ipse tunc clausit. Quas obseratas otio ipsa, etiam 
rubigo signaxit. Igitur eo tempore, quo pacem Caesar com- 
2>osuit, natus est Christus : cujus adventui pax ista famidata 
est, in cujus ortu angeli cecinerunt, 'Gloria in excelsis Deo' 

Quamobrem quia ad id temporis perventum est, quo Christus 
regnum Caesari tranquillissimuin dedit, hunc quoque sextum 
libellum hoc fine concluserim : ut germinantia tempora Chris- 
tiana septimo libello comprehendam : ut quoniam ab initio et 
peccare homines, et puniri propter peccata non tacui, nunc 
quoque, quae ptrsecutiones Christianorum actae sint, et quae 
vltiones sectdae sint, expediam. 

252 aiired's orosius. 

(VI, I.) 
i From a.\ (Nil) 1 Ic wille, ciwecS Orosius, on foreweardrc bisse seofeban 2 

left blank for . . ' 

ornamental bee gereccean beet hit ben Godes bebod waes, beh hit strong 

'• "• '' inL. 

trie. waere, hu emnlice ba feower onwealdas para feower heafedrica 

pisses middangeardes gestodon. 

])(et sereste waes on Asirium, on paern eastemestan onwalde, 5 
*[Page 149.] on Babylonia paere bjTig. Sio gestod * tuwa seofon hund 

wintra on hiere onwealde aer hio gefeolle, from Xinuse hiora 

aerestan cyninge, op Sardanopolim heora nihstan : baet is in c 

wintra 7 I M. 
3 anweaides c. V& Cirus benom Babylonia hiere onwealde 3 , ba ongon aerest 10 

Romana weaxan. 

Eac on baem dagum waes baet norbmeste micliende on Maece- 

donium. past gestod lytle leng bonne seofon bund wintra from 
'sftemartan heora aerestan cyninge Canone ob Perseus heora aeftemaestan *. 

Swa eac on Affricuwi, on baem Buftmestan, Cartaina sio burg 15 

> liie with o hio 5 gcfeoll eac ymb seofon hund wintra 7 ymb lytelnc first baes 

written over ; 

heoc. be hie aerest Diba be c wifmon getimbrede, ob hi eft Scipia 

" se C. 

towearp se consul. 

Swa eac Romana, se is maest 7 westmest. Ymb vn c wintra 

> fyrcyn 7 7 ymb lytelne eacon, com micel fyrbryne r on Bomeburg, bast 20 

mycel bryne . 

0. baerbmnan forburnon xv tunas, swa nan mon nyste hwonan baet 

fyr com. 7 baer forwearS inaest eall baet baerbinnan waes, baet 

e oSstod 0. P 861 " vmeape aenig grot stapoles aSstod 8 . Mid pae?» bryne hio 
waes swa swipe forhiened baet hio na-fre sibban swelc naes, aer 
hie eft Agustws swa micle bet getimbrede bonne hio ffifre aer 25 
weere, by geare be Crist geboren waes, swa p&tte sume men 
cwaedon \>a>t hio waere mid gimstanum gefraetwed. pone fultinn 

•> the neeond n 7 baet weorc Agnstus gebohtc mid fela m talentana 9 . 

Hit waes eac sweotole gesiene baet hit waes Godcs stihtung 
ymb para rica anwaldas, pa pa Abrahame waes gehaten Cristas 30 

l^jjf" 1 *" "' cyme on baem twaem 7 on 10 fcowcrteoban wintra baes be Nine's 



Principio secundi libelli multa convenienter inter Babyloniain 
et Romam com pacta conscripsi. 

Illam tunc Cyro captam velut in mortem concidisse. cum stain 
aelsurgentem post expidsos reges liberis uti coepisse consiliis. 

Praeterea intercessisse dixeram inter Babylonium regnum et 
Romanum Macedouicum Africanunique regnum, hoc est, quasi a 
meridie ac septemtrione partes tutoris curatorisque tenuisse. 

Regnum Macedonicura a Carano usque ad Persen paulo minus 
quam dcc annis, utrumque tamen septenarius ille numerus, ter- 

Regnum Cartbaginiense a conditioue usque ad eversiouem 
ejus paido amplius quam septingentis auuis stetit. 

Roma ipsa etiara . . in occursu numeri hujus ojjendit. Nam 
septiugeutesimo conditionis suae anno, quatuordecim vicos ejus, 
incertum unde consurgens flamnia consumsit, nee unquam 
majore incendio vastata est; adeo ut Caesar Augustus ad 
reparationeni eorum, quae tunc exusta erant, magnam vim 
pecuniae largitus sit. 

Poteram quoque ostendere, eumdem duplicatum numerum 
mandsse Babylonian, nisi praesentiuni contemplatione revocarer. 
filial sane libenter adjicio, quia Nini anno, postquam regnare 

254 Alfred's oeosius. 

ricsade on Babylonia. Swa eac eft on psem sij^mestan 
onwalde 7 on peem westeniestan, pset is Roma, wearS se ilea 
geboren pe aer Abrahame gehaten waes, on £>aern twaem 7 on 
feowerteogban geare paes pa Agustus ricsade, paet waes sippan 
Romeburg getimbred waes vn C wintra 7 lii. 5 

SiJ?]?an gestod Romeburg xii winter mid miclum welmn, 
1 From C; ba hwile be 1 Agustus pa eaSmetto wi)? God gebeold be he an- 

}>a L, 

gunnen haefde, J>aet wses ]?3et he fleah 7 forbead pcet hiene mon 
*[Pagei5o.] god hete, swa nan cyning nolde pe ser him waes, * ac woldon 

]?8et mon to him gebaede 7 him ofrede. Ac ]?aes on J>aem twelftan 10 
* genefa C. geare Gains his nefa 2 for of Egyptum on Sine, — hit haefde 
Agustus him to onwalde geseald — pa nolde he him gebiddan to 
J^aem aelmihtigum Gode, pa he to Hierusalem com. pa hit mon 
Agustuse saede, pa herede he }?a ofermetto, 7 nanuht ne leah- 
trade. Rape pses Romane anguldon paes wordes mid swa 15 
miclum hungre pcet Agustus adraf of Romebyrig healfe pe paer- 
binnan waeron. pa wearS eft lanes duru andon, for pon pe pa 
latteowas waeron Agustuse of monegu??i landum ungerade, peh 
pa?r nan gefeoht purhtogen ne wurde. 

(VI, II.) 

jEfter [psem] pe Romeburg getimbred was vn hunde wiutra 2o 
*soaUoC. 7 lxvii, feng Tiberius to rice se cesar 3 aefter Agustuse. He 
<anweaidac. waes Romanum swa forgiefen 7 swa milde swa him nan onwald 4 
naes aer paem, 0)3 him Pilatus onbead from Hier?<salem ymbe 
Cri^tcs tacnunga, 7 ynibe his [mar]tyrunga, 7 eac pcet hiene 
monige for god haefde. Ac pa he hit saede boein senatum, pa 25 
Vrom 0. wurdon hie alle wiS hiene (swiSe) " wiSerwearde, for pon pe hit 
mon ne saede him aeror swa hit mid him gewuna waes, paet hie 
hit sijipan mehten eallum Romami//; cyban, 7 cwaedon pcet hie 
hiene for god habban noldon. pa wear'S Tiberius Ronianu»i 
swa wra$ 7 swa heard swa he him aer waes milde 7 ie)?e, baet he 30 



coeperat, quadragesimo tertio naius est Abraham, ex cujus semine 
promissus est Christus : deinde nunc Caesaris, posteaquani im- 
perare coejrit, anno quadragesimo secundo, natus est Christus, qui 
Abrahae sub Nino prime- rege fuerat repromissus. 


Postquam Christus venit in terras, dum per duodecim annos 
clausae belli portae beatissima pads tranquillitate cohibentur, 
Caium, nepotem suum, Caesar Augustus ad ordinandas 
Aegypti Syriaejwe provincias misit, qui praeleriens ab Aegypto 
fines Palestinae, apud Hierosolymam in tempi o Dei adorare con- 
temsit. Quod Augustus, ubi per eum compeiit, prudenter 
fecisse laudavit. Itaque adeo dira. Romanos fames consecuta est, 
ut Caesar omnes peregrinos, servorum quoque maximas copias 
trudi Urbe praeceperit. Igitur etsi apertus est Janus, tamen 
per multa ex eo tempora, quamvis in procinctu esset exercitus, 
nulla bella sonuerunt. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcclxvii, post mortem Augusti Tiberius 
Caesar imperium adeptus est. Tiberius cum magna et gravi 
modestia reipublicae praefuit. At Pilatus, praeses Palestinae 
provinciae, ad TLberium retulit de passione Christi, conseqicen- 
tibusque virtutibus, et de eo quod plurimorum fide Deus cre- 
deretur. Tiberius retulit ad senatum ut Christus Deus ha- 
bei'etur. Senatus indignatione motus, quod non sibi prius 
secundum morem delatum esset, consecrationem Christi recusavit. 
Itaque paulatim inmutata est Tiberii modestia, atque ex 
mansuetissimo principe saevissima bestia exarsit. Nam plurimos 
senatorum ad mortem coegit. Viginti sibi Patricios viros 


forneah nanne para senatuea ne let cucne, ne para twa 7 

» Me wanting twentigra inouna pe he him to fultume hsefde acoren, pcet 1 his 
raedpeahteras waeren, pa mon het patricius ; ealle pa he het 
ofslean hutou twain, ge his agene twegen suua. Hu God pa pa 
maestan ofernietto gewraec on J^eein folce, 7 hu swiSe hi his 5 
an^ulclon from heora agnum casere ! peh hit ealluw paem 
c - f oleum of 2 oprum londum swa swhbe gewrecen ne wurde Bwa 

hit oft eer wres. 

■■ Page 151.] On psem twelftan geare Tiberiuses * rices wearp eft Godes 

wracu Romanum, pa hie xt hiora theatruwi wseron mid heora 10 
plegaa, pa hit eall tofeoll, 7 heora ofslug xx m. Wyrbigre 
wrace hie forwurdon t5a, cwceft Orosius, }?set pa heora syima 
sceoldon hreowsian 7 daklbote don swipor ponne heora plegan 

»FromC. (began) 3 , swa hiora gewuna waes ser psem cristendome. 

« onhangen c. On bsem eahtateo]?an geare his rices. pa Crist waes ahangen 4 , 15 
weartS micel peosternes ofer eallne middangeard, 7 swa micel 
eorSbeofung J^set cludas feollon of muntum, 7, paette para 
wundra ma-st wass, f>a se mona ful wa\s, 7 paere Bunnan firrest, 
paet bio pa apeostrade. iEfter Jjgem Romane acwealdou 
Tiberius mid attre. He haefde rice xxm wintra. 20 

(VI, III.) 

.lifter Saem pe Romeburg getimbred waes vn hunde wintra 7 
i.xxxx, wear]] Gaius Gallica casere mi gear. He waes s\vij?e 
« eaii 0. gefylled mid unjjeawura 7 mid firenlustu»i, 7 ealle 5 he waes 
Bwelce Romane pa wyrpe wa?ron, for pon pe hie Cristes bebod 
1 pnm o hyspton, 7 hit forsawon. Ac be hit on him (swa) ■ swif>e wrsec, '±:> 
7 hi him swa laoe waeron peel he oft wyscte J?set ealle Romane 
hoefden Benne sweoran, J>aet he hiene rabost forceorfan mehte ; 
„,,., „.,„!,. 7 mid ungemete msende 7 ]?cet pan- pa rises Bwelo sacu swclc paer 
oft aer waes. 7 he self for oft on oJ>ra lond, 7 wolde gewin 
tindan, ac he ne mehte buton sibbe. Ungelice wa?ron pa tida, 30 
cw<r<S Orosius, sippan Crist geboren waes, sippan mon ne mehte 
ansibbe tindan, 7 ser b«m hie mon oe mehte mid nanutn pingaa 

On pain daguwa com eac Qodes wracu ofer Iupan, paet hie 

to c. 


consilii causa legerat ; horuin vix duos incolumes reliquit, 
ceteros uecavit. Filios suos, Drusum et Germanicum, manifestis 
veneni signis perdidit. Tanta crudelitatis rabie efferbuit, ut qui 
spr ever ant Christo rege salvari, rege Caesare puuirentur. 

ifujus tamen imperii anno duodecimo nova clades apud 
Fidenatium urbem accidit. Amphithealri cavea populo yladia- 
torium munus spectante collapsa est, et plus quam viginti millia 
hominum occidit. Dignum sane jwsteris tantae correptiouis exem- 
plum, tuuc ad spectandas hominum mortes homines convenisse, 
quando pro salute hominum providenda Deus homo esse voluisset. 

Deinde auuo ejusdem decimo septimo cum Christus patibulo 
suffixus est, maximo terrae motu per orbem facto, saxa in monti- 
bus scissa sunt. Tetra nox obducta terris est. Decimam quarlam 
eadem die lunam longissime a conspectu solis abfuisse, et Stellas 
tunc diurnis horis Julsisse referatur. Tiberius . . . ambiguis signis 
veneni obiit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccxc, Cajus Caligula coepit regnare, 
mansitque in imperio annis quatuor, homo omnium ante se 
flagitiosissimus, et cpii vere dignus Romanis blaspbemantibus 
punitor adhibitus videretur. Hie, ut breviter magnitudinem 
crudelitatis ejus expromam, exclamassefertur : " Utinam populus 
Romanus unam cervicem haberet." Saepe etiam de conditione 
temporum suorum conquestus est, quod nullis calamitatibus 
pvblicis insignirentur. beata germina temporis Christiani, 
quantum praevaluistis in rebus humanis, ut etiam crudelitas 
hominis magis potuerit clades desiderare, quam invenire ! In 
diebus salutis, hoc est, temporibus Christianis, convellere quietem 
non potest vel Caesar infestus. Hie siquidem pirofectus quaerere 
hostem, deficiente belli materia Romam rediit. 

Iisdem autem diebus Juduei, qui jam tunc meritis cladibus 


258 Alfred's orosius. 

aegper hsefdon ungef>waernesse ge betweonum him selfu??i ge to 
ealluin folcuwt; swa ]?eh liio wees swij^ost on Alexandria psere 
byrig. 7 hie Gaius het ut adrifan. pa sendon hie Filonem 
♦[Page 152.] * hiora pone gelaeredestan inon to pon pcet he him sceolde 
Gaiuses mildse geaerendiau. Ac he hie for psere gewilnunga 5 
swif>e bisrarade, 7 behead pcet hie mon on selce healfe hiende 

1 afjide c. jjger m on ]5aenne mehte, 7 behead ]?aet mon afielde ' diofolgielda pa 

cirican §t Hierusalein, 7 paet mon his agen deofolgield paarto- 

2 From c. middes asette, paet wees his (agen) 2 onlicnes. 7 Pilatus he 

' e edeiude c - hsefde on preatunge op he hiene selfne ofstong : he gedadtnde s 10 

urne Dryhtcn to deaSe. 

Ra)?e paes Romane ofslogon Gaius slaependne. pa funde mon 

on his maSmhuse twa cista, pa waeron attres fulle. 7 on o)?erre 

wses an gewrit, peer waeron on awritene ealra J>ara ricestena 
4 From ''• monna nonian pe he acwellan pohte, (J?ajt he hi pe lses forgeate) 4 . 15 
8 From c. p a geat mon pcet attor ut on Jaone sa?, (7) 5 rape paes paer com 

upp micel weel deadra fisca. iEgpaer wses swioe gesiene, ge 
»\netc. Godes wracu, ]?a" he pcet folc costigau let, ge eft bis mildsang, 

pa he hie fordon nc let, swa hit Gaius gepoht ha 

(VI, IV.) 

JEfter J?aem J?e llomeburg getimbred waes vn hunde wintra 20 
7 ' over ,ra - 7 xci "', ba feng Tiberius Claudius to Romana onwalde. On 

iure ; xtv 0. ' ' r ° 

]?33in serestan geare his rices Petrus se apostol com to Rome, 7 
paer wurdon aerest cristene men purh his lare. pa woldon 
Romane ofslean Claudius for Gaiuses pingum bis manges, pass 

fcaseresf. eerran cesares", 7 ealle pa pe pa:re msegpe waeron. Ac mid pon 25 
pe hie paes cristendomes onfengon, hie waeron swa gepwsere 7 
swa gesibsume pa>t hie ealle forgeafon psem casere pa faihpe pe 
his maeg hasfde wiS hie »r geworht. Ond be forgeaf him eal- 

»hi him don lu«i pcet unrybt 7 past facn pcet he him dun polite 9 . 

On p«re tide ge\vear<5 eac oper tacen un Romana onwalde, 30 
sippan him se cristeudom to com. pcet waes pcet Dalmatic 
woldon gesellan Scribanianuse pcem latteowe hiora cynerice, 7 

•[Page 103.] sippan wiS Romane * winnan. Ac pa hie geaomnod waron, 


exagitabantur, apud Alexandriam profligati caede, atque urbe 
propulsi, expromendarum querelarum causa Pbilonem, virum 
sane in priinis eruditum, legatum ad Caesarem miserunt. Sed 
Caligula, spreta legatione Philonis, omnes Judaeorum sacras 
aedes, atque in 2>"rimis antiquum illud Hierosolymis sacrarium 
repleri statuis simulachrisque imperavit, seque ibi ut Deum coli 
praecepit. Pilatus autem qui seutentiam darnnationis in Chris- 
turn dixerat, tantis irrogante Caio angoribus coarctatus est, ut 
sua se transvei'berans manu, malorum compendium mortis 
celeritate quaesierit. 

Caligula a suis protedoribus occisus est. Duo libelli reperti 
sunt : ambo lectissimorum virorum nomina coniinebant morti 
destinatorum. Inventa est et area variorum venenorum pocula 
continens, quibus demersis, infecta niaria traduntur non sine 
magno jjiscium exitio, quos enecatos aestus ejecit. Magnum revera 
indicium miserantis Dei, propter suffragrum gratiae et propter 
irae temper amentum in populum tunc injideliter obstinatum ; ut 
quanta multitudo hominum praeparatam mortem evaserit, ex 
multitudine interfectorum 2jiscium disceretur. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccxcv, Tiberius Claudius regaum 
adeptus est. Exordio regni ejus Petrus Apostolus Eomam venit 
etjiclem docuit. Atque exin Christiani Romae esse coeperunt. 
Sensit hoc collatum jidei suae Roma beneficium. Nam cum in- 
terfecto Caligula multa abrogando imperio, evertendaque p>enitus 
Caesarum universa familia senatus et consules decrevissent, 
Claudius magna usus dementia, omnium factorum dictorumve in 
eo veniam sauxit. 

Accidit etiam eodem tempore praesentis gratiae Dei grande 
miraculum, siquidem Scriboniaiius, Dalmatiae legatus, bellurn 
civile molitus, legiones multas ad sacramenti mutationem pel- 
lexerat. Itaque die dido, ut in unum undique ad novum im- 



260 alfked's okosius. 

7 kiene to cyninge clou woldon, pa ne inehton hie pa gutSfouan 

upahebban, swa kiora peaw wses, ponne kie onwaldas setton. 

Ac wurdon kim selfu/H witSerwearde pgt hie kit sefre ongunnou, 
» From c. 7 Scribani(an)us * ofslogon. OcSsace 2 nu, cwceS Orosius, se, se pe 
ture,- setsace wille oppe se pe dyrre, pest pat angiu naere gestilled for }?ses 5 

cristendomes Code, j gesecge kwaer senig gewin ser j?sem cristen- 

dome swa gekwurfe, gif kit ongunnen wsere. 

Oj?er wuudor gewearS eac pj feor]?an geare Claudiuses rices, 
pset lie self sefter gewinue for, 7 uau fiudau ue mekte. On psem 
geare wses micel kungor on Siria 7 on Palestina, buton pset 10 
EleDa, yEtiubena cwen, sealde pseni muuucu?» corn genog 
» From c.j p e W seron set 3 Hierusalem, for pon pe kio pa wses uiwlice 

On psem fiftau geare Claudiuses rices wearS opiewed an 

igland betuk Tkeram 7 Tkerasiam, v mila brad 7 v mila long. 15 

On psem seofepan geare kis rices wearcS swa mice] ungepwsernes 

on Hierusalem betuk psem pe pser cristene wseron, pset pser 

* oftreden c. wseron xxx M ofslagen, 7 set psem geate oftredd *, swa nan mon 

5 From c. nyste kwonon sio wro(k)t 5 com. On psem nigepan geare kis 

« Fromc. rices weartS micel kunger on Rome, 7 Claudius c ket ut adrifan 20 

Gaius L. , 

■iii.ieas'. ealle pa Iudan 7 pe pserbinnan wseron. JElter psem Romane 
witan Claudiuse pone kunger pe kim geteuge wses, 7 ke weartS 
kim swa grom, paat ke ket ofslean para senato/'Mm xxxv, 7 para 
operra 111 kund pe pser ieldeste wseixm. Miter J)sem Humane 
kiene acwealdon mid atre. 25 

(VI, V.) 

iEfter paam pe Romeburg getimbred wses vm kunde wintra 

7 ix, feng Nero to Romana onwalde, 7 kiene ksefde xiiii gear, 

1 . he , He 8 hsefde giet pe ma unpeawa ponne 9 kis earn kaefde ser Gain-. 

" C j : Toeacan bsem monififealdtun bisrnrum be ke donde wses, ke ket 

*i'agei54.] ^ sumum cierre onbsernan * Romeburg, 7 bebead kis agnum 30 

monnum pset kie simle gegripen pses licgendan feos swa kie 

mscst mekten, 7 to kim brokten, ponne kit mon ut opbrude 

7 gestod him self on paem kiekstan torre pe pserbinnan wses, 

NERO. 261 

peratorem ccmveniretur, neque aquilae ornari, neque convdli 
quoquomodo signa rnoverive potuerunt. Exercitus tanta 
miracidifide motits, et conversus in poenitentiam, Scribonianum 
interfecit. Propter tenera Christianonim germina banc ex- 
orientem tyrannidem, et consurgens istud civile helium neget 
quisquam divinitus esse compressum 1 Qui praeteritis tem- 
2>oribus de compressione bellorum civilium simile probarit 

Claudius quarto imperii sui anno bellum tibique quaesivit. * 

Eodem anno fames gravissima per Syriam facta est : sed Cbris- 
tianonim necessitatibus apud Hierosolymam, convectis ah Aegypto 
frumentis, Helena, Adiabenorum regina, conversa ad fidem 
Christi, ministravit. 

Anno imperii ejus quiuto inter Tberam et Tberasiam insula 
de pirofundo emicuit triginta stadiorum sjyatio extenta. Anuo 
ejus septimo in Hierosolymis tanta seditio exorta est, ut in 
portarum exitu populo coartato, triginta millia Judaeorum caede 
prostrata et comjiressione sufiocata referantur. Anno ejusdem 
nono, expulsos per Claudium Urbe Judaeos Joseplius refert. 
Sequenti anno tanta fames Eomae fait, ut imperator convitiis 
infestatus, aegre furorem plebis evaserit. Triginta quinque 
senatores et trecentos simul equites Romanos interfecit : ipse 
autem manifestis veneni signis est mortuus. 


Anno ab Urbe condita octingentesimo octavo, Nero Caesar 
principatum adeptus est, mansitque in eo annis quatuordecim, 
Caji Caligulae avunculi sui erga omnia vitia ac scelera seetator, 
immo transgressor. Denique urbis Romae incendium voluptatis 
suae spectaculum fecit. Per sex enim dies septemque noctes 
ardens civitas regios pavit adspectus. Quod ipse ex altissima 
turre prospectans, laetusque flammae pulchritudine, Iliadem de- 
cantabat. Avaritiae autem tarn praeruptae exstiiit, ut post hoc 

262 Alfred's okosius. 

7 ongon wyrcan scopleocS be psem bryne. Se wses vi dagas 
biernende 7 vn niht. Ac be wra?c bis ungewealdes serest on 
beere byrig hiora misdseda, 7 sibban on him selfmn, ba he hiene 
ofstong, beet bie Petrus 7 Paulus gemartredon. He ware monna 
serest ebtend cristenra monna. iEfter bis fielle wearS bara 5 
casera msegcS offeallen. 

1 From c. ■, (JEOter 1 bsem be Romeburg getimbred wees vin hunde wintra 

left blank in v r r t, 

l., a»d o/to 7 xxiiii, feng Galua se casere to Romana onwalde. Dees on 

below. /'b r 

baem seofeban montSe hiene ofslog Otbon an mon, 7 him to bon 
anwalde feng. 

Sona swa Romane serest cristenra monna ehton, swa bit Nero 
onstealde, swa wurdon ealle ba folc hiora wiSerwinnan be be 
eastan Siria wseron, ge eac hie selfe him betweonum hsefdon 
ungersednessc. Uitellwa, Germania cyning, gefealit briwa witS 
Othon, 7 hiene ofslog on ba?m briddan monSe bses be hie 15 
winnan ongunnon. 

(VI, VII.) 

(yEf)fter bzem be Romebnrg getimbred wse3 dccc wintra 
7 xxv, feng Uespasianus to Romana onwalde. pa wearS eft 
Bibb ofer ealne Romana anwald, 7 [he] bebead Titnse his suna 
beet he towearp bset tempi on "Hi&nualem, 7 ealle ba burg, for 20 
bon be God nolde baet hie bone cristendom mierde leng. 7 
forbead beet mon na tSaer eft ne timbrede. 7 he fordyde bara 

2 endiufon ludena xi 2 hund u : sume he ofslog, sume on ober land 
si bon r. gesealde, sume he mid hungre acwealdc. iEfter b 08111 *n"on 

* [Page 155.1 ° ' 

dyde him twgem bone triumphan, Ucspasiane 7 Tituse. Seo 25 

3 From c. onsien wearS pa micel wundor Romanum, for bon (be) 3 hi 

a?r ne gesawon 11 men atseemne ftreron sittan. Hi betyndan 

* wespania- lanes dura. /Efter bsem Wespasiantts 4 gefor on utsihte, on tSaem 
passianosC. nigebam r ' geare his rices, on anum tune buton e Rome. 


r ' b over t. 

(VI, VIII.) 
(^)fter bsem tSe Rome burh getimbred wnes vin hunde 30 


incendium Urbis, neminem ad reliquias rerum suarum adire 
p>ermiserit, cuncta quae Jlammae svperfuerant, ipse abstulit. 
Primus Christianos suppliciis et mortibus adfecit, ac per omnes 
2rrovincias pari persecutione excruciari imperavit. Christi 
Ajwstolos, Petrum cruce, Paulum gladio occidit. Sese ipse 
interfecit, atque in eo omnis Caesarum farnilia consumta est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcccxxiv, Galba usurpavit imperium. 
Septimo mense imperii sui ab Othone jugulatus est. Luit 
Roma caedibus principum excitatis civilibtis bellis, recentes 
Christianae religionis injurias. 

Otlio Eomae, Vitellius in Germania, Ves2)asianus in Syria 
imperia simid atque arma rapuerunt. Otbo, cum invasisset 
imperium, ac mox creatum imperatorem in Gallia per Ger- 
manicas legiones Vitellium comperisset, tribus praeliis contra 
Vitellianos duces congressus victor exstitisset, quarto praelio 
mense tertio quam imperare coeperat, sese interfecit. 


Anno ab UVbe condita dcccxxv, tranquilla sub Yespasiano 
duce serenitas rediit. Namque Judaei destituti in totum gratia 
Dei, in rebellionem exarserunt. Ad hos Vesjmsianus a Nerone 
missus, Titum filium suum majorem inter legatos habuit. Titus 
templum in Hierosolymis diruit. Josephus scribit undecies 
centena millia Judaeorum gladio et fame perisse : reliquias vero 
Judaeorum toto orbe dis])ersas. Vespasianus et Titus niagnifi- 
cum agentes triumphum, urbem ingressi sunt. Ignotum antea 
hoc spectaculum fuit, patrem et filium uno triumphali curru 
vectos victoriam reportasse. Qui continuo Janum obseratis 
cohiberi claustris censuerunt. Vespasianus autem in villa pro~ 
pria circa Sabinos nono anno principatus sui profluvio ventris 
mortuus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita octingentesimo vigesimo octavo, Titus 

264 Alfred's orosius. 

wintra 7 xxix, feng Tit?<s to Romana onwalde, 7 liiae hsefde 11 
gear. He wses swa godes willan pset lie sspgde pset he forlure 
pone dseg pe he noht on to gode ne gedyde. He gefor eac 
on psem ilcan tune Se his feeder dyde, 7 on psere ilcan adle. 

(VI, Villi.) 

(^E)fter peern pe Romeburg getimbred wses vin hunde wintra 5 
7 xxx, feng Domitianus to Romana onwalde, Tituses bropor, 7 

1 ehteiui c hit hsefde xv geai*. He wearp eft hetend ' cristenra monna, 7 

waes on swa micle ofermetto astigen, pset (he bead pset man on 

2 From c. gelice to him onbugan sceolde swa to Grode. And) 2 he bebead 

pcet mon Iohannes pone apostol gebrohte on Bothmose psem 10 
iglande, on wrsecsipe from oprum cristenum raonnum. 7 lie 
bebead pset mon acwealde eall Dauides cynn, to bon, gif Crist 
geboren mere ba giet, pcet he na sippan geboren ne wurde ; 
for pon be witgan ssedon pset he of bsem cynne cuman sceolde 
TEfter psem bebode he weartS self unweortSlice ofslagen. 15 

(VI, X.) 
.1 liter psem pe Romeburg getimbred wses vm bund wintra 7 
xlvi, ba feng Nerfa to Romana onwalde ; 7 for pon pe (he) 2 
eald wses, he geceas him to fultume Traianus bone mon. pa 
gesprsecon hie him betweonum pset hie wolden anwendan ealle 
pa gesetnessa 7 ealle pa gebodu be Domitiam/s hsefde ser gesett, 20 
for pon pe he him wses ser bsem latS ; 7 heton eft Iohannes set 
•[ragu 156.] his mynstre * gebrengan on Effesum from psem (woruld)ierpum 2 
pe he (h)wile 2 on wses. 

pa gefor Nerfa, 7 Traianus hsefde pone anwald x(ix) 2 ger 
sefter him. 7 he underpieckle Romanum eall pa folc pe him 25 
niwlice geswicen hsefdon. 7 he bebead his aldornion(n)um 2 pcet 
hie wseren cristenra monna ehtend. pa spede him hiora an. 
Plenius wses haten, bset he woh bude, 7 miclu?n. on psem syn- 
gade. He hit pa hrsedlice eft forbead. 

TRAJAN. 265 

biennio regnavit. Titus in eaclem villa, qua pater ejus, morbo 
absumtus est. 


Anno ab Urbe eondita dcccxxx, Domitianus, Titi (rater, Jratri 
successit in regnum. Qui per annos quindecini ad hoc per 
omnes scelerum graclus crevit, ut Christi ecclesiam convellere 
auderet. Idemque effi-ratus superbia, qua se Deum coli vellet, 
persecutionem in Christianos agi imperavit. Quo tempore etiam 
beatissimus Joannes Apostolus in Patmum insulam relegatus 
fuit. Inter Judaeos quoque exquiri genus David atque interfici 
praeceptum est, dum prophetis creditv.r, quasi adhuc futurus 
esset ex semine David, qui regnum ]>osset adipisci. Continuo 
tamen Domitianus interfectus est : cujus cadaver ignominio- 
sissime sepultum est. 


Anno ab Urbe eondita dcccxlvi, Nerva admodum senex 
imperator, Trajanum in regnum adoptavit, per quern revera 
adjlictae Reipublicae divina provisione considuit. Hie cunctos 
exsules revocavit : unde et Joannes Apx>stohis hac indidgentia 
liber atus, Ephesum rediit. . . . Nerva diem obiit. 


Trajanus reipublicae gubernacula Nerva tradente suscepit, ac 
per annos decern et novem tenuit. Germanium in pristinum 
statum reduxit : trans Danubium multas gentes subegit. . . . In 
persequendis sane Christianis errore deceptus, cum cogi ad 
sacrificandwn idolis, ac detrectantes interfici praecepisset, Plinii 
Secundi, qui inter caeteros judices persecutor datus fuerat, relatu 
admonitus, eos homines nihil contrarium Romanis legibus facere, 
rescriptis illico lenioribus temperavit edictum. 

266 Alfred's orositjs. 

On bsere tide wseron Iudan on miclum geflite 7 on micelre 
unsibbe wi(5 ba londleode bser baer bie bonne waeron, ob hiora 
fela M forwurdon on segbere band. On baere tide Traianus 
gefor on utsibte on Seleutia bsere byrig. 

1 From C. ; 
xi.vn L. 

2 From C. 

3 genefa G. 

1 From 0. 
" Iudea 0. 

6 Eliam C. 

(VI, XL) 

(JEf)ter bsem be Romeburg getimbred wses dccc wintra 7 5 
lxvii l , feng Adrianus to Romana onwalde, Tr(a)ianuses 2 nefa 3 , 
7 hiene lisefde xxi wintra. 7 raSe baes be hbn cristne bee cube 
wseron burh genne }?ara apostola geongrena, Quadratus waes 
baten, be forbead ofer ealne bis onwald pcet mon nanum criste- 
nuwi men ne abulge ; 7 gif senig cristen agylte, bset se bon??e 10 
wsere beforan bim gelsedd, 7 be him bon??e demde self, swa him 
ryht buhte. He wearS ba Romanuw swa leof, 7 swa weortS 
pcet hie hiene nanuht ne heton buton ' feeder,' 7 him to weortS- 
scipe hie heton his wif ' casern/ 7 he bet ofslean ealle ba 
Iud(e)iscan 4 men, for bon be hie cristene men pinedon ; ba 15 
waeron on Palestina, pcet mon het Iudena 5 lond. 7 he behead 
pcet mon timbrede on oberre stowe Hierusalem ba burg, 7 bce£ 
hie mon sibban hete be noman Helium fi . 

(VI, XII.) 
(yEf)ter bsem be Romeburg getimbred wses dccc wintra 7 
Lxxxvni, feng Ponpeius to Romana onwalde, be mon of»re 20 
nomon het Pius. 7 him seakle Iuetiira* se philosophus ane 
♦[Page 157.] cristene hoc for hiora freondscipe. * Sipf>an he pa geleornod 
haefde, he wearS cristnum monmm (swa leof 7) 7 swi)?e hold op 
his lifes ende. 

7 From C. 


Incredibxli deinde raotu sub uno tempore .Tudaei per diver sas 
terrarum partes exarserunt. Nam et per tot am Libyam adversus 
incolas atrocissima bella gesserunt. Multa millia eorum vasta 
caede deleta sunt. Trajanus apud Seleuciam profluvio ventris 
exstinctus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccclxvii, Hadrianus, consobrini 
Trajani filius, principatum adeptus, uno et viginti annis im- 
peravit. Hie per Quadratum, discipulum Apostolorum, libris de 
Christiana religione com2)ositis instructus atque eruditus, prae- 
cepit ut nemini liceret Christianos sine objectu criminis aut 
probatione damnare. Idem quoque pater patriae in senatu 
adpellatur, et uxor ejus Augusta. Judaeos, Palaestinam de- 
populates, ultima caede perdomuit : idtusque est Christianos, 
quos illi excruciabant ; Hierosolymam in optimum statum 
murorum exstructione reparavit, et Aeliam vocari pi'aecepit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccclxxxviii, Antoninus, cognomento 
Pius, imperator creatus, viginti et non plenis tribus annis rem- 
publicam gubernavit. Justinus philosophus librum, pro 
Christiana religione composition, Antonino tradidit, benignumjwe 
eum erga Christianos fecit. 



1 From C. 

2 pi« I. 

3 on swa C. 

(VI, XIII.) 

(.Ef)ter J?aem pe Romeburg getimbred wa?s dcccc wintra 
7 in, feng Marcus Antonius to Romana onwalde raid his bret5er 
Aureliuse. Hie waaron ba aerestan men be Romana onwald on 
tu todaeldon ; 7 (hi) * hicne hsefden xini winter. 7 hie bebudon 
Jjset mon a?lcne cristenne mon ofsloge. JEfter bsem hie haefdon 5 
micel gewin wi<5 Parthe, for }?on be hie hsefdon awest ealle 
Capodotiam 7 Armeniam, 7 ealle Siriam. Miter pseva. hie 
genamon fri<5 wi(5 2 Parthe. 7 him fipban becom on 3 micel 
hungor7 micel moncwealm, pcet heora feawa to lafe wurdon. 

iEfter bsem him becom on beet Deniscse gewinn mid eallum 10 
Germanium, pa on paarn daege be hie gefeohtan sceoldon, him 
com on swa micel haete 7 swa micel burst pcet hie him heora 
feores ne wendan. pa baedon hie ba cristnan men pcet hi heora 
an sume wisan gehulpen ; 7 ongeaton pert hit waes Godes wiacu. 
pa abaedon hie set baem aelmihtegum Gode baet hit swa swiSe 15 
rinde pat hie haefdon waeter genog onufan psere dune, 7 bast baer 
waes swa micel bunor pcet he ofslog fela pusend monna gemong 
pa?m gefeohte. 

pa aefter J?aem ealle Romane wurdon cristnum mommm swa 
holde pcet hie on monegum templum awriten pcet aelc cristen 
mon haefde fritS 7 sibbe, 7 eac pcet aelc para moste cristendome 20 
onfon se pe woldc. 7 Antonius forgef ealle J?set gafol pcet mon to 
Rome sellan sceolde, 7 bet forbaernan pat gewrit pe hit on 
awriten waes, hwaet mon on geare agiefan sceolde. 7 ba?s on 
baem sefterran geare he gefor. 


*From<: (^Ef)ter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes dcccc (wintra) 4 25 

*[Pa ge 158.] 7 xxx, feng Lucius Antonius to rice, 7 hit haefde xin ger. * he 

woes swipe yfel monn ealra jjeawa, huton pcet he waes cene, 

7 oft feah.1 anwig. 7 fela para Benatorum he bet ofslean be baer 

» irfter paTn betste wseron. yEfter B an Junior toslog hiora Capitoliam, pcet 

hus pe hiora godas inne wa?ron 7 hiora diofolgield; 7 hiora 30 



Anno ab Urbe condita dccccxi, Marcus Antoninus regnum 
cum Aurelio fratre suscepit, rnansitque in eo annis decern et 
novem. Hi primi renrpublicam aequo jure tutati sunt, belluni 
deinde contra Parthos gesserunt, Vologaesus enim, rex Par- 
thorum, Arnieniam, Cappadociam, Lyciamque vastabat. Sed 
Antoninus Seleuciam cepit, et cum fratre de victoria Parthica 
triumpliavit. Eo defuncto, Marcus Antoninus solus reipublicae 
praefuit, sed in diebus Parthici belli persecutiones Cbris- 
tianorum graves praecepto ejus exstiterunt. Secuta est lues, 
totamque Italiam pestilentia tanta vastavit, ut passim oppida 
sine habitatore deserta, in ruinas concesserint. 

Cum insurrexissent gentes innumerabiles, hoc est, Marcomanni, 
atque omnis^ene Germania, . . . et exercitus praesentius sitis quam 
hostis pericidum sustiaeret ; ad invocationem nominis Christi, 
quam subito quidam milites fecerunt, tanta vis pluviae effasa est, 
ut Romanos quidem refecerit, barbaros autem crebris fulminum 
ictibus perterritos, praesertim cum plurimi eorum occiderentur, 
infugam coegerit. 

Antoninus praeteriti etiam temporis tributa donavit, omniaque 
fiscalium negotiorum calumniosa nionunienta jussit incendi. 
Postremo repentino morbo diem obiit. 



Anno ab Urbe condita dccccxxx, Lucius Antoninus Coni- 
modus patri successit in regnum : rnansitque in eo annis tre- 
decim. Adversus Germanos bellum feliciter gessit. Ceterum 
per omnia luxuriae et obscoenitatis dedecora depravatus, gladia- 
toriis quoque armis in ludo depuguavit : interfecit etiam quarn- 
plurimos senatores. Flagitia regis poena Urbis insequitur. 

270 Alfred's orosius. 

' from bam bibliotheoco wearS onbserned from ' ligette, 7 ealle heora ealdan 
c. . , . 

bee forburnon psennne. paer wses a swa niicel deni geburnen 

■iFromc. swa on Alexandria wees psere byrig on hiora b(i)bliotheoco 2 , pser 

forburnon 1111 bund m boca. 

(VI, XV.) 

^Efter psem pe Romeburg wses getirabred dcccc wintra 7 5 
xliii, feng Seuerus to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene hsefde xvn 
3 From C-, ger. He besset Piscenius 3 on anum fsestenne, op be bim on 

Pisceniuus L. # g 

bond eode ; 7 be hiene sippan bet ofslean, for pon be wolde 
« .From c. ricsian on Sirie 7 on Egypte. iEfter pseni (be) 4 ofslog 

Albinus pone mon on Gallium, for pon pe he eac wolde on 10 
bine winnan. Sippan he for on Brettanie, 7 pser oft gefeaht 
wi<5 Peohtas 7 wi$ Scottas, ser he pa Brettas mehte wi(S hie 
beweriau. 7 bet senne weall pwyres ofer eall peel lond asettan 
from s<e op sae, 7 rape pass he gefdr on Eforwicceastre. 

(VI, XVI.) 

^E(f)ter paem pe Romeburg getimbred wses dcccc wintra 15 
7 lxii, feng his suuu to rice Antonius, 7 hit hsefde vn ger. 
He haefde twa geswostor him to wifum. He hsefde fole gega- 
. derad, 7 wolde winnan on Parthe, ac he wearcS ofslagen on psem 
fserelte from his agnuwi nionnuw. 

(VI, XVII.) 

iE(f)ter psem pe Romeburg getimbred wses dcccc wintra 80 
7 lxx, feng Marcus Aurelius to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene 
hsefde mi ger. Hiene ofslpgon eac his agene men, 7 his 
modor mid. 


♦[Page 159.] -<Efter pseni pe Romeburg getimbred wses dcccc wintra 7 
* Aureiianus i.xxiin, feng Aurelius ° Alexander to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene 25 
uiurnu c. hsefde xvi gear. 7 Marainca his sio gode modor sende setter 
Origenise jxern gelseredestan msessepreoste, 7 bio wearS sippan 


Nam fulmine Capitolium ictum, ex quo facta infiammatio 
bibliothecain Mam, majorum cura compositam, concremavit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccccxliv, Severua, destitutum 
adeptus imperiuni, decem et octo annis tenuit. Pescenniuni 
Nigrum, qui in Aegypto et Syria ad tyrannidem adspiraverat, 
apud Cyzicum vicit et interfecit. Civile bellum Clodius Albinus 
qui se in Gallia Caesarem fecerat, suscitabat. Albinus tauten 
cqypressus et interfectus est. Severus in Britannias defectu pene 
omnium sociorum trahitur. Ubi magnis praeliis saepe gestis, 
receptam partem insxdae a ceteris indomitis gentibus vallo 
distinguendam putavil. Jbiqne apud Eboracum oppidum morbo 


Anno ab Urbe condita dcccclxii, Aurelius Antoninus Bassia- 
nus, idemque Caracalla, principatum adeptus est, manbitc[ue in 
eo annis non plenis septeni. Vixit patre asperior, omnibus 
aictehi hominibus libidine intemperantior, qui etiam novercam 
suam uxorem duxerit. Hie, contra Parthos bellum moliens, 
ab hostibus circumventus occisus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita dcccclxx, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
imperiuni adeptus, tenuit annis quatuor. Tumultu militari 
exorto, Romae cum matre interfectus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita dcccclxxiv, Aurelius Alexander 
imperator creatus, tredecim annis digno aequitatis praeconio 
fuit. Cujus mater Mannnaea, Christiana, Origenem Pres- 
byterum audire curavit. Nam statiin expeditione in Persas 

272 Alfred's orosius. 

cristen from him 7 welgelsered, 7 gedycle peet hiere sunu wees 
cristenu??i monnum swipe hold. He gefor mid fierde on Perse, 
7 ofslog Xersan hiora cyning. JEher paeui he forlet liis lif on 
Magentsan peere byrig. 

(VI, XIX.) 

iEfter jxem pe Romeburg getimbred woes dcccc wintra 7 5 

lxxxvii, feng Maximus to Komana onwalde. He bebead eft 

J?set mon cristene men brocode, 7 peet mou pa godan Mamineam 

gemartrade, 7 ealle pa preostas pe hiere folgodan, buton Ori- 

» from c. genis : (he) ' opfleah on Aegypte. 7 Maximus ofslog his agen 

ealdormon on pee in priddan geare his rices on Aquilegia pa?re 10 

(VI, XX.) 

/Efter psem pe Romeburg getimbred waes dcccc wintra 7 xc 
feng Gordianus to rice, 7 hit hsefde vi ger. 7 he ofslog pa 
twegen gebrotSor pe ser Maximus ofslogan. 7 he self rape 
pges gefor. 15 

(VI, XXI.) 

iEfter peein pe Romeburg getimbred va-s dcccc wintra 7 

xcvn, feng Pfiilippw to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene hsefde vn 

ger. He wearS diegellice cristen, for pon he eaweuga ne dorste. 

a^fetwirs On peern priddan geare his rices hit gewearS swa hit God 

dotted for % . 

muweajtcr gestihtade, pset woes ymb an M wintra pa?s pe Romeburg getnn- 20 
: ' deofuig>i- bred waes, paet wgper ge hiora casere wearS cristen, ge eac pa-t 
deofla pinces* hie pa rniclan feorme pigedon Cristes ponces set pses caseres 
* Kodar palendsan, pe hie eer eelce geare pigedon at hiora deofolgildum 2 , 
' w-arwa /,., deofla ponces : beet wees past ealle 8 Romane woldon ymb xil 

gegearod 0. m 

« From 0. monao bringan togsedere pone selestau dfel hiora godra 4 geara 5 25 

*[Page ico.] ^ } ieor a geblote) 6 7 hiora sippan fela wucena eetgsedere brucan. 

latere.)-, /Efter paeni Decius, an rice mon, * beswac 7 pone casere, 7 feng 

„, ( . him (siooon) 8 to pon anwalde. 



facta, Xerxem, regem eoruin, maccimo hello victor oppressit. 
MiUtari tumultu apud Moguntiacuni interfectus est. 


Anno ah Urbe condita dcccclxxxvii, Maximinus iniperator 
ab exercitu creatus, persecutioneru in Christianos exercuit. Sed 
continuo, liocest, tertio quam regnabat anno, a Pupieno Aquileiae 
interfectus, et persecutionis et vitae finem fecit. Qui maxime 
propter Christianam Mammaeae familiam persecutionem in 
sacerdotes, vel praecipue propter Origeneni presbyterum miserat. 

Anno ab Urbe condita dccccxci, Gordianus imperator 
creatus est, mansitque in eo annis sex. Nam Pupiemis, inter- 
fector Maximini, et f rater ejus Balbinus, qui usurpaverant 
imperium, mox interfecti sunt. Gordianus suorum fraude 
interfectus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita dccccxcvii, Philippus imperator 
creatus, mansit in eo annis septem. Hie ])rimus imperatorum 
omnium Christianus fuit, ac post tertium imperii ejus annum 
millesimus a conditione E,omae annus inpletus est. Ita magni- 
ficis ludis hie natalis annus a Christiano imperatore celebratus, 
est. Ambo tamen Decii fraude interfecti sunt. 


274 Alfred's orosius. 

(VI, XXII.) 

i From c. ; yEfter (paem) l pe Ronieburg getimbred waes m wintra 
7 mi, feng Decius to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene haefde in 
ger. 7 sona gedyde sweotol tacu pcet he Philippws aer besie- 

2j>»tc. rede, mid paern pe 2 he het cristenra monna ehtan, 7 monege 
gedyde to halguni martyrum, 7 gesette his sunu to paeni 5 

sFromc. j onwalde to hira, and ra(5e 2 baes hie wurdon beffen aetsemne* 

rade L. r 

♦ ffitsomnec. ofslagen. 


^Efter Jjserri pe Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 vin, 
feng Gallus Ostilianus to rice, 7 hit haefde n ger. pa wearS 
eft Godes wracu on Rome : swa longe swa seo ehtnes waes para 10 
cristenra monna, swa longe him waes ungemetlic moncwealm 
b byrige l. getenge, paet nan hiis naes binnan Jwre byrig 5 paet hit naefde 
paere wrace angolden. JEfter paem Emilianus ofslog Gallus, 
7 haefde him pone anweald. pees eac on ]>aem priddan monSe 
hiene mon ofslog. 15 


yEfter bsem pe Romeburg getimbred waes m wintra 7 x, pa 
gesetton Romane n caseras. Oper waes binnan Romebyrig, 
Gallienus waes haten, oper waes mid Emilitum paeni folce, Uale- 
rianus waes haten. pa sceoldon on siml beon winnende paer hit 
ponne pearf waes. pa bebudon hie begen cristenra monna 20 
"becom c. ehtnesse. Ac hraedlice on hie begen com c Godes wracu. Ualeri- 
antts for mid fierde ongean Sapan, Persa cyning, 7 paer ge- 
fougen waes. 7 sippan Ik- W8B8 Sapan paem cyuinge to Son 
geset, op his lifes ende, paet he swa oft sceolde stupian swa he 

'hric c, to his horse wolde, 7 he ponne se cyning haefde his hrycg 7 him 86 

hring L. icith , , . 

the n erased, to hllCpan. 

» ma;nige ft 7 paem obrum, Gallienuse, waeron monog 8 folc onwinnende, 

decius. 275 


Anno ab Urbe condita miv, Decius invasit imperium, tenuit- 
que annis tribus. Idem continuo, in quo se etiam ob hoc 
Philippos interfecisse docuit, ad per&equendos Christianos 
feralia dispersit edicta, pluiimosque sanctorum ad coronas 
Christi de suis cruciatibus misit. Idemqxxe filiuni suum 
Caesarem legit, cum quo simul continuo interfectus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita mvii, Gallus Hostilianus regnum 
adeptus, vix duobus annis obtinuit. Exoritur ultio violati 
nominis Christiani, et usquequo ad pi-ofligandas Ecclesias edicta 
Decii cucurrerunt, eatenus incredibilium morborum pestis exten- 
ditur : nulla domus fuit, quae non ilia pestilentia correpta sit. 
Gallus et Volusianus, dum contra Aemilianum helium civile 
moliuntur, occisi sunt. Aemilianus tamen tertio mense invasae 
tyrannidis exstinctus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mx, duo Imperatores creati sunt. 
Valerianus in Rhetia ab exercitu Augustus est adpellatus. 
Romae autem a senatu Gallienus. Facta a Decio Christian- 
orum persecutione, totum Bomanum imperium pestUentia magna 
vexavit. Mentita est iniquitas sibi, pestilentiam communis esse 
casus. Burst's igitur iram Dei sceleratis actionibus provocat. 
Valerianus siquidem adigi per tormenta Christianos ad idolola- 
triam, abnegantesque interfici jussit. Valerianus illico a Sapore 
Persarum rege captus, ignominiosissima apud Persas servitute 
consenuit : hoc in/amis officii continua, donee vixit, damnatione 
sortitus, ut ipse acclinis humi, regem super adscensurum in 
equum dorso adtolleret. 

Et Gallienus quidem pacem Ecclesiis restituit. Sed non com- 




' miceire c. p ce t \ ie hi s r i ce m {(\ niicellre * unweorSnesse 7 mid micelre 
unieonesse gehaefde. iErest Germanie pe be Donua waeron, 
forhergedon Italiam, op Rafennan pa burg ; 7 Swaefas for- 
hergedon ealle Galliarn ; 7 Gotan oferhergcdon eall Creca lond, 

•[Page 161.] j p a Iggssan Asiam ; 7 Sermende genieddon * ealle Dati from 5 
Romana onwalde ; 7 Hunas forhergedon Pannoniam ; 7 Parthe 
forhergedon Mesopotamiam, 7 ealle Sirie. Toeacan paem 
Romane haefdon gewin betuli him selfum. iEfter paem Gal- 
lienus weartS ofslagen on Medialane 2 paere byrig from his 
agnum monnum. 10 

" Mediolane 

(VI, XXV.) 

^Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 XXV, 
feng Claudius to Romana onwalde. py ilcan geare he oferwon 
Gotan, 7 hie adraf ut of Crecum. 7 him Romane gedydan 
senne gyldenne scield, paere daede 3 to weorSmynte, 7 an(e) 4 15 
gyldene anlicnesse, 7 ahengon (hi) 4 up 5 on hiora Capitoliam. 
tyoreu» a,ed P* 13 ou P xm aefterran geare he gefor, 7 his bropor Quhitillus 
feng to paem onwalde. 7 paes on paem seofonteopan daege he 
wearS ofslagen. 

3 From C. ; 
* From C. 


(VI, XXVI.) 

^Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 xxvil, 
feng Aurelius to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene haefde v ger 7 vi 20 
monacS. 7 adraf Gotan be nor'pan Donua, 7 ponan for on Sirie, 
7 hie gcnii'dde eft to Romana onwalde. 7 sippan he for on 
Gallie, 7 ofslog Tetricum pone mou, for py pe he hi him teah to 
anwalde. JSfter paem he behead cristenra monna ehtnesse, 7 
rafte paes wearp ofslagen. ~° 


pensat ultionis mensuram unius inpii captivitas. Solvunlur 
repente undique 2>srmissu Dei ad hoc circumpositae gentes, 
laxatisrpie habenis in omnes Romanorum fines invehuntur. 
Germani Alpibus, Rhetia, totaque Italia p>enetrata, Ravennam 
usque perveniunt. Alamanni Gallias pervagantes, etiam in 
Italiam transeunt. Graecia, Pontus, Asia Gotliorum inun- 
datione delentur. Nam Dacia trans Danicbium in perpetuum 
aufertur. Quadi et Sarmatae Pannonias depopulantur. Parthi 
Mesopotamiam anferunt, Syi'iamque corrodunt. Et ne quid 
forte Romani corporis ab hac dilaceratione cessaret, consurgunt 
bella civilia. Gallienus autem cum Mediolaui libidinibus inser- 
riret, occisus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita millesimo vigesimoquinto, Claudius 
sumsit imperium, statimque Gothos, Jllyricum Macedoniamque 
vastantes bello adortus, incredibili strage delevit, cui a senatu 
clypeus aureus et statua aeque aurea decreta est, sed continuo, 
priusquam biennium in imperio expleret, interiit. Claudio 
mortuo, Quintillus frater ejus imperator septimodecimo imperii 
die interfectus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita mxxvii, Aurelianus imperium 
adeptus, quinque annis et sex mensibus tenuit. Fjxpeditione 
in Danubium suscepta Gothos magnis praeliis profligavit, 
ditionemque Romanam antiquis terminis statuit. Inde in 
Orientem conversus, Zenobiam, quae Syriam recejytam sibi 
vindicabat, in potestatem redegit. Tetricum in Gallia 
minime sujficientem sustinere seditiones militum suorum, ac 
per lioc proditorem exercitus sui, superavit. Novissime, cum 
persecutionem adversus Christianos agi decerneret, occisus 


Alfred's orosius. 

(vi, xxvn.) 

JEfter paem pe Romeburg getirnbi-ed wses M wintra 7 xxxii, 
feng Tacitus to Romana onwalde, 7 paes on paem sixtan monpe 
he wearp ofslagen on Ponto paem londe. -<Efter paewi Floriam 
feng to paem onwalde, 7 waes ofslagen on paem priddan monpe 
on Thaersa paem londe. 5 

> From C. j 
minas L. 

2 from C. ; 
bororum £. 


lifter paem J?e Romeburg wees getimbred m wintra 7 
xxxiii, feng Brobws to Romana onwalde, 7 biene haefde vi 
ger 7 mi mona'S. 7 be adyde Hunas ' of Gallium. 7 be 
ofslog Saturninus, pe aefter paem onwalde wonn. ^Efter paeni 
he ofslog Proculus 7 Bonorura 2 ; pa gierndon eac aefter paem 10 
onwalde. ^Efter paem be wearS self ofslagen on Sirmie paere 

(VI, XXIX.) 

♦[Page 162.] * (/E)fter paem be Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 
xxxix, feng Carus to Romana onwalde, 7 biene haefde n ger. 
7 gefeaht tuwwa wicS Parthe, 7 geeode hiora burga twa ; pa 15 
waeron on Tigris stape paere ie. Rape paes hiene ofslog an 
punor. 7 his sunu Numerianus feng to psem onwalde. 7 
rape paes hiene ofslog his agen sweor. 

(VI, XXX.) 

(^E)fter paeni pe Romeburg getimbred waes II wintra 7 xli, 
feng Dioclitianus to Romano onwakle, 7 hiene hsefde xx wintra. 20 
He gesette under him gingran casere, Maximus waes haten, 
7 hiene sende on Gallie, for pon tSe hie pa niwlice haefdon 
gewinn up abaefen, ac he hie pa ietSelice ofercom. On paere tide 
waeron Dioclitie m cyningas on winnonde : Caucarius on 
Bretlande, 7 Achileus of Egypta londe, 7 MarseuB of Persum. 25 




Anno ab TJrbe condita mxxxii, Tacitus acleptus imperium, 
sexto mense occisus in Ponto est. Post quern Floi'ianus parent 
regni sortem ferens, tertio mense apud Tarsum interfectus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita mxxxiii, Probus regnuin Bortitus, 
obtinuit annis sex et mensibus quatuor. Gallias a barbaris 
occupatas per multa praelia liberavit. Saturninum, tyrannide 
snbnixum, oppressit et cepit. Proculum et Bonosum interfecit. 
Ipse autem apud Sirmium in turre f errata interfectus est. 

Anno ab Urbe condita mxxxix, Carus suscepit imperium, ac 
biennio tenuit. Qui, cumjilios suos, Carinum et Numerianum 
consortes regni fecisset, bello ~P&rih\co, 2)ostquam duas Parthorum 
urbes cepit, super Tigridem in castris fulmine ictus interiit. 
Numerianus rediens, fraade soceri sui interfectus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mxli, Diocletianus imperator electus, 
annis viginti praefuit. Cum in Gallia Amandus et Aelianus 
tumultus excitavissent, Maximianum Caesarem fecit, misit- 
que in Gallias ; qui facile agrestium hominum inperitam 
manum compescuit. Per omnes Romani imperii fines subi- 
tarum turbationum fragores concrepuerunt. Carausio rebel- 
lante in Britanniis, Achilleo in Aegypto, cum et Narseus 



pa gesette he in caseras under him : an wses Maximiamu, oper 
Constantius, pridda Galerius. Maximianus he sende on Affricam, 
7 he oferwonn hiora wiperwinnan. 7 Constantius he sende on 
Gallie, 7 he oferwonn Alamanni pset folc, 7 sippan he geeode 
Brettaniam pcet igland. 7 he self Dioclitianus for on .^Egypte, 5 
7 besset Achileus pone cyning eahta nionatS on Alexandria paere 
byrig, 0$ hiene pa burgleode him ageafon, 7 he sippan ofer- 
hergeade ealle Egypte. 7 Galerius he sende on Perse, 7 gefeaht 
11 1 wiS Marseus pone cyning, paet hiera naper nsefde sige. ^Et 
heora priddan gefeohte Galerius wearp gefliemed, 7 mid micelre 10 
fyrhtnesse com [to] Dioclitiane. Ac he his onfeng mid micelre 
'agenurac. unweorcmesse, 7 hiene het iernan on his anum 2 purpurum fela 
mila beforan his rsedwaene. iEfter psem pe his mod wses mid 
paem bismre ahwet, he for eft on Perse, 7 hie gefliem[d]e, 7 
Marseus gefeng, 7 his wif, 7 his beam, pa onfeng Dioclitianus 15 
Galerius weorSlice. 

1 tweowa C. 

♦[Page ifi3.] yEfter pgem Dioclitianus 7 Maximianus bebudon * ehtnesse 
cristenra monna, Dioclitianus eastane, 7 Maximianus wcstane. 

3 wurdon c. 7 for pon gebode gewurdon " fela martyra on x wintra firste. 

pa gewearcS hi him betweonum pent hie woldon pa onwaldas 20 
forhetan, 7 pa purpuran alccgan pa hie weredon, 7 woldon hiera 
dagas on seftnesse geendian. 7 pat swa gela?ston. Dioclitianus 

* Nicomedia gesset on Nicomidio 4 paere byrig, (7 Maximianus gesaet on 

*FromC. Mediolane paere byrig) 5 . 7 leton pa onwcaldas to Galeriuse 7 

to Constantiuse. 7 hi hicne todaeldon sippan on tu : Galerius 25 
nom Ilirice, 7begeondan paem pone eastende, 7 pone maestan dad 
pisses middangeardes ; 7 Constantius nom ealle Italic, 7 
Affricam, 7 Ispanie, 7 Gallie, 7 Brettanie. Ac he waes hwon 
giernende pissa woroldpinga 7 micelra onwalda, 7 for pa?m 
he forlet his agnum willan Italiam 7 Affricam to Galeriuse. 30 
pa gesette Galerius ll cyningas under him : oper wa?s haten 
Seuerus, pa?m he gescaldc Italiam 7 Africam, 7 Maximianus he 
gesette on pa eastlond. 

On paem dagum Constantius, se mildestu monn, for <>n Bret- 


etiam rex Persarum Orientem hello premeret. Hoc periculo 
Diocletianus permotus, Maximianum Hercideum ex Caesare 
fecit Augustum ; Constantium vero et Maximianum Galerium 
Caesares legit. Constantius in Gallia, primo praelio ab Alam- 
annis profligato exercitu suo, vix ipse surreptus est ; secundo 
av.tem secuta est victoria. At Maximianus Qninquegentianos in 
Africa domuit. Porro autem Diocletianus Achilleum, obsessum 
per octo menses, apud Alexandriam cepit et interfecit. Aegyp- 
tum totam c&edihus foedav it. Praeterea Galerius, cum duobus 
jam praeliis adversus Narseum conflixisset, tertio victus, ad 
Diocletianum refugit. A quo arrogantissime exceptus est, ita 
ut per aliquot millia passuum purpuratus ante vehiculum ejus 
cucurrisse referatur. Verumtamen hac contumelia quasi cote 
ad virtutem usits est, per qiia/ni aciem mentis expediit. Itaqve 
raptim in hostem reversus, Narseum superavit. Extinctis 
Persarum copiis ij>soque Narseo in fugam acto, castra ejus 
invasit, uxores, liberosque cepit. A Diocletiano plurimo bonore 
susceptus est. 

Diocletianus in Oriente, Maximianus in Occidente adfligi 
interficique Christianos praeceperunt. Per decern annos cae- 
dihus mai'tp'um incessabiliter acta est. 

Diocletianus ab invito exegit Maximiano, ut simul purpuram 
imperiumque deponerent, ac ipsi in privato otio consenescerent. 
Itaque sub una die Diocletianus apud Nicomediam, Maximianus 
apud Mediolanum potestatem imperii deposuerunt. Galerius et 
Constantius prvmi Romanum imperium in duas partes deter- 
minaverunt : Galei'ius Illyricum, Asiam et Orientem ; Con- 
stantius Italiam, Africam, Hispaniam, et Gallias obtinuit. Sed 
Constantius, vir tranquilHssimus, Gallia tantum Hispaniaque 
contentus, Galerio caeteris 2 )ar ^ ous cessit. Galerius duos 
Caesares legit : Maximinum, quern in Oriente constituit, et 
Severum, cui permisit Italiam. 

Constantius vero, summae mansuetudinis et civilitatis, in 

282 Alfred's orosius. 

tannie, 7 baer gefor. 7 gesealde his suna pcet rice Constan- 
1 From c.j t inu.se \ bone he hsefde be Elenan his ciefese. 

Constantiuse ' 

L., with ti 


pa wolde ILaxentius, Maximianuses sunu, habban bone an- 
wald on Italian!, pa sende Galerius him ongean Seuerus mid 
fierde, pe him se onweald ser geseald wses, 7 he bser beswicen 5 
wearS from his agnura monnum, 7 ofslagen, neah Refanne ba?re 
byrig. pa JVIaxiniianus geacsade pcet his snnu feng to bsem 
onwalde, he ba hrsedlice forlet ba burg be he on ge[se]ten wges, 
7 bohte his sunu [to] beswicanne, 7 him sibban fon to bsem 
onwalde. Ac ba hit se sunu anfunde, ba adrsefde he bone fa?der. 10 
* From c.; y he fleah on Gallic, 7 wolde Constantinus 2 beswican his abum, 


*■ 7 habban him bset rice. Ac hit anfunde his dohtor, 7 hit Con- 

r,;,„i c. ■, stantinuse 8 assede, 7 he hiene afliemde 4 sibban on Masiliam ; 


£• 7 he beer ofslagen weartS. 

*fp il "iftj 1 P a g esea 'J e Valerius * Lucin(i)use B Italiam 7 Affricam ; 7 he 15 
'•>FromC. het ealle ba cristnan be bser betst(e) fi wseron gebringan on 
nieite? C ' ' e 'l 5eo de. vEfter ba?m he wearcS on micelre untrumnesse, 7 him 
7 onnaniuu to gehet monigne la?ce. 7 heora nan him ne mehte bion nane 7 

gode. Ac him ssede heora an pat hit waere Godes wracu. pa 
*From C. het he ba?t mon ba cristnan (men) 8 eft gebrohte on heora earde, 20 

selcne bser he ser wa?s ; Bwa beah he gefor on bsere mettrym- 
9 From c. -, nesse, 7 Lucinius 9 fen<? to bsem onwalde. 

Lucius L. ' or 

iEfter brem wcarb gewinn betuh Constant inuse 7 Maxen- 
tiuse, 7 raSe baes Constantinus ofslog Maxentius binnan Rome, 25 
1 byrigbott. oet bare brycge ! be mon Moluia het 2 . On ba?m dagum Maxi- 
3 From a minus behead cristenra monna ehtnesse, 7 ratJe ba?s gefor on 
Tharsa ba?re byrig. On bsem dagum Lucin(i)us s behead bret 
nan cristen mon ne come on his hierede ne on his fserelte. 7 
rabe ba j s wearS gewin betuh him 7 betuh Constantinuse 7 30 
oftnedlica gefeoht, ob Constantinus gefeng Lucinius, 7 hiene sib- 
ban hot behcafdian, 7 sibban feng to eallum Romana onwalde. 
«ma>sserr«- On c*cm dsegum Arrius se massepreost 4 wearb on gedwolan 

Djrtcr; nia-sse- 

ymb bone rvhtan geleafan. Ymb bone timan B wges gegaderad 

■ teonan 0. 


Britannia mortem obiit, qui Constantinum filium ex concubina 
Helena creatum imperatorem Galliarum reliquit. 


Praetoriani milites Romae Maxentium, filium Hercvlei, Au- 
gustum nuncupaverunt. Galerius Severum Caesarem adversus 
Maxentium cum exercitu misit. Severus cum Urbem obsicleret, 
militum suorum scelere desertus et proditus, atque ex eo fugiens 
Kavennae interfectus est. Herculeus Maximianus coiifirmatum 
jam in imperio filium intestate regia spoliare conatus, conviciis 
aufem militum palam conterritus, in Galliam prqfectus est, ut 
Constantino genero aeqtie dolis junctus auferret imperium : sed 
per filiam deprehensus et proditus, deinde in fugam versus, 
Massiliae interfectus est. 

Porro Galerius Licinium imperatorem creavit. Cwmqueperse- 
cutionem a Diocletiano missam ipse atrocioribus edictis adcumu- 
lavisset, ac postquam omni genere hominum exhausit provincias, 
putrefacto introrsum pectore, cum etiam vermes eructaret, a quodam 
medico increpitus, iram Dei suam esse poenam, edictis missis, 
Christianos de exsiliis revocavit. Ipse autem, cruciatus non sus- 
tinens, vim vitae suae adtulit. Ita Respvhlica nunc sub novis 
quatuor pvincipibus fuit, Constantino et Maxentio, Licinio et 

Deinde inter Constantinum et Maxentium bellum civile 
exortum est. Maxentius ad pontem Mulvium interfectus est. 
Maximinus, persecutionis Christianorum incentor infestissimus, 
apud Tarsum interiit. Licinius omnes Christianos e palatio suo 
jussit expelli. Mox bellum inter Licinium ipsum et Constantinum 
efferbuit. Sed Constantinus Licinium crebris bellis adsurgentem 
tandem ad deditionem coegit, sed privatum jussit occidi. 

His diebus Arius, Alexandrinae urbis presbyter, a veritate 
fidei catholicae devians, exitiabile plurimis dogma constituit. 

284 Alfred's orosivs. 

hi bund biscepa 7 eahtatiene, hiene to oferflitanne 7 to anian- 
i From c.; sumianne \ 


On paem dagum Constantinus ofslog Crispum his sunu, 7 
Lucinius his swostor sunu, paet nan monn nyste hwaet se g)'lt 
waes, buton him anum. /Efter paem he underpiedde him selfum 5 
monege peoda pe aer waeron Romanum ungewilde. 7 bet 
atimbran ane burg on Crecum, 7 het hie be him hatan Con- 

2 From c. stanti(no)polim s . He bebead aerest monna paet mon cirican 

timbrede, 7 part mon beluce aelc diofolgield(hus) 2 . He gefor 
yrnb xxxi wintra paes pe he rice haefde, on anum tune neah 10 
•[Page 165.] Nicomedio *paere byrig. 

(VI, XXXI.) 

3 * r " mC -\ (^E)fter paem pe Romeburg getimbred 3 waes u wintra 7 xci, 

feng Constantius to paem onwalde mid Lis 11 broprum, Con- 

stantine 7 Constante. 7 he Constantius hit haefde xxmi 

« From c. wintra. hie wurdon ealle pa gebropor on paem Ar(i)aniscan 4 15 

gcdwolan. Constantinus 7 Constans wunnon him betweonum, 

■'CoMstans ob Constantinus 5 weartS ofslajren. JEfter baem Macrnentius 
both. r " ° 

ofslog Constans. 7 feng him to paem rice, paet waes Galliam 
7 Italiam. On paem dagum Ilirice gesetton Ueteromonem 
pone mon to hiora anwealde, to pon pcet hie sippan mchten 20 
winnan wi?S Magnentiuse ; 7 hi hiene nieddon to leornunga, 

* 80 alto 0. peh he gewintred waere. Ac Constantinus 6 hiene benaenide 
aegper ge paes onwaldes, ge paere purpuran pe he werede, ge 

'ffifter^amc. paere scole pe he on leornode. ^Efter " lie gefeaht witJ Mag- 
nentiuse, 7 hiene gefliemde, 7 bedraf into Luchina pare byrig; 23 
7 he hiene selfne sippan ofsticode. yEfter paem Constantinws 
gesette Iulianus to casere under him, se waes aer paem to dia- 
cone gehalgod, 7 sende hiene on Gallie mid firde ; 7 he hraed- 
lice oferwon ealle pe pa on Gallie wunnon ; 7 waes aefter paere 
daedae swa up ahaefen paet he wolde ealne Rornana onwald him 30 
• gnian, 7 mid firde wa>s farcnde paer Constantin?<s waes mid 

• r:.ri!ier. O p orre gerde wij) Parhte 8 . pa he past geacsade 7 him ongcan- 
l " ' weard waes, pa he gefor 9 on paem faerelte. 


A pud Niceam conventus trecentorura et octodecim episcoporum 
faclus est, per quos Arianuru dogma exitiabile deprehensum, 
palam proditum ac reprobatum est. 

Sed inter haec latent causae, cur vindicem gladium Con- 
stantinus etiam in 2>roprios egit affectus. Nam Crispum, filium 
suuni, et Lieinium, sororis filium, interfecit. Praeterea multas 
gentes subegit. Urbem nominis sui instituit. Primus Con- 
stantinus statuit paganorum templa claudi. In villa 2 m0 ^ ca 
juxta Nicomediam diem obiit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mxcii, Constantius cum Constantino et 
Constante fratribus suis adeptus imperium, viginti qxiatuor annis 
tenuit. Interea insectatio diaboli aliud machinamentum invenit. 
Fit igitur Ario ad familiaritatem Constantii aditus. Suadetur 
Constantio, ut quosdam in Deo gradus credat. Constantinus dum 
Constanteni/ratfrem bello insectatur, occisus est. Post cum se 
Constans vitiis dedisset, Magnentii dolis ' interfectus est. Mag- 
nentius enim anipuit imperium, quod continuo per Galliam, 
Africam Italiamque porrexit. In lllyrico autem Vetranionem 
imperatorem sibi milites creaverunt, virum natura simplicem, 
qui ne prima quidem unquam literarum elementa didicisset. 
Itaque cum primas literas imperator senex, interdum invitus, 
meditaretur, a Constantio deponere jussus imperium, abjiciens 
cum Uteris purpuras, contentusque privatis feriis, palatium 
simul scbolamque dimisit. Sequitur bellum inter Constantium 
Magnentium^tte. Magnentius tamen victus aufugit, ac non 
multo post apud Lugdunum propria se manu interfecit. Con- 
stantius . . Julianum, Caesarem creatum, misit ad Gallias. Itaque 
Julianus op2>ressas ab hoste Gallias strenuissime in integrum resti- 
tuit. His elatus successibus, fastigium usurpavit Augusti: et mox 
Italiam Illyricumque pervadens, Constantium, Parthicis praeliis 
occupatum, regni parte privavit. Constantius, Juliani scelere 

286 Alfred's oeosius. 

7 Iulianws feng to Jjsem onwalde, 7 hiene haefde an gear 7 
eahta mona(5. pa waes he sona geornfull pcet he wolde die- 
gellice pone cristendom onwendan, 7 forbead openlice pset 
mon nane feeste hoc ne leoruode, 7 saede eac Jiset nan cristen 

1 underfoi- nion ne moste habban naenne his sunderfolgepa l , 7 hie mid paem 5 

ge|>a C. , * 

polite beswican. Ac ealle hie waeron psea wordes, swa we hit 

2 From c. ( e ft) 2 secgan hierdon, civcelS Orosius, J?aet liim leofre waes se 
•[Page lee.] cristendo?/i *to beganne ponne his scira to habbanne. 

iEfter })aein he gegaderade fierd, 7 wolde faran 011 Perse, 
7 behead, )?on«e be eft waere eastaue hamweard, pset mon haefde 10 
anfiteatrum geworht set Hierusalem, paet he mehte Grodes 
peowas on don, J?set hie dior Jjaerinne abite. Ac God gewraec 
on paem faerelte swipe gedafenlice on paem arleasan men his 
arlease gcpoht, mid paera pset hiene gemette an mon, pa he for 
from Actesifonte paere byrig, gelicost paem pe he fliema waere, 15 
7 him saede pcet he hiene mehte Uedan purh pa't Weston, pcet he 
on Perse on ungearwe become. Ac pa he hiene tomiddes J?aes 
westermes haefde gelaedd, pa geswac he hi?>i paet nan mon nyste 

3 hweartiende paes faereltes hwaer he com, ac foran hwaerfigiende 3 geond pcet 

westen, pset he nyste hwaer he ut sceolde, vp pses folces \\ 
fela forworden, aegper ge for purste ge for heete. pa com him 
ongean an uncutS mon, 7 ofstong Iulianus. 


(^E)fter paeni pe Romeburg getimbred waes m wintra 7 1 
bund 7 xvii, feng Iuninianus to Ronuina onwalde. Hiene mon 
geceas on paeni westenne, py ilcan daege pe mon Iulianws 25 
ofstong. He gesealde Persum Nissibi pa burg, 7 healfe Meso- 
potamiam paet lond, \v'\p bsem pe hie of paem londe mosten 
buton lape. On paem eahtopan monpe paes pe he to paem on- 
walde feng, he wolde faran on Ilirice. pa wsee he sume niht 

4 ntwcaotu on anu//t nicealtan 4 huse. pa bet he betan paerinne micel 30 

fyr, for pou hit wa-s ceald weder. pa ongon se cealc mid 


comperto, dum ad civile bellura revertitur, in itinera defunctus 



Julianus, regno potitus, anno uno et mensibus octo imperii 
sumrnam obtinuit, Cbristianaru religionem arte ]>otius quam 
potestate insectatus . . Aperto praecepit edicto, ne quis Cbris- 
tianus docendorum liberalium studiorum professor esset. Sed 
tamen, sicut a majoribus nostris cornpertum babemus, oinnes 
officium quam fidem deserere inaluerunt. 

Julianus autem bellum adversus Parthos parans, cum Romanas 
vires contractas undique ad destinatam secum traheret per- 
ditionem, Christianorum sanguinem diis suis vovit. Nam et 
anipbitheatrum Hierosolymis exstrui jussit, in quo reversus 
a Partliis, episcopos, monachos, omnesque ejus loci sanctos, bestiis 
objiceret, spectaretque laniandos. Itaque postquam a Ctesipbonte 
castra movit, dolo cujusdam transfugae in deserta perductus 
cum vi sitis et ardore solis atque labore arenarum confectus 
periret exercitus, imperator, dum per rasta deserti incautius 
evagatur, ab obvio quodam bostium equite conto ictus interiit. 



Anno ab Urbe condita mcxyii, Jovianus imperator in 
summo rerum discrimine creatus, cum nullum evadendi facul- 
tatem nancisceretur, foedus cum rege pepigit : quippe tit tutum 
et incolumem exercitum a locorum periculo liberaret, Nisibin 
oppidum et partem Mesopotamiae Persis concessit. Inde dum 
ad Illyricum rediens, per Galatiam iter agit, cum in cubimlum 
quoddam novum sese recepisset, calore prunarum et nidore 
parietum nuper calce illitorum suffocatus, octavo demum mense 
quam imperare coeperat, vitamfinivk. 

288 Alfred's orosius. 

i iuniuius ungeniete stincan ; pa wearp Iunini(an)us 1 mid paem brrepe 


(vi, xxxiii.) 

(^)fter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes m wintra 7 
tioaitoc. xcvm 2 , feng Ualentinianus to Roinana onwalde, 7 hiene haefde 

endlefan gear. He waes aer paeru Iuliauuses cempena ealdor- 5 
♦[Page 167.] mon _ *j£e him bebead paet be forlete pon(n)e 3 bis cristendom, 

o&Se bis folgacS. pa waes him leofre pcet be forlete his folgaS pon/ie 
* FrmnC; bone cristendoni : ac bim gefylste* God eft to maran are. ba be 

gefvlbttd L. r \ ° J . 

ba laessan for his lufan forlet, 7 pcet be baes ilcan rices abte 
geweald be his wiSerwinna aer ahte. 10 

RaSe baes he gesealde Ualente his bretSer healf his rice. 7 
he het ofslean Percopios?/s, be ba ricsian wolde, 7 monege otSre 
mid him. Ualeus waes gela?red from anum Arriauiscan biscepe, 
Eudoxius waes haten, ac be hit hael swipe faeste wi$ his broSor, 
for bon he wiste pset be bit on hi//* wrecau wolde, gif he an- 15 
funde pcet he on obran geleafan waere, on opran he self wses, for 
pon he wiste bu faestmod he wa>s aer on his geleafan, ba he 
lsessan onwald haefde. 

On paem ilcan geare Godenric, Gotena cyning, gedyde fela 
niartyra on his peode, cristenra monna. On paeni dagum 20 
Ualentinianws geniedde eft ba Seaxan to hiera agnum lande, pa 
hie woldon wiunan on Roinane ; pa waeron eardfaeste neb paem 
garsecge. 7 Burgendmn. he gestierde eac pcet hie on Gallie ne 
wunnon ; mid paem him waes swipost gestiered pat hiffl mon 
gehet fulwiht. On psem enleftan geare his rices Sermende 25 
hergedon on Pannoniam ; pa he piderweard waes mid fierde, pa 
gefor he on blodryne. 

(VI, XXXU.) 

(.E)fter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 an 
1 From c. bund 7 XAVilli, feng Ualens, Ualenti(ni)anuses ■ bropor, to 

Romaua onwalde ; 7 Gratianus, Ualenti(ni)anuses 5 suuu, feng to 30 
Italia anwalde, 7 to Gallia, 7 to Ispania, under Ualense. He 
pa Ualens ooewde openlice pat he aer diegellice gehyd haefde, 



Anno ab Urbe condita mcxviii, Valentinianus imperator 
creatus est, mansitque in eo anuis unclecim ; qui sub Juliano 
tribunus scutariorum, jussus ab imperatore aut inmolare idolis, 
aut militia excedere, sponte discessit. Ita, qui pro nomine 
Christi amiserat tribunatura, retribuente Christo, in locum per- 
secutoris sui accepit imperium. 

Qui postea fratrem suum Valentem par ticipem fecit imperii, et 
Procopium tyrannum pluresque satellites ejus occidit. Valens ab 
Eudoxio Episcopo, Ariani dogmatis adsertore, et baptizatus et per- 
suasus, in saevissimam haeresim decHnavit : sed malignam insecta- 
tionemdiu texit, nee voluntati potestatem admiscuit, quoad viven- 
tis fratris auctoritate compressus est. Contemplabatur enim de 
eo, quantum vim in ulciscenda^/wfo imperator posset exercere, qui 
tantam constantiam pro retinenda quondam miles habuisset. 
Eodem anno vera lana de nubibus pluviae mixta dejluxit. 

Praeterea Athanaricus, rex Gothorum, Christianos in gente 
sua crudelissime persecutus, plurimos barbarorum ob fidem 
interfectos ad coronam martyrii sublimavit. Valentinianus 
Saxones, gentem in Oceani litoribus sitam, periculosam Romania 
Jinibus, eruptionem meditantes, in ipsis Francorum finibus 
oppressit. Burgundionum quoque novum nomen, qui ripae 
Rlieni Jluminis insederunt. Eorum esse ]yraevalidam manum, 
Galliae testes sunt, in quibus consistunt, quamvis Cbristiani 
modo facti, innocenter vivant. Anno autem undecimo imperii 
sui, Valentinianus, cum Sarmatae sese per Pannonias diffudis- 
sent, easque vastarent, bellum in eosparans, subita effusione san- 
guinis, quod Graece apoplexis vocatur, suffocatus et mortuus est. 
Post quern Gratianus, filius ejus, occidentis imperium tenuit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mcxxviii, Valens imperium quatuor 
aanis, Valentiniano mortuo, tenuit, cui soli illico velut effrenata 
libertatis audacia legem dedit : ut monachi, qui ad unumjidei 
opus, dimissa secularium rerum multimoda actione, se redigunt, 
ad militiam cogerentur. Aegypti solitudincs magna liabitanthim 




S m.irtir C. 

3 Frum C. 

< mark of 
over libbende 
and wiste ; 
a nne lih- 
bendne C 

Bwa p<et he bebead pcet munecas — pe worokllica ping forgan 
sculon, 7 waepua gefeoht — pcet bie weepena nam en, 7 mid paem 
fubte, 7 yfel dyde mid oprum monnu?/z. 7 sende on Egypte 7 
het toweorpan eal pa munuclif pe bis bi'ocSor a?r gestapelade ; 7 
sume pa munecas be bet ofslean, surac on elpiede fordrifan. 5 

On pivm dagum Firmus waes baten sum mon on Africum, se 
waes J)aer wilniende pa?s onwaldes. pa sende Ualens pider 
Tbeodosius bis ealdormon (mid fierde, paes godan peodosiuses 
feeder,) ' pe eft wses casere. On J?sem faerelte * Firmtu wearS 
gefangen, 7 for)?gelaeded to sleannc. pa baed he self pcet hiene 10 
mon a?r gefulwade," 7 pa he gefulwad wae?, he waes jjurh pa?s 
maessepreostes lare pe hiene fulwade on swa fullum geleafan 
heofonrices, pcet he ctvcelS to o"aem folce, ' doS nu swa ge willen,' 
7 li'im self leat forj? paet him mon aslog pent heafod of, 7 wearS 
Cristes martyre 2 . 15 

On Saem dagum Gratianws gefeaht on Gallium wiS Alomoune 
paem folce, 7 heora fela m ofslog. On paem Sriddan geare his 
rices, pa he poet maeste woh dyde witS pa Godes peowas, ba 
adrifon hine Gotan lit of hiora earde, 7 bie foran sibban ofer 
Donua pa ea on Ualenses rice, 7 wilnedon to him pcet hie 20 
mosten on his rice mid friSe gesittan. pa oferho(go)de 3 he 
pcet he him acSer dyde, obbe wiernde, o}?pe tigjjade, ac bie let 
6ittan J?ser Jjaer hie woldon. Ac his gerefan 7 bis ealdormen 
nieddon hi setter gafole, 7 micel geflit haefdon ymb pcet, ob pa 
Gotan hie mid gefeohte gefliemdon. pa Ualens pat [gejacsade 25 
on Antiocbia baere byrig, pa weartS he swipe sarig, 7 gebohte 
his misdaeda, hu hi hiene baedon ryhtes geleafan 7 fulwihtes baeftes, 
7 be him sende Arrianisce biscepas to lareowum 7 gedwolmen, 
swa be self W9BB, 7 hwaet he baefde Godes )?eowum on oftsibas to 
lat5e gedon ; het peh sendon aefter, baer he aenigne libbendne 30 
wistc *, peh he pott to late dyde 7 him sibban het gearian. 

On paem feorban geare his rices he gefeaht wip Gotan, 7 

VALENS. 291 

monachorum multitudo compleverat. Hue milites missi, qui 
reros milites Dei alio nomine persecutions abstraherent. Iuter- 
fecta sunt ibi agmina mulUx sanctorum. 

Interea in Africae partibus Firraus sese regem constituens, 
Africam vastavit. Igitur comes Theodosius, Theodosii, qui 
post imperio praefuit, pater, a Valentiniano missus, Mau- 
rorum gentes multis prueliis fregit, ipsum Firniuin coegit 
ad mortem. Post, cum Africam meliorem 2> r istinis legibus 
reddidisset, instimulante invidia, jussus intei'fici, baptizari 
praeoptavit : ac postquam sacramentum Christi adsecutus est, 
de vitae aetemitate secarus, i^ercussori jugulum tdtro praebuit. 

Gratianus interea apud Argentariam, oppidum Galliarum, 
formidolosissimum bellum incredibili felicitate confecit. Nam 
plus quam triginta millia Alamannorum in eo praelio interfecta 
narrantur. Tertiodeciino autem anuo imperii Vcdentis, hoc est, 
parvo tempore postea quam Valens per totum Orientem sanctorum 
caedes egerat, radix ilia miseriartim nostrarum copiosissimos 
simul frutices germinavit : siquidem gens Htmnorum exarsit in 
Gothos, eosque ab antiquis sedibus expulit. Gothi transito 
Daimhio fugientes, a Valente sine ull a foederis pactione suscepti, 
ne arma quidem tradidere Romanis. Deinde propter avaritiam 
Maximi ducis in arma surgentes, victo Valentis exercitu, omnia 
caedibus foedarunt. Valens egressus de Antiochia, peccati 
poenitentia stimulatus, ejnscopos caeterosque sanctos revocari 
de exiliis imperavit.^ Itaque decimoquinto imperii sui anno 
lacrimabile illud bellum cum Gothis gessit. Ipse imperator, 
cum sagitta saucius versusque in fugam, in cujusdam villulae 
casam deportatus lateret, subjecto igne, consumtus est. Gothi 
antea supplices poposcerunt, ut illis episcopi, a quibus regulam 
Christianae fidei discerent, mitterentur. Valens doctores Ariani 
dogmatis misit. 

Gothi primae fidei rudimentum quod accepere, tenuerunt. 


292 Alfred's orosius. 

gefliemed wearo\ 7 bedrifen on anne tun, 7 paer wearS on anum 
huse forbaerned. paer waes swipe ryht dom geendad pcet hie 
pone woroldlice forbaerndon pe hie pohte baernan on ecnesse. 

(VI, XXXV.) 

(^E)ftei' paem be Romeburg getimbred waes m wintra 7 c 
7 xxxui, feng Gratianws to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene haefde vi 5 
ger ; 7 gesette Theodosius him [to] fultume, for pon him gepuhte 
pcet pa peoda pa hiora witSerwinnan waeron waeren to swiSe 
gestrongade pcet hie mon leng ne mehte mid gefeohtum ofer- 
swipan. Ac Theodosius genam frij> witS hie, 7 on paere sibbe 
he laedde Athanaricus hiora cyning mid him to Constantino- 10 

*[Pagei69.] polim * paere byrig; 7 paer ratSe paes hie lif geendade. Rafte 
Jjges pe Gotan angeaton hu god Theodosius waes, aegper ge hie, 
ge ealle pa peoda pe on Scippium waeron, gecuron his friS. 

On paem dagum gecuron Brettanie Maximianus him to casere 
ofer his willan. Se waere wierfte ealra Romana onwaldes for 15 
his monigfealdum dugu$u?tt, buton pcet he pa wip his hlaford 

1 From c. won for ooYa monna lare. 7 raSe paes (he) ' for on Gallie, 
7 Gratianws ofslog, 7 Ualentinianus his brotSor he adraf ut of 
Italiam, pcet he otSfleah to Theodosiuse. 


(JE)fter paem pe Romeburg getimbred waes m wintra 7 c 20 
7 xxxviii, feng Theodosius to Romana onwalde, 7 hiene haefde 
xi ger. He haefde vi gearum aer onwald ofer pa eastdaelas. 
He pa Theodosius waes bencende hu he Gratian?<« his hlaford 
gewrecan mehte, 7 eac his brotSor on paem onwalde gcbringan. 
»»badc. 7 fird gelsedde on Italie, paer Maximws mid firde bad 2 set Aqui- 25 
legia paere byrig, 7 his ealdormen Andregatia haefde beboden 
pa clusan to healdanne. Ac Be ealdormon hie betaehte \yprum 
monnum to healdonne, 7 puhte him self on scipun to farenne 
east ymbutan, 7 ponne bestelan on Theodosius hindan. Ac 
mid paem pe he from paere clusan afaren waes wip para scipa, pa 30 


Itaque justo Dei juclicio ijtsi eura vivum incenderunt, qui 
propter eum etiam mortui vitio erroris arsuri sunt. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mcxxxii, Gratianus sex annis imperium 
tenuit : qui cum adflictum etc pene collapsum reipublicae statum 
videret, legit Theodosium, et Orientis praefecit imperio. Theo- 
dosius maximas illas Scythicas gentes adgressus, magnis praelxis 
vicit. Foedus cum Athanarico, rege Gothorum, percussit. 
Athanaricus autem continue- ut Constantinopolim venit, diem 
obiit. Gotborum gentes, rege defuncto, adspicientes virtutem 
benignitatemque Theodosii, Romano sese imperio dediderunt. 

Maximus, vir quidem strenuus et probus, atque Augusto dignus, 
nisi contra sacramenti Jidem per tyrannidem emersisset, in Bri- 
tannia invitus propemodum ab exercitu imperator creatus, in 
Galliam transiit : ubi Gratianum interfecit, fratremque ejus 
Valentinianum Italia expulit. Valentinianus in Orientem refu- 
giens, a Theodosio susceptus, mox etiam imperio restitutus est. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mcxxxviii, Tbeodosius imperium 
Romani orbis obtinuit, mansitque in eo annis undecim, cum jam 
in Orientis partibus sex annis Gratiano vivente regnasset. 
Itaque justis causis ad bellum civile permotus, cum e duobus 
fratribus, et ultionem unius interfecti sanguis exigeret, et re- 
stitutionem miseria alterius exsulantis oraret, sese adversus 
Maximum proripuit. Aquileiae tunc Maximus victoriae suae 
spectator insederat. Andragathius comes ejus summam belli 
administrabat : qui cum Alpium aditus communisset, dum 
navali expeditione hostem praevenire et obruere parat, sponte 
eadem, quae obstruxerat, claustra deseruit. Ita Theodosius 

294 Alfred's orosius. 

com Theodosius baerto, 7 funde ba?raet f[e]awa men, ba waeron 

• from c. yfele 7 earge; 7 he hie raSe 1 (aweg) 2 abewde, 7 ba clusan 
2 From c. tobrsec, 7 sij>ban for ofer ba muntas, ob he com to Aqmlegia, 7 

Maxim?<s ofslog. pa pcet se ealdormon hierde, pa adrencte he 
hiene selfne. Hu ieSelice God geendade pcet micle gewin mid 5 
hiora twegea fielle, ba Maximws 7 bis ealdormon haefdon up 
ahaefen mid monigum peoduw ! 

lifter J)sem feng eft Ualentiniam/s to his rice. 7 })aes ymb 11 
ger, ba he on Gallie com, hiene ofsmorode Ambogestes his eal- 
dormon, 7 hiene sibban mid rapum be paem sweoran up aheng, 10 

* Fnm C; gelicost pxvx be he hiene self(ne) 3 unwitende haefde awierged ; 

7 gesette Eugenius to baem rices noman, pcet he casere wsere, 
*;pageiro.] *7 feng him self to pxrn onwalde, for bon pe he ne mehte self 
*FnmC.i habban baes onwaldes noman, for by he naes 4 Romanise; ac 

lserde bone oberne pcet he diofolgield georne beeode. pa gelaedde 15 
Theodosius eft fird wiS him twaem to )?a?re ilean clusan pe he 
'- Gotena c. ger haefde witS Maximum, pa sende Theodosius Gotene 5 fultuwi 
beforan bim, pcet hie pa clusan tobraecon ; ac hie wurdon utan 
ymbfaren of p&m muntum, 7 ealle ofslagen : pcet waeron x m. 
pa for Theodosius bidcrweard, 7 wiste pcet hiene mon wolde 20 
mid bajm ilean wrence bebridian. pa hie togaedereweard foran, 
pa bohton Eugeniws 7 Arbogestes pcet hie sceoldon aerest of 
pxm muntum hie [ge]bigan mid hiora flana gescotum, ac him 
onsende God swelcne wind ongean pcet hie ne mehton from hi/u 
naenne flan asceotan, ac aele com ober bara, u^]?e on hie selfe, 25 
ojjbe on ba eorban. 7 Theodosius hsefde j?oue wind mid him 
pcet his fultum mehte maestra aelcne heora flana on hiora feon- 
dum afaestnian. paer wcarS Eugenius ofslagen, 7 Arbogastes 
ofstang hiene selfne. ^Efter pxm Theodosius for on Italie. 
•Msegoiange pa he com to Maegelan 6 baere byrig, ba geendade he his lif, 7 30 
bctahte his twaem sunum bone onwald. 

(^E)fter baem be Romeburg getimbred waes M wintra 7 c 
7 xlix, feng Archadius to anwalde, to baem eastdaele, 7 hine 
' Honorius c. hoefde xii ger ; 7 Onorius 7 to psem w^stdaele, 7 nugiet haefS, 


vacuas transmisit Alpes, atque Aquileiam inprovisus adveniens, 
Maximum occidit. Andragatius comes, cognita Maximi nece, 
jyraecipitem sese e navi in undas dedit, ac suffocatus est. Theo- 
dosius incruentam victoriam Deo procurante suscepit. Formid- 
olosissimum bellum sine sanguine usque ad victoriam, et in 
victoria duorum morte confectum est. 

Igitur Valentinianus, regno restitutus, in Galliam transivit : 
ubi dolo Arbogastis, comitis sui, strangulatus, atque ut volun- 
tariam sibi conscivisse mortem putaretur, laqueo suspensus est. 
Arbogastes Eugenium tyrannum creare ausus est, legitque 
hominem, cui titulum imperatoris inponeret, ipse acturus 
imperium : qui nunc, cum adversus Theodosium, coUectis Gal- 
lorum viribus, exundavit, nixus etiam praecipuo cultu idolorum, 
magna tamen facilitate succubuit. Eugenius atque Arbogastes 
instructas acies campis expedierant, Alpium transitus occuparant. 
At ubi ad contigua miscendae pugnae spatia perventum est, con- 
tinuo magnus Me turbo ventorum in ora hostium ruit. Fere- 
bantur per aera spicula missa nostrorum manu, ac nusquam 
propemodum cadere, priusquam inpingerent, sinebantur. Porro 
autem turbo ora hostium nunc illisis scutis everberabat, nunc 
o})positis jugiter in terga trudebat : tela etiam, quae ipsi intor- 
serant, excepta ventis inpetu supinata ac retrorsum coacta, ipsos 
conjigebant. Eugenius interfectus est. Arbogastes sua se manu 
perculit. Ita et hie duorum sanguine bellum civile restinctum 
est, absque illis decern millibus Gothorum, quos, praemissos a 
Theodosio, Arbogastes delesse funditits fertur, quos utique 
perdidisse lucrum et vinci vincere fuit. Theodosius autem apud 
Mediolanum constitutus, diem obiit. 


Anno ab Urbe condita mcxlix, Arcadius et Honorius, cui 
nunc respublica innititur, commune imperium, divisis tanlum 
8edibus, tenere coeperunt. 

296 Alfred's orosius. 

cwcefi Orosius. 7 for baem be hie geonge waeron, he hie beta[h]te 

his twaem ealdormonnum to bewitanne : Archadius waes betaht 

iionoriiis c. Rufinuse, 7 Onorius l waes betaht Stilecan. Ac hie gecytSdon 

raSe paes hwelce hlafordhyldo hi pohton to gecypanne on Mora 

ealdhlafordes bearnum, gif hi hit burhteon mehten : Rufinus wolde 5 

habban him self bone anwold )?aer east, 7 Stileca wolde sellan 

his suna bisne her west. 7 for p&m feondseipe he forlet Gotan 

= cvniiigum c. on Italie mid hiora twani ciningum 2 , Alrican 7 Raedgotan, 

•[Page in.] 7 pohte, sippan pcet folc oferfunden waere, * pcet hie sippan 

3 Fromc. wolde eall pcet he wold(e) 3 ; 7 wende eac pcet he pcem Gotan paes 10 

gewinnes mehte ralSe gestieran, for pon he of hiora lande 

geboren woes. RatSe paes Alrica wearft cristen ; 7 Raedgota 

* hole in ms.; happen pu(rh\v)unade 4 , 7 daeghwamlice waes blotende diofolgil- 

t>nrh »viiii._«ie .... 

c. du//i mid monshhtum, 7 subtle nun waes leofast pcet pa waeron 

Romanisce. 15 

Nugiet eow Romane maeg gesconiian, civce<S Oros[i]us, pcet 
ge swa heanlic gepoht sceoldon on eow geniman for anes monnes 
ege 7 for anes mo[n]nes geblote, pcet ge saedon pcet ba haeSnan 
tida waeron beteran ponne pa cristnan, 7 eac pcet eow selfiu/i 
waere betere pcet ge eower(ne) 3 cristendom forleten, 7 to paem 20 
haeSeniscan peawum fenge, pe eowre ieldran a?r beeodon. Ge 
magon eac gepencan hu hean he eft wearp his geblota 7 his 
diofolgilda pe he on gelifde, ba ba ge hiene gebundenne hasfdon, 
7 hiene sippan atugon swa swa ge woldon, 7 ealne his fultu?/*- 
pcet waes, swa swa ge selfe saedon, 11 c M, swa eower nan ne 25 
wearS gewundod. 

> added in /Efter paem pe Romeburg getimbred wa?s m wintra 7 c 7' 

a n other hand. . . 

mi 7 siextegum, God gedyde his mutsunge on Romanum, pa 
pa he hiora misdaeda wrecan let, pcet hit peh dyde Alrica se 
6 cristenesta cristena 6 cyning 7 se mildesta. 7 he mid swa lytle uipe abraec 30 
Romeburg, pcet he behead pcet mon naenne mon ne sloge, 7 eac 
pcet man nanuht ne wanade ne ne yfelade pa?s pe on paem 
ciricum waere. 7 sona paes 011 paem priddan daege hie aforan 
at of paere byrig hiora agnum willan, swa paer ne weartS nan 
hus Mora willum forbaerned. 35 


ALARIC. 297 


Cum a Theodosio imperatore seniore singulis potissimis 
infantum cura utriusque palatii commissa esset, hoc est, Ruffino 
Orientalis aulae, Stiliconi Occidentalis imperii, quid uterque 
egerit, quidve agere conatus sit, exitus utriusque docuit : cum 
alius sibi, alius filio suo adfectans regale fastigium, ut necessitas 
reipublicae scelus ambitus tegeret, barbaras gentes ille inmisit, 
hie fovit. Taceo de Alarico rege cum Gothis suis saepe victo, 
saepe concluso, semperque dimisso. Rhadagaisus totara inundavit 
Italiam. Hie paganus et Scyiha erat : qui omnem Romani 
generis sanguinem diis suis propinare devoverat. 

Hoc igitur Romania arcibus inminente, Jit omnium paganorum 
in TJrbe concur sus, hostem adesse 2>raesidio deorum potentem : 
Urbem autem ideo destitutam, quia deos perdiderit. Itaque 
ineffabili judicio Dei factum est, ut duo tunc Gothorum populi 
cum duobus regibus suis per Romanas provincias baccharentur : 
quorum unus Christianus, alius paganus, Deus perire paganum 
hostem voluit, et Christianum jyraevalere permisit. Rex Rhada- 
gaisus captus, ac paulisper retentus, deinde interfectus est. 

Post haec ianta augmenta blasphemiarum, ultima ilia Urbem 

poena consequitur. 


Adest Alaricus, Romani obsidet, irrumpit. Dato tamen prae- 
cepto prius, ut si qui in sancta loca praecipueque in sanc- 
torum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli basilicas confugissent, Iws 
inviolatos securosque esse sinerent. Turn deinde a sanguine 
temperarent. Tertia die barbari, quam ingressi fuerant Urbem 
sponte discedunt, facto quidem aliquantarum aediura incendio, 
sed ne tanto quidem, quantum septingentesimo conditionis ejus 
anno casus effecerat. 

298 Alfred's orosius. 

' iionoriuses paer genom Hcttulf, Alrican maeg, Onorius ' swostor paes 
Jgenam c. cyninges, 7 sippan.wift bine gep'mgdde, 7 hi him to wife nam 2 . 
Sippan sa^ton pa Gotan pper on lande, snrae be pees easeres 
willan, same 

his unwillan ; snnie hi foron 

on Ispanie, 7 paer 

gebaeton, su- 

me on 


ALARIC. 299 


Anno itaque ab Urbe condita mclxiv, irruptio Urbis per 
Alaricum facta est. In ea irruptione Placidia, Honorii soror, 
ab Ataulpbo, Alarici propinquo, capta est, atque in uxorem 
adsunita multo reipublicae commodo fuit. Interea gentes Ala- 
norum, Suevorum, Vandalorum, Gallias invadunt. Honoriaci 
cunctas gentes, quae per Gallias vagabantur, Hispaniarum pro- 
vinciis inmittunt. 

f _. -2-~%.g- £C 

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no. 79 Original series